Ancient Mexico


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Ancient Mexico

  1. 1. Ancient Mexico Mayan, Incan, and Aztec Civilizations By: Mrs. Meredith Sanders
  2. 2. Teotihuacan <ul><li>4 well-known buildings in this ancient city: </li></ul>Pyramid of the Sun Pyramid of the Moon Temple of Quetzalcoatl Temple of the Jaguars
  3. 3. Olmecs <ul><li>They were the first major Indian Tribe. </li></ul><ul><li>Olmec means “rubber people.” </li></ul><ul><li>Two major cities were San Lorenzo and La Venta. </li></ul><ul><li>They used a form of picture writing; had a number system and calendar. </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ Rubber people” <ul><li>The Aztec Indians gave the tribe this name because the Olmecs supplied them with sap from rubber trees. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mayas <ul><li>Appearance: Short in height, straight black hair, painted their bodies, had tattoos, valued crossed-eyes and flat foreheads </li></ul><ul><li>Three eras: pre-classic, classic, and post-classic </li></ul><ul><li>Mayans used glyphs in their writing. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Glyphs <ul><li>Their glyph writing (picture) expanded largely using about 800 different glyphs. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mayan Religion <ul><li>Worshipped many different gods </li></ul><ul><li>Each day, month, city, and occupation had its special god or goddess </li></ul><ul><li>Had a variety of religious festivals and celebrations </li></ul><ul><li>Most ceremonies includes human sacrifices </li></ul><ul><li>In many ceremonies, the priests cut themselves to get blood to present to the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Their religion taught that there were 13 layers of heaven above the earth & 9 underworlds below </li></ul><ul><li>Worshipped the dead </li></ul>
  8. 8. Human Sacrifices <ul><li>The Mayas had 3 methods of giving the human sacrifices: </li></ul><ul><li>The priests took the victim to the altar at the temple and cut the heart out of the living victim and presented it to the god. </li></ul><ul><li>The priests tied the victim to a wooden pole and threw spears and arrows at the victim’s chest in the area of the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>They threw the victim into a sacred well. If they survived the fall and did not drown, the priests pulled them back out of the well; believing that the god spared that victim. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Worshipping the Dead <ul><li>They believed the dead became one with the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>They worshipped their ancestors at many religious ceremonies. </li></ul><ul><li>They also built pyramids over the sacred remains of their dead rulers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Aztecs <ul><li>This ancient tribe wandered for many years </li></ul><ul><li>Founded their greatest city, Tenochtitlan (this is the site of modern Mexico City) </li></ul><ul><li>They belonged to a large family group called calpolli , meaning “big house” or clan. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Calpolli <ul><li>Each calpolli elected its own officials to run its business. They were a true democracy and voted on decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Women did not have a vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Calpolli expected all of its able-bodied men to fight any wars. The men considered it an honor to fight for their clan. </li></ul><ul><li>The family arranged for all marriages. A young person could only marry someone outside the clan. </li></ul><ul><li>A woman who married now joined her husband’s clan. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The End