1920s Lecture 4 The Roaring 20s


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1920s Lecture 4 The Roaring 20s

  1. 1. The Roaring 20’s After today you should know: How women’s roles changed What major population shifts occurred How population shifts led to conflicts of values in America How fundamentalism influenced America
  2. 3. S - New Roles for Women <ul><li>Voting </li></ul><ul><li>19 th Amendment ratified in 1920 – gave women right to vote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women soon elected to local and state offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nellie Tayloe Ross – WY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miriam Ferguson – TX </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Women generally voted the same as the men in their lives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t bring the change people had suspected </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. S & E – New Roles for Women <ul><li>Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Many women resumed jobs during economic boom of the 1920’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly low paying professions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nursing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic servants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>College </li></ul><ul><li>Women also started attending college in record numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially those in middle and upper class </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. The Flapper
  5. 6. S - The Flapper <ul><li>Changing opportunities for women brought about changing attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including: basic rules defining proper behavior for women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Flapper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defied traditional ideas of proper dress and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cut hair </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wore makeup </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoked cigarettes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drank alcohol </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Went out dancing all night </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became a new mode of popular dress </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. S – The Flapper <ul><li>Also became a popular image reflecting the changes affecting women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggested freedom and independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But some women didn’t approve, especially </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women in rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only seen pictures in magazines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicted with conservative values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older supporters of women’s rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thought flappers disgraced the work that had been done to advance the cause of women </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. S – New Roles for Women <ul><li>But a woman’s major role was to care for children and the home </li></ul><ul><li>Still depended on men for financial support </li></ul><ul><li>Did seek greater equality in their relationships with men </li></ul>
  8. 9. G, S, R, I, E – Urbanization <ul><li>Farmers experiencing hard times flocked to cities for new jobs </li></ul><ul><li>1920 census showed for the first time that more Americans lived in urban areas than rural areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.census.gov/population/www/censusdata/files/table-4.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 2008 – 79.2% urban, 20.8% rural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of Americans worked somewhere other than a farm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to cars shrunk the distance between the country and the city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural people less isolated, changed outlook </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. S, I – Education <ul><li>The shift to the cities provided access to education </li></ul><ul><li>States passed laws requiring young people to go to school </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Got children out of factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opened up new jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School attendance, college enrollment increased </li></ul>
  10. 11. S – Intolerance <ul><li>Urban and rural values clashed in the 20’s </li></ul><ul><li>Rural dwellers disapproved of many parts of urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Ku Klux Klan grew because of the differences in values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drew lots of members from rural America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believed they could preserve their place in society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted African-Americans, Catholics, Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership peaked in 1920’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the millions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. How do people feel in times of change?
  12. 13. S, R – Fundamentalism <ul><li>Changes of the time attracted many people to religion </li></ul><ul><li>FUNDAMENTALISM became very popular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of Christianity based on a literal interpretation of the Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condemned radicals and criticized the changing attitudes of women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prominent fundamentalist preachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Billy Sunday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Former baseball player </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aimee Semple McPherson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Well known for healing the sick through prayer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. S, I, P – Fundamentalism vs. Evolution <ul><li>Fundamentalism conflicted with modern science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fundamentalists believed evolution undermined religious faith </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to prevent teaching evolution in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Several states passed laws outlawing teaching evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Law passed in Tennessee in 1925 made it illegal to teach evolution </li></ul>
  14. 15. S, I, P – Scopes Trial <ul><li>Tennessee teacher John Scopes arrested for teaching evolution </li></ul><ul><li>People all over the country followed his court case </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt was never in question </li></ul><ul><li>Two important lawyers faced off: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarence Darrow defended John Scopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Famous criminal lawyer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Argued that teaching evolution was a matter of free speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William Jennings Bryan – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 time candidate for president </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamentalist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Believer in rural values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Argued that the ideas competed with Christianity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. S, I, P – Scopes Trial <ul><li>Scopes was convicted </li></ul><ul><li>5 days later William Jennings Bryan died </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered a hero </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law remained in place until 1960 </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Scopes Trial
  17. 18. S, P - Prohibition <ul><li>Through history many groups tried to outlaw alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought it was a source of unhappiness, hurt families, promoted crime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1900’s the Progressives tried to outlaw it </li></ul><ul><li>WWI led to support for the ban </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wartime called for discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for grain </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. S, P – Prohibition <ul><li>Bias against immigrants, city life supported argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People said immigrants and urban dwellers were abusers of alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1917 over 50% of states passed some form of restriction on alcohol use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged by Fundamentalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVuwREbGh3w&feature=related </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. S, P – Prohibition <ul><li>1917 – Congress proposed constitutional amendment making it illegal to manufacture, transport or sell alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>1919 – Amendment ratified </li></ul><ul><li>1920 – Volstead Act passed to enforce the amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition became the law of the land </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Prohibition
  21. 23. S, P – Prohibition <ul><li>Virtually impossible to enforce </li></ul><ul><li>Making, transporting, selling alcohol illegal, but drinking it was NOT </li></ul><ul><li>Gave rise to huge smuggling operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd biggest industry in Detroit in 1920’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smugglers - BOOTLEGGERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal bars that served alcohol – SPEAKEASIES </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. S, P – Prohibition <ul><li>1925 – only 5% of liquor entering country had been stopped </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal liquor business – foundation for great criminal empires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Al Capone – Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal government couldn’t compete with criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition continued through the 1920’s without success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged government prestige </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Prohibition http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJp3lnu-V-M&feature=PlayList&p=DFD79F9A222C8A9E&playnext=1&index=21
  24. 26. <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OiYqFXmVAFg&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>http://video.search.yahoo.com/video/play?p=prohibition&ei=UTF-8&fr=b2ie7&fr2=tab-web&tnr=21&vid=000165489586 </li></ul>