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8. Understanding Speech
CreatedBy :
Juliani
NPM: 20168110056
Goals :
By the end of this chapter we should :
• Understand how we segment speech.
• Know how context is used in recognizing speech.
• Appreciate that we recognize a word at its recognition point, but that
the recognition point does not have to correspond to when the word is
first uniquely distinguishable from other, similar-sounding words.
• Know about the COHORT and TRACE models of word recognition.
• Understand how brain damage can affect speech recognition.
RECOGNIZING SPEECH
• is the sound
representation used
prior to the
identification of a
word, from the post
lexical code, which is
information that is
only available after
lexical access
RECOGNIZING
SPEECH
Preliminary findings and problems in speechperception research
Thereare obviousdifferencesbetweenspokenand visualwordperception
There are obvious differences between spoken
and visual word perception. The most important
difference between the tasks is that spoken
words are present only very briefly, whereas a
written or printed word is there in front of you
for however long you want to analyze it. You only
get one chance with a spoken word, but you can
usually go back and check a visually presented
word as many times as you like. Furthermore,
Acoustic signals and phonetic segments: Howdo we segment speech?
 The segmentation problem is that sounds slur together and cannot easily be
separated. Let us look at these problems in more detail. Acoustic invariance
arises because the details of the realization of a phoneme vary depending on
the context of its surrounding phonemes.
 This means that phonemes take on some of the acoustic properties of their
neighbours, a process known as assimilation. Hence the /I/ phoneme is usually
produced without any nasal quality, but in words such as “pin” and “sing” the
way in which the vocal tract anticipates the shape it needs to adopt for the next
phoneme means that /1/ takes on a nasal quality.
 That is, there are co articulation effects, in that as we produce one sound our
vocal apparatus has just moved into position from making another sound, and is
preparing to change position again to make the subsequent sound. Co
articulation has advantages for both the speaker and the listener.
Categorical perception
We classify speech sounds as one phoneme or another; there is no halfway house. This
phenomenon is known as The categorical perception of phonemes (first demonstrated
by Liberman, Harris, Hoffman & Griffith, 1957). Liberman et al. used a speech
synthesizer to create a continuum of artificial syllables that differed in the place of
articulation. In spite of the continuum, participants placed these syllables into three
quite distinct categories beginning with /b/, /d/, and /g/. Another further example of
categorical perception is voice onset time (abbreviated to VOT). In the voiced
consonants (e.g. /b/ and /d/), the vocal cords start vibrating as soon as the vocal tract is
closed, whereas in the unvoiced consonants, (e.g. / p/ and /t/), there is a delay of about
60 milliseconds.
What is the nature of the pre lexical code?
The pre lexical code is computed directly from the perceptual analysis of the input
acoustic information, whereas the post lexical code is derived from information derived
from higher-level units such as words. In the phoneme-monitoring task, participants
have to press a button as soon as they hear a particular sound.
What is the role of context in identifying sounds?
The effect of context on speech recognition is of central importance, and has
been hotly debated. Is speech recognition a purely bottom-up process, or can
top-down information influence its outcome? If we can show that the word in
which a sound occurs, or indeed the meaning of the whole sentence, can
influence the recognition of that particular sound, then we will have shown a
top down influence on sound perception. In this case, we will have shown that
speech perception is in part at least an interactive process; knowledge about
whole words is influencing our perception of their component sounds. Of
course, different types of context could have an effect at every level of
phonological processing, and in principle the effects might be different at each
level.
Three stages of identification
(Frauenfelder & Tyler, 1987)
Initial
Contact
Lexical
Selection
Word
Recognition
The time course of spoken word recognition
Recognizing a spoken word begins when some representation of the sensory
input makes initial contact with the lexicon. This is the initial contact phase.
Once lexical entries begin to match the contact representation, they change
in some way; they become “activated”. The activation might be all-or-none
(as is the case in the original cohort model described later); or the relative
activation levels might depend on properties of the words (such as word
frequency); or words may be activated in proportion to the current goodness
of fit with the sensory data (as in the more recent cohort model, or in the
connectionist TRACE model). In the selection phase, activation continues to
accumulate until one lexical entry is selected. Word recognition is the end
point of the selection phase.
Context effects in word recognition
To show that context affects recognition, we need to demonstrate top-down
influences on the bottom up processing of the acoustic signal. We have already
examined whether context affects low-level perceptual processing; here we are
concerned with the possible effects of context on word identification. The issues
involved are complex. Even if there are some contextual effects, we would still
need to determine which types of context have an effect, at what stage or stages
they have an effect, and how they have this effect. We have already noted that
there are two opposing positions on the role of context in recognition, which can
be called the autonomous and inter actionist positions. The autonomous
position says that context cannot have an effect prior to word recognition. It can
only contribute to the evaluation and integration of the output of lexical
processing, not its generation. However, the lateral flow of information is
permitted in these models. For example, information flow is allowed between
words within the lexicon, but not from the lexicon to lower-level processes such
as phoneme identification.
MODELS OF SPEECH RECOGNITION
ACCSESS STAGE
(Perceptual Representation used to activate the lexical
items, thus generating the a candidate set items the
cohort
SELECTION STAGE
( One item is chosen from this set)
INTEGRATION STAGE
(in which the semantic and syntactic properties
of the chosen word are the utilized)
Understanding how context impacts speech recognition

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Understanding how context impacts speech recognition

  • 1. 8. Understanding Speech CreatedBy : Juliani NPM: 20168110056
  • 2. Goals : By the end of this chapter we should : • Understand how we segment speech. • Know how context is used in recognizing speech. • Appreciate that we recognize a word at its recognition point, but that the recognition point does not have to correspond to when the word is first uniquely distinguishable from other, similar-sounding words. • Know about the COHORT and TRACE models of word recognition. • Understand how brain damage can affect speech recognition.
  • 3. RECOGNIZING SPEECH • is the sound representation used prior to the identification of a word, from the post lexical code, which is information that is only available after lexical access RECOGNIZING SPEECH
  • 4. Preliminary findings and problems in speechperception research Thereare obviousdifferencesbetweenspokenand visualwordperception There are obvious differences between spoken and visual word perception. The most important difference between the tasks is that spoken words are present only very briefly, whereas a written or printed word is there in front of you for however long you want to analyze it. You only get one chance with a spoken word, but you can usually go back and check a visually presented word as many times as you like. Furthermore,
  • 5. Acoustic signals and phonetic segments: Howdo we segment speech?  The segmentation problem is that sounds slur together and cannot easily be separated. Let us look at these problems in more detail. Acoustic invariance arises because the details of the realization of a phoneme vary depending on the context of its surrounding phonemes.  This means that phonemes take on some of the acoustic properties of their neighbours, a process known as assimilation. Hence the /I/ phoneme is usually produced without any nasal quality, but in words such as “pin” and “sing” the way in which the vocal tract anticipates the shape it needs to adopt for the next phoneme means that /1/ takes on a nasal quality.  That is, there are co articulation effects, in that as we produce one sound our vocal apparatus has just moved into position from making another sound, and is preparing to change position again to make the subsequent sound. Co articulation has advantages for both the speaker and the listener.
  • 6. Categorical perception We classify speech sounds as one phoneme or another; there is no halfway house. This phenomenon is known as The categorical perception of phonemes (first demonstrated by Liberman, Harris, Hoffman & Griffith, 1957). Liberman et al. used a speech synthesizer to create a continuum of artificial syllables that differed in the place of articulation. In spite of the continuum, participants placed these syllables into three quite distinct categories beginning with /b/, /d/, and /g/. Another further example of categorical perception is voice onset time (abbreviated to VOT). In the voiced consonants (e.g. /b/ and /d/), the vocal cords start vibrating as soon as the vocal tract is closed, whereas in the unvoiced consonants, (e.g. / p/ and /t/), there is a delay of about 60 milliseconds. What is the nature of the pre lexical code? The pre lexical code is computed directly from the perceptual analysis of the input acoustic information, whereas the post lexical code is derived from information derived from higher-level units such as words. In the phoneme-monitoring task, participants have to press a button as soon as they hear a particular sound.
  • 7. What is the role of context in identifying sounds? The effect of context on speech recognition is of central importance, and has been hotly debated. Is speech recognition a purely bottom-up process, or can top-down information influence its outcome? If we can show that the word in which a sound occurs, or indeed the meaning of the whole sentence, can influence the recognition of that particular sound, then we will have shown a top down influence on sound perception. In this case, we will have shown that speech perception is in part at least an interactive process; knowledge about whole words is influencing our perception of their component sounds. Of course, different types of context could have an effect at every level of phonological processing, and in principle the effects might be different at each level.
  • 8. Three stages of identification (Frauenfelder & Tyler, 1987) Initial Contact Lexical Selection Word Recognition
  • 9. The time course of spoken word recognition Recognizing a spoken word begins when some representation of the sensory input makes initial contact with the lexicon. This is the initial contact phase. Once lexical entries begin to match the contact representation, they change in some way; they become “activated”. The activation might be all-or-none (as is the case in the original cohort model described later); or the relative activation levels might depend on properties of the words (such as word frequency); or words may be activated in proportion to the current goodness of fit with the sensory data (as in the more recent cohort model, or in the connectionist TRACE model). In the selection phase, activation continues to accumulate until one lexical entry is selected. Word recognition is the end point of the selection phase.
  • 10. Context effects in word recognition To show that context affects recognition, we need to demonstrate top-down influences on the bottom up processing of the acoustic signal. We have already examined whether context affects low-level perceptual processing; here we are concerned with the possible effects of context on word identification. The issues involved are complex. Even if there are some contextual effects, we would still need to determine which types of context have an effect, at what stage or stages they have an effect, and how they have this effect. We have already noted that there are two opposing positions on the role of context in recognition, which can be called the autonomous and inter actionist positions. The autonomous position says that context cannot have an effect prior to word recognition. It can only contribute to the evaluation and integration of the output of lexical processing, not its generation. However, the lateral flow of information is permitted in these models. For example, information flow is allowed between words within the lexicon, but not from the lexicon to lower-level processes such as phoneme identification.
  • 11. MODELS OF SPEECH RECOGNITION ACCSESS STAGE (Perceptual Representation used to activate the lexical items, thus generating the a candidate set items the cohort SELECTION STAGE ( One item is chosen from this set) INTEGRATION STAGE (in which the semantic and syntactic properties of the chosen word are the utilized)