Session 5-6

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  • This presentation is run annually with 2nd year economists, but it is a straightforward introduction to presentation skills Most of it is self-explanatory. I have added a few notes and explained the middle example section.
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  • I use this as an example of how people plan presentations. I usually make the point that some people are linear - and would therefore, make lists, but that others prefer to brainstorm their ideas first. This is a simple illustration of a mind map - the words come in separately.
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  • Wizards and plans
  • Don’t try to give too much information. Your audience should leave wanting more. Remember how long is the average audiences’ attention span? There was some argument in the literature the difference in the opinion was that some teachers believe that students are more likely to remember the last thing they heard ... but if the attention span is only about 20 minutes and the talk is an hour it only makes sense to give the salient information in the first 20 minutes and spend the rest of the time re iterating it. Unless you have a surprise ending. How do you check for understanding? Remember the rule That which your reiterate educates
  • Can you give me some positive and negatives about each of these
  • This is an old advertising rule but it makes sense.
  • Have I been talking 20 minutes yet. this is an important rule. If you add more what is suggested you start to get into saying that NO! NO! I know you can’t read this but......
  • there are reasons to choose the type of graph you choose. Take time to consider what information you want to explain with the graph. Here are three graphs, I’m not sure they say the same thing but the data was the same for all of them. Which can you understand most easily and in four seconds
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  • Session 5-6

    1. 1. Oral Presentation Communication Session 5-6
    2. 2. Planning Oral Presentation • What’s the purpose of your presentation? – Inform – Persuade – Motivate – Entertain • How to communicate to the audience you will be presenting to? – The content, organization & style of your presentation should synchronize with the audience size, background, attitude & interest.
    3. 3. Gather and Organize Support Gather and Organize Support Write and Revise Write and Revise Develop Visual Aids Develop Visual Aids RehearseRehearse Review Audience Feedback Review Audience Feedback Evaluate Message/ Performanc e Evaluate Message/ Performanc e Determine Purpose Determine Purpose Assess Your Receiver Assess Your Receiver Analyze the Occasion Analyze the Occasion Select Speaking Style Select Speaking Style Establish Your Objectives Establish Your Objectives The Business Speaking Process
    4. 4. MUST SHOULD COULD Contents
    5. 5. THE IMPORTANCE OF ORAL COMMUNICATION Planning Delivering Organizing Mistakes • Some 81 percent of recent business school graduates rated this skill at the very highest level of importance.2 • Among MBAs surveyed, 75 percent rated it as extremely important.3 • For long term success, 85 percent of MBAs surveyed listed oral communication as extremely important. Importance of Oral Communication
    6. 6. Aim: To develop the understanding and skills to make an effective presentation Learning Outcomes: By the end of the session, students should be able to: Provide a framework within a given time span understand the importance of detailed planning tailor style and content to target audience select appropriate audio-visual aids understand the nature of verbal and non-verbal communication
    7. 7. – Keep it short and simple – Don’t worry about repeating yourself – Practice makes perfect – “Tell'em what you're gonna tell'em. Tell'em. Then tell'em what you told'em." (George Bernard Shaw) Planning Delivering Organizing Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication Three basic rules
    8. 8. Presentation “Something set forth to an audience for the attention of mind” Effective “… producing a desired result” • … a skill developed through training and experience Planning Delivering Organizing Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    9. 9. Types of Effective Communication • Business Presentation • One-to-one • Briefings • Workshop • Meetings • Telephone • Video Conferencing Planning Delivering Organizing Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    10. 10. The Verdict ! • Bad presentation • Mediocre presentation • Good presentation • Great presentation Planning Delivering Organizing Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    11. 11. Elements of Effective Presentation How we learn • Gardner’s Eight way to knowing knowledge – Body/Kinesthetic Intelligence (“body smart”) • Body awareness, physical movement, hands-on – Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence (“word smart”) • Language, word, reading, writing, speaking – Logical Mathematical Intelligence (“number smart”) • Puzzle, experiments, concepts Planning Delivering Organizing Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    12. 12. – Spatial Intelligence (“art smart”) • Images, shapes, color, design – Interpersonal Intelligence (“people smart”) • Social, communicative, empathetic, mediator – Intrapersonal Intelligence (“self smart”) • Introspective, inner aware, creative – Naturalistic Intelligence (“nature smart”) • Environment Planning Delivering Organizing Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication Elements of Effective Presentation
    13. 13. • Memory Thresholds – How long ? • Timing • Care of Audience • Presenter Centric • Lack of Continuity • Physical Factors • Stagnation of routine • Overuse of technology • Fear Consider these Obstacles !! Planning Delivering Organizing Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    14. 14. • Skills • Appearance • Vocal Delivery • Using Colors • EQ Planning Delivering Organizing Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication How to make an Impact !
    15. 15. DeliveringDeliveringPlanning andPlanning and AnalysisAnalysis MistakesMistakes && Tips/TricksTips/Tricks Effective Presentation Presentation Components OrganizingOrganizing
    16. 16. Planning and Analysis Presentation Components
    17. 17. Planning Your Presentation Brain it! Group it! Trim it! Spice it! Do it!
    18. 18. My Ideal Holiday Weather Hot Cold Food Fish and chipsLocal food Cheap restaurants Eat in the hotel Entertainment Shopping Movies Music Brain Storming Rainy Snow Companions Cousins Spouse Mom and Dad Friends
    19. 19. Generating Ideas Brainstorming A group-based, structured, moderated process Starts with a warm-up, participants review rules Practice exercises Present the real problem call out many ideas record, categorize, and evaluate every idea Recommend the most promising ideas to the problem owner Reverse Brainstorming: being critical Planning Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication Organizing Delivering
    20. 20. • What is SPAM ? SPAM • SSituation • PPurpose • AAudience • MMethod Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    21. 21. Status Assessment • Reason for presentation – core message • Knowledge of topic • Time, place, logistics
    22. 22. Content • Think about the Best approach • Most persuasive content – What facts will persuade? – What elements make message credible? SituationSituation P A M
    23. 23. Logistics Determine: • How much time you have? • Where you are presenting? • Who else needs to be coordinated with? SituationSituation P A M
    24. 24. Message Clarify: • What are your objectives? • Why should it be important to the audience? • What key facts, ideas support this vision? • What examples and visuals best illustrate message? S PurposePurpose A M
    25. 25. Analysis • Who is your audience? – Demographics – Common interests – Attitude • What they know, don’t know about topic? • What do they need to know? S P AudienceAudience M
    26. 26. Analysis Determine and clarify: • Information you want to provide • Appropriate level of detail S P AudienceAudience M
    27. 27. DesignDesign Use analysis to design a presentation that: • Makes the participants interested • Focuses on a core message supported by 3-5 major points • Flows logically • Offers visuals that clarify content • Provides time for discussion, questions S P A MethodMethod
    28. 28. Planning andPlanning and AnalysisAnalysis Presentation Components OrganizingOrganizing
    29. 29. • Outlines differ – depending on the audience – depending on the goals & objectives Outlines Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    30. 30. • Each outline heading = 1 slide • Limit amount of information • Give most important first • Emphasize why information is importan • Check out understanding • Repeat for emphasis Build Your Talk Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    31. 31. Pick your medium • Blackboard and chalk • Overheads • Slides • Computerized slideshow • Video • Handouts or other papers Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    32. 32. “If a slide is not understood in fours seconds, it is a bad slide.”
    33. 33. • Avoid complete sentences • No > six words in the title • No a> seven lines of text/slide • No > seven words per line One message per slide Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    34. 34. Color • Use color sparingly • Use white text - color background or • Color text - black background • Don’t use a white background Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    35. 35. Use color wisely Don’t use too manyfonts Use thick filled fonts Don’t use too many different sizes USE UPPER AND LOWER CASES Too many pictures confuse Text ??
    36. 36. Fill Space Evenly • Don’t leave too much space Don’t crowd your letters togetherDon’t crowd your letters together leaveamarginallthewayaroundleaveamarginallthewayaround leave a margin all the way aroundleave a margin all the way around
    37. 37. Use pictures/graphs effectively
    38. 38. Impact of Visuals Retain Communicate Efficient Produce
    39. 39. A SAmple probelemS • Bullet one – bullet two • Bullet three – Bullet four • Bullet FIVE • Bullet Six Shot Of My“ BACKYARD”
    40. 40. Managing Your Time • Slide to time ratio = 3 minutes each • Check points (agenda and clock) • Coordinate with other presenters • Rehearse for “time sense” • Determine timing of questions • Leave time for questions/discussion • When less time is available… Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    41. 41. Evaluation Factor • Appearance • Attentiveness • Judgment • Flexibility • Visibility • Knowledge • Teamwork Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    42. 42. DeliveringDelivering Presentation Components Planning andPlanning and AnalysisAnalysis OrganizingOrganizing
    43. 43. Icebreaking Open Communication Channels
    44. 44. Matter + Manner __________ Presentation Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    45. 45. Outlook •Dress code or otherwise appropriate •FragrancePlanning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    46. 46. Body Language • Don’t hide behind podium • Walk and roam around • Don’t tie your hands at the back • Talk with hands • Don’t put you back to the audience Non-verbal Communication weighs 55% Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    47. 47. Visual Aids Effectively designed visuals • Use graphics to support text, not overwhelm it • Clarify and support content • Offer a single message • Order information logically • View easily from distance Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    48. 48. Visual Aids - Tips For impact with PowerPoint: • Keep content simple - headlines • Use a non-distracting template and appealing colors when projected • Use “View-Master-Master Slide – Set title and bullet font and font sizes – Place header and footer information Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    49. 49. Visual Aids - Tips For audience visibility: • 2 plain fonts – Times New Roman for titles – Arial/Helvetica for bullets • Font sizes: –Titles (36-44 points) – Bullets (20-32 points)
    50. 50. Visual Aids - Tips For word slides: • 6 – 6 – 6 Rule – 6 lines per page – 6 words per bullet – No more than 6 word slides in a row without a chart or graphic
    51. 51. Visual Aids - Tips Slide appearance • Assume 3 minutes per slide • Avoid USE OF ALL CAPS • Use landscape orientation, ample margins • Graphics should clarify, not confuse • Test colors and graphics with projector
    52. 52. Template Considerations • Start with the Master Slide formatting • For best visibility – Mauve background with black letters – Or classic yellow on blue – Having bright contrast. Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    53. 53. Preparing your Presentation • Main Idea? – What do you want the Audience to remember? – Use “You” attitude to involve them & make the information relevant to them. • Limit your Scope – As per what you have to communicate to the audience, and – The time you have to present it • Approach – Direct or Indirect? – Organize your presentation like a report • Explain at the beginning what your presentation will contain • At the end of each section summarize your point and how it fits in • Outline • Syle - Casual or formal? Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    54. 54. Oral Presentation contains 3 Parts • Introduction Makes your audience curious to hear about your topic. Get your audience's attention! Make a starting statement or tell a relevant joke. Make your talk interesting! • Body Divides your main topic into three or four sub-topics. Tell the audience plainly these topics. Discuss the sub-topics in a logical order. Make sure to use natural transition. • Conclusion Tells the audience what you expect them to remember. "Wrap up" your topic. Give the audience a sense of closure. Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    55. 55. Introduction: How to get Attention? • Encourage people to take the subject personally. • Encourage them to ask questions and give comments. • Techniques to get attention: – Humour (Relevant) – Story (Moral? Or illustration?) – Sample – Ask Question or Take Feedback – Facts / Statistics / Startling piece of Research Introduction should match the tone of your presentation. Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    56. 56. Establishing Credibility • Introduce yourself- Modestly • Let someone introduce your credentials Create a connection of your presence with the topic you will be speaking on and with the audience. Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    57. 57. Practice • Practice it before family or friends… in front of your dog or cat…in front of a mirror…in your mind. • Picture yourself in front of a group and "see" yourself actually saying the words of your speech. • Knowing your material well is the best way to prevent nervousness. Remember, DONT read your speech. Speak naturally. Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    58. 58. Practice • BEWARE of the WAY you speak. Ask yourself these questions: • Can people hear what I am saying? (Volume) • Do I vary my voice level when I am speaking? (Pitch) • Does my voice reveal my attitudes and feelings? (Tone) • Do I say my words correctly? (Pronunciation) • Can my listeners understand my words? (Enunciation) • Am I using proper grammar? • Do I use any annoying speech habits? Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    59. 59. Can people hear what I am saying? (Volume) • Adjust the volume of your voice depending upon the circumstances. In a normal conversation, your volume would be softer than when giving a presentation. In giving a speech, you will need to project your voice so that the person sitting the farthest away can hear your words clearly. When you are practicing, practice PROJECTING your voice. Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    60. 60. Rate of Speech • Rate of speech can be fast, slow, clipped, or drawn-out with pauses of different lengths. The rate at which you speak should avoid extremes. You should not speak too rapidly that words are not understood. Neither should you speak so slowly that the listener does not pay close attention to what is being said. You should regulate your rate of speaking so that you are able to enunciate each word clearly. You want your listener to hear each word without difficulty.  Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    61. 61. Do I vary my voice level when I am speaking? (Pitch) • The pitch is the range of high and low sounds created by your voice. • Through pitch, first you make your words and ideas more interesting. A monotone, droning voice is uninteresting and boring. Second, you can stress or emphasize certain words by changing your pitch. For example, read the sentence below. Raise the pitch of your voice when reading the words in bold.       Anthony gave her the book. Anthony gave her the book. Anthony gave her the book. Anthony gave her the book. Anthony gave her the book. • Notice how you changed the meaning of each sentence simply by changing your pitch. Use your voice to add meaning and variety to your speech. Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    62. 62. Reading aloud, use your tone of voice to convey each of the meanings given below. The idea is that each of the meanings requires its own special twist of sound. • Say the expression "AH" as it would be said by: – An audience seeing a puppy on stage – A girl picking up an angleworm – A student who hears a test is cancelled – A carpenter smashing his thumb • Say "I’m THIRSTY" as it would be said by: – Count Dracula – An angry little boy – A man on the street – A whining little boy • Contradict the following verbal messages: – "I've had a wonderful time." – "That was really an easy test." – "I sure learned a lot in that class." – When practicing your speech, be aware of the tone that you project to others. Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    63. 63. Confused acts • Playing with wrist watch, buttons, ring… • Nail biting • Recurrent usage of phrase “you know” • Tucking in shirt • Adjusting your tie Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    64. 64. Break Discussion Think of a presentation that was out of touch with its audience. – What did the presenter do or fail to do? – What would you now do if it were you presenting on the topic? Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    65. 65. Always repeat the question. Answer clearly and concisely. Don’t be afraid of saying: “ I don’t know?” Questions Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    66. 66. MistakesMistakes && Tips/TricksTips/Tricks Presentation Components DeliveringDeliveringPlanning andPlanning and AnalysisAnalysis OrganizingOrganizing
    67. 67. Ask the audience !! What are the most irritating mistakes or distractions you have noticed in recent Presentations? Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication Common Mistakes
    68. 68. Common Mistakes • Lack of planning • Rushed job, last minute • Wrong message for this audience • Unresponsive to audience • Lack of logic to points • Poor or missing handouts • Audience reading handouts, not watching Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication
    69. 69. • Lack of planning • Poor proofing/editing • Too many slides/content for allotted time • No flow between points • No contingency plan • No evaluation • Failure to follow-up Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication Common Mistakes
    70. 70. • Poor slides • Cluttered content • Distracting template or colors • Too many fonts or too small to read • Endless word slides without break • Confusing content or graphics • Inconsistent or overactive transitions Planning Organizing Delivering Mistakes Importance of Oral Communication Common Mistakes
    71. 71. Not enough “white space” • Use of HARD TO READ OF ALL CAPS • Too many words per line • Implying priority by using numbers • Too many whistles, bells, movement – overuse of features Continued… Common Mistakes
    72. 72. • Bad delivery habits • Um, uh, and, like • Distracting actions – coins, pointer • Inappropriate clothing • Turning back to audience • Blocking the screen • Reading the slides • Reading presentation » Common Mistakes
    73. 73. • Bad delivery habits • Lack of movement • No pausing • Hiding behind the podium • Not managing audience • Running over schedule • No time for questions • Not answering questions asked » Common Mistakes
    74. 74. 78 Verbal fillers – “Um”, “uh”, “like” – Any unrelated word or phrase • Swaying, rocking, and pacing • Hands in pockets • Lip smacking • Fidgeting • Failure to be audience-centered Common Mistakes
    75. 75. • Rehearse with someone unfamiliar with the topic • Develop a checklist • Arrive 30 minutes early to – Check the room – Layout – Equipment • Meet with venue staff – have phone # » Continued… Common Mistakes
    76. 76. Speech Evaluation: I. Introduction Rating _____ Does it get attention? Does it make the topic clear? II. Body Rating _____ Does it develop ideas adequately? Is the message clear? Are transitional words, phrases, etc. used? III. Conclusion Rating _____ Summarization? Motivation? Does it clarify the position of the speaker
    77. 77. IV. Voice Rating _____ Tone? Volume? Rate? Enunciation and Pronunciation? V. Other Rating _____ Posture? Gestures? Eye contact? Vocabulary correctness and variety?
    78. 78. In YOUR CLASS PRESENTATIONS When you give your presentation, you may use only a 3" x 5" card for your outline notes. You will not be allowed to carry full size papers. Why so little? Because I want you to "talk" to your audience. The note card will be only the skeleton outline of your talk--just enough to keep your thoughts flowing.

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