Children's Environmental Health


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Children's Environmental Health

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  • Congratulations on your slideshows very interesting !!! ... Feel free to join us. Thank you in advance for your participation and sharing your 'favorites'. .. With friendship from France. Bernard
    'GREAT CAUSES and JUST CAUSES' Slideshare group
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  • very very informative health info!!! thanks!
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  • This is really one of the informative health slide show.
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  • I found it a good presentation. However,I should add that there are some parts that are not clear for me. For example,I cannot see the diagrams well becuse they are too small. But you covered the main problems of children's environmental health and this was a really good job,.
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  • Great slideshow! Could I please have permission to post it on a website promoting different sources of environmental health information?
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  • Hi and welcome. My name is Juliann Chen and today I am presenting a brief overview of children’s environmental health.
  • Children's Environmental Health

    1. 1. Children’s Environmental Health Juliann Chen
    2. 2. Why should we be interested? America’s Children and the Environment (2000, 2003) Measures of Contaminants, Body Burdens, and Illnesses <ul><li>Children in the New Millennium: </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact on Health </li></ul><ul><li>“ Environmental quality is one of the key factors in determining whether a child survives the first years of life.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A healthy future for our children will be ensured only through safeguarding the environment.” </li></ul>UNEP, UNICEF, and WHO - 2002
    3. 3. Diseases in children Increase in cancer rates, autism, asthma, learning disabilities…
    4. 4. <ul><li>Lead, mercury, PCBs </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution (ozone, PM) </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water (arsenic, infectious agents) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical contamination (toxic waste dumps, industrial pollution) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental tobacco smoke </li></ul>Environmental Health Threats
    5. 5. Risk Assessment Process <ul><li>Step 1: Hazard Identification: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines whether exposure to a substance can cause cancer, birth defects, or other adverse health effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Dose-Response Assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the possible severity of adverse health effects at different levels of exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Exposure Assessment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimates the amount of contact individuals within a population including potentially sensitive groups, such as children could have with the substance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Risk Characterization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines the information in the first three steps to determine the level of potential risk to humans and the environment </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Children are not miniature adults <ul><li>Physiologic </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral development </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activities </li></ul><ul><li>Diet and eating habits </li></ul>Source: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics
    7. 7. Hazard ID and Dose Response <ul><li>Children’s sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Children are developing </li></ul><ul><li>Children differ in their ability to absorb, detoxify, and excrete pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Children pass through critical developmental periods when they may be especially sensitive to environmental agents </li></ul><ul><li>Children have more future years to develop diseases caused by environmental exposures </li></ul>
    8. 8. Difficulties in exposure assessment <ul><ul><li>Per pound of body weight children consume more food and drink… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… breathe more air… </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Difficulties in exposure assessment … and have larger surface area relative to body weight. Contaminants can cross the placenta and affect a developing fetus
    10. 10. <ul><li>Unique behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand-to-mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unique environments </li></ul><ul><li>Playground (sand, equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>School </li></ul>Difficulties in exposure assessment
    11. 11. Exposure Factors Handbook <ul><li>exposure information by age group and provides information on childhood exposure factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>age-based exposures (such as soil ingestion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical characteristics (such as body size) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activity patterns (such as time spent outdoors) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. National Children’s Study <ul><li>Examine effects of environmental influences on health and development of more than 100,000 children across the US </li></ul><ul><li>Consider n atural and man-made environment factors, biological and chemical factors, physical surroundings, social factors, behavioral influences and outcomes, genetics, cultural and family influences and differences, geographic locations </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to improve the health </li></ul><ul><li>and well-being of children </li></ul>
    13. 13. Children's Environmental Health Research Centers <ul><li>USC: how environmental exposures contribute to children's respiratory disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory susceptibility to air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiethnic cohort of asthmatic children in Los Angeles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UC Berkeley: impacts of pesticide exposure on children’s growth and development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exposed to significant levels of organophosphate pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>followed for 5 years to estimate the levels of in utero and postnatal exposures of the child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neurodevelopment and growth and respiratory diseases </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Children’s Environmental Health Indicators <ul><li>World Resources Institute, the School of Public Health at UC Berkeley, and EPA developing children’s environmental health index </li></ul><ul><li>evaluate both exposures and effects </li></ul><ul><li>goal is to provide information for developing policies to improve environmental health conditions for children and to generate useful information for the public </li></ul>
    15. 15. Cancer & Birth Defects Registries <ul><li>California Cancer Registry documents rates of cancer among different age cohorts and ethnic populations </li></ul><ul><li>California Birth Defects Monitoring Program collects data on babies born with structural birth defects in selected counties </li></ul>
    16. 16. CA Laws & Regulations <ul><li>1999 School Siting Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>California Mercury Reduction Act of 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>1996 Federal Safe Drinking Water Act and 2000 Safe Drinking Water, Clean Water, Watershed Protection, and Flood Protection Bond Act (Proposition 13) </li></ul><ul><li>1992 Lead-Safe Schools Protection Act </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Healthy Schools Act </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Children's Environmental Health Protection Act </li></ul><ul><li>1991 Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Act </li></ul><ul><li>1986 Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act (Proposition 65): </li></ul>
    17. 18. Children are 30% of the World Population but 100% of the Future
    18. 19. Future direction <ul><li>Identification of appropriate age/developmental benchmarks for categorizing children in exposure assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Development and improvement of methods for monitoring children’s exposures and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of physical activity data for children required to assess exposure by all routes </li></ul>