McGraw-Hill
13
Planning andWriting a Research Paper
13-213-2
McGraw-Hill
Learning Outcomes
• Discover a meaningful research subject.
• Narrow your research subject.
• Create ...
13-313-3
McGraw-Hill
Learning Outcomes (contd.)
• Conduct primary research using a survey or
interview.
• Take notes from ...
13-413-4
McGraw-Hill
Discovering a Research
Subject (LO13.1)
• Choose a suitable topic that is interesting and
meaningful ...
13-513-5
McGraw-Hill
Narrowing a Research
Subject (LO 13.2)
• Narrow a broad topic.
• Use the assignment’s requirements to...
13-613-6
McGraw-Hill
Creating a Researchable
Question (LO 13.3)
• A researchable question serves as a guide
to the researc...
13-713-7
McGraw-Hill
Creating a Researchable
Question (contd.)
• Decide what you would like to know
about your question.
•...
13-813-8
McGraw-Hill
Write a Preliminary Thesis
Statement (LO 13-4)
• A researchable question cannot replace a
thesis stat...
13-913-9
McGraw-Hill
Write a Preliminary Thesis
Statement (contd.)
• A working thesis will help you select
sources.
• You ...
13-1013-10
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources
(LO 13-5)
Computerized Card Catalog
• You can determine if an item is ...
13-1113-11
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources
(LO 13-5)
Computerized Card Catalog (contd.)
• Use “and,” “or,” or “no...
13-1213-12
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources:
The Stacks (LO 13-5)
• Locate your source using the call number print...
13-1313-13
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources:
The Stacks (contd.)
• Look at the books nearby and determine
if they ...
13-1413-14
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources:
Periodicals (LO 13-5)
• Periodicals include magazines, newspapers, an...
13-1513-15
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources:
Computerized Databases (LO 13-5)
• Check with your librarian to see i...
13-1613-16
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources:
Reference Materials (LO 13-5)
• Most reference materials cannot be ch...
13-1713-17
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources:
Resources (LO 13-5)
Audiovisual materials are non-print media.
• Audi...
13-1813-18
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources:
Resources (contd.)
Internet searches
• Use as a supplement to your tr...
13-1913-19
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources:
Online Discussion Groups (LO 13.5)
• Use the Internet to locate discu...
13-2013-20
McGraw-Hill
Library and Internet Sources:
Online Discussion Groups (contd.)
• Newsgroups provide information, b...
13-2113-21
McGraw-Hill
Tips for Conducting Online
Research (LO 13.5)
• Spell your search words correctly.
• Use Boolean Lo...
13-2213-22
McGraw-Hill
Tips for Conducting Online
Research (contd.)
• Click on hyperlinks to find more information
on othe...
13-2313-23
McGraw-Hill
Evaluating Sources (LO 13.6)
Author and Publisher
• Verify that the author
has the appropriate
cred...
13-2413-24
McGraw-Hill
Evaluating Sources (contd.)
References
• Check to see if the author documented
his or her sources.
...
13-2513-25
McGraw-Hill
Evaluating Sources (contd.)
Bias
• Make sure the information provided is fair.
• Determine if the a...
13-2613-26
McGraw-Hill
Taking Notes (LO 13.7)
Summarizing is condensing ideas from articles,
chapters, or passages, using ...
13-2713-27
McGraw-Hill
Taking Notes (LO 13.7)
Paraphrasing is restating a sentence or passage
in your own words.
• Your go...
13-2813-28
McGraw-Hill
Taking Notes (contd.)
Quoting is taking someone’s exact words and
putting quotation marks around th...
13-2913-29
McGraw-Hill
Taking Notes (contd.)
Quoting (contd.)
• Use an ellipsis (...) when omitting words.
• Do not alter ...
13-3013-30
McGraw-Hill
Taking Notes (contd.)
• You must cite sources for all material that you
summarize, paraphrase, or q...
13-3113-31
McGraw-Hill
Primary Research (LO 13.8)
Surveys are questionnaires used to gain
information from a group.
• Choo...
13-3213-32
McGraw-Hill
Primary Research (contd.)
Personal Interviews
• Clarify your purpose.
• Choose your interviewee car...
13-3313-33
McGraw-Hill
Creating an Outline (LO 13.9)
• The outline is the framework of your
entire paper.
• Select and wri...
13-3413-34
McGraw-Hill
Composing (LO 13.10)
• Write a first draft of your research paper.
• Consider your Rhetorical Star....
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  1. 1. McGraw-Hill 13 Planning andWriting a Research Paper
  2. 2. 13-213-2 McGraw-Hill Learning Outcomes • Discover a meaningful research subject. • Narrow your research subject. • Create a researchable question. • Write a preliminary thesis. • Locate library and Internet sources.
  3. 3. 13-313-3 McGraw-Hill Learning Outcomes (contd.) • Conduct primary research using a survey or interview. • Take notes from research materials. • Create an outline. • Compose a first draft of your research paper.
  4. 4. 13-413-4 McGraw-Hill Discovering a Research Subject (LO13.1) • Choose a suitable topic that is interesting and meaningful to you. • Understand its parameters. • Know what is acceptable.
  5. 5. 13-513-5 McGraw-Hill Narrowing a Research Subject (LO 13.2) • Narrow a broad topic. • Use the assignment’s requirements to help narrow your topic. • Consider the length of the assignment. • Know the number and types of sources required. • Know the assignment deadline.
  6. 6. 13-613-6 McGraw-Hill Creating a Researchable Question (LO 13.3) • A researchable question serves as a guide to the research process. • An effective researchable question helps develop a thesis. • Determine what you know about your subject.
  7. 7. 13-713-7 McGraw-Hill Creating a Researchable Question (contd.) • Decide what you would like to know about your question. • You may revise your question after starting preliminary research.
  8. 8. 13-813-8 McGraw-Hill Write a Preliminary Thesis Statement (LO 13-4) • A researchable question cannot replace a thesis statement. • Draft a working thesis. • Make sure your thesis includes both your subject and your opinion.
  9. 9. 13-913-9 McGraw-Hill Write a Preliminary Thesis Statement (contd.) • A working thesis will help you select sources. • You may refine your thesis later as you gather new ideas from your research.
  10. 10. 13-1013-10 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources (LO 13-5) Computerized Card Catalog • You can determine if an item is available. • Search by title, author, ISBN, or subject. • Use key words to find what you need. • Spell key words correctly. • Try different key words until you find what you need.
  11. 11. 13-1113-11 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources (LO 13-5) Computerized Card Catalog (contd.) • Use “and,” “or,” or “not” to help narrow a search. • Print or jot down important information about your sources. • Use the catalog information to help locate the source in the library.
  12. 12. 13-1213-12 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources: The Stacks (LO 13-5) • Locate your source using the call number printed on the spine of the books. • Determine how the library organizes its shelves: – The Dewey Decimal System divides subjects into ten categories. – The Library of Congress Classification uses 20 lettered categories.
  13. 13. 13-1313-13 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources: The Stacks (contd.) • Look at the books nearby and determine if they may be useful. • If you can not locate a book or source, ask the reference librarian for help.
  14. 14. 13-1413-14 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources: Periodicals (LO 13-5) • Periodicals include magazines, newspapers, and journals. • Magazines and newspapers often contain more general information, while journals are usually more in-depth. • Current periodicals are organized alphabetically by title. • Old issues may be bound together and kept in elsewhere.
  15. 15. 13-1513-15 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources: Computerized Databases (LO 13-5) • Check with your librarian to see if a specific database is available for your use. – Info Trac, ProQuest, LexisNexis, eLibrary, and eGlobal Library are a few options. • Read the abstracts of articles and database results, and e-mail useful articles to yourself. • Make sure to use the full article, not just the abstract.
  16. 16. 13-1613-16 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources: Reference Materials (LO 13-5) • Most reference materials cannot be checked out. • Do not use reference materials as primary sources. • Online reference materials are also available. • Be aware that Wikipedia is not a credible source for a research paper. • Visit the American Library Association Web site (http://www.ala.org).
  17. 17. 13-1713-17 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources: Resources (LO 13-5) Audiovisual materials are non-print media. • Audiovisual materials can be useful sources. • The shelves are usually organized alphabetically and by type of material. • Ask your librarian for help if you are unable to find what you need.
  18. 18. 13-1813-18 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources: Resources (contd.) Internet searches • Use as a supplement to your traditional sources. • You can access sources using a Web browser. • Search engines can help you find what you need. • Remember: Search engines are not sources.
  19. 19. 13-1913-19 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources: Online Discussion Groups (LO 13.5) • Use the Internet to locate discussion groups in which to participate. • Remember to check the accuracy of any information gathered from these sources. • Listserves act as mailing lists for your subject, providing e-mail updates.
  20. 20. 13-2013-20 McGraw-Hill Library and Internet Sources: Online Discussion Groups (contd.) • Newsgroups provide information, but you must evaluate this information yourself. • Blogs are personalized online journals.
  21. 21. 13-2113-21 McGraw-Hill Tips for Conducting Online Research (LO 13.5) • Spell your search words correctly. • Use Boolean Logic to make your search more precise. – Use “and” to look for sources that contain both terms. – Use “or” to look for any of two or more words. – Use “not” to exclude one or more words.
  22. 22. 13-2213-22 McGraw-Hill Tips for Conducting Online Research (contd.) • Click on hyperlinks to find more information on other Web sites. • Use the “back” and “forward” arrows to navigate Web pages. • Bookmark or print out useful sources.
  23. 23. 13-2313-23 McGraw-Hill Evaluating Sources (LO 13.6) Author and Publisher • Verify that the author has the appropriate credentials. • Make sure the publisher and/or the Web site is reputable. Date • Check to see when the information was published or posted. • If the information is too old, find more current information.
  24. 24. 13-2413-24 McGraw-Hill Evaluating Sources (contd.) References • Check to see if the author documented his or her sources. • Check if the source includes a bibliography. • If no sources are provided, consider looking for other sources.
  25. 25. 13-2513-25 McGraw-Hill Evaluating Sources (contd.) Bias • Make sure the information provided is fair. • Determine if the author could have an agenda. Effectiveness • Decide if the content is useful. • Determine if it is organized clearly and logically. • Check the information for accuracy.
  26. 26. 13-2613-26 McGraw-Hill Taking Notes (LO 13.7) Summarizing is condensing ideas from articles, chapters, or passages, using your own words. • Include main ideas but not specific details. • After writing a summary, check your sources for accuracy. • Summarizing helps you manage large amounts of information.
  27. 27. 13-2713-27 McGraw-Hill Taking Notes (LO 13.7) Paraphrasing is restating a sentence or passage in your own words. • Your goal is to revise the original passage while keeping the passage’s ideas intact. • Change the sentence structure and word choice. • Paraphrasing is helpful when the original passage is too complex or technical. • Do not over-paraphrase in your paper.
  28. 28. 13-2813-28 McGraw-Hill Taking Notes (contd.) Quoting is taking someone’s exact words and putting quotation marks around them. • Quoting should be used sparingly. • Use a quote to show an authority’s words or to share vivid wording from the original passage . • Make sure to copy the statement word for word.
  29. 29. 13-2913-29 McGraw-Hill Taking Notes (contd.) Quoting (contd.) • Use an ellipsis (...) when omitting words. • Do not alter the author’s intended meaning. • If the original passage contains an error, use (sic) immediately after the error in the quote.
  30. 30. 13-3013-30 McGraw-Hill Taking Notes (contd.) • You must cite sources for all material that you summarize, paraphrase, or quote in your research paper.
  31. 31. 13-3113-31 McGraw-Hill Primary Research (LO 13.8) Surveys are questionnaires used to gain information from a group. • Choose your participants carefully. – Do you want to survey a random group or a specific population? • Set clear expectations for respondents. • Design effective questions. • Compile and interpret the results.
  32. 32. 13-3213-32 McGraw-Hill Primary Research (contd.) Personal Interviews • Clarify your purpose. • Choose your interviewee carefully. • Determine how you will conduct the interview. • Prepare your questions ahead of time. • Be courteous to the interviewee. • Record or take thorough notes during the interview.
  33. 33. 13-3313-33 McGraw-Hill Creating an Outline (LO 13.9) • The outline is the framework of your entire paper. • Select and write down the major points of your paper. • Be flexible during the writing process if all of your points aren’t covered in the outline.
  34. 34. 13-3413-34 McGraw-Hill Composing (LO 13.10) • Write a first draft of your research paper. • Consider your Rhetorical Star. • Follow the steps of the writing process. • Make sure your voice is strong within your paper. • You may need additional paragraphs to support each point. • Cite your sources.

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