1920s Lecture 2 Harding And Coolidge

841 views

Published on

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
841
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

1920s Lecture 2 Harding And Coolidge

  1. 1. REVIEW <ul><li>What was happening at the beginning of the 1920’s? </li></ul><ul><li>In the election of 1920, what might people be looking for in a president? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Harding and Coolidge The Need for Normalcy
  3. 3. The Election of 1920 <ul><li>President Wilson’s stroke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to perform duties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presidency ended in chaos </li></ul><ul><li>Two candidates would face off in the 1920 election </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D - James Cox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R - Warren Harding </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Election of 1920 <ul><li>Who do you think will be elected? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Harding – The Need for Normalcy <ul><li>Republicans lacked party leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt’s death 1919 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warren Harding sensed that Americans wanted familiarity, safety </li></ul><ul><li>Declared nation needed healing, restoration, normalcy </li></ul><ul><li>“ RETURN TO NORMALCY” </li></ul><ul><li>Chose Calvin Coolidge VP </li></ul>
  6. 6. Harding vs. Cox <ul><li>Harding – Republican: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticized Wilson’s unpreparedness for WWI and for peace treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not support League of Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed Wilson was to blame for the inefficiency in passing legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less help for farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to form a committee to deal with labor issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little restrictions on business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed high taxes, high cost of living on weakened dollar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported developments for business purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cox – Democrat: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored League of Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alter Senate rules of procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported Wilson’s conduct in WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed Republicans for high taxes, high cost of living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vowed to help farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve life for laborers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported women’s right to vote, women working, welfare for women and children, education, help to disabled soldiers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Election of 1920 <ul><li>Who do you think will win? </li></ul><ul><li>Which policies are best for the time? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.davidpietrusza.com/1920-links.html </li></ul>
  8. 8. Harding Becomes President <ul><li>Warren Harding and his “Return to Normalcy” received 60% of the popular vote </li></ul>
  9. 9. Harding – The Man <ul><li>From Marion, Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>Worked as a newspaper publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in small town values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t want government to solve their problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Known for his love of leisure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxed governing approach </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Harding – The Politician <ul><li>His father – active in Republican party </li></ul><ul><li>Harding worked his way up politically </li></ul><ul><li>Elected U.S. Senator from Ohio in 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently skipped Senate sessions </li></ul><ul><li>As President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed the job was a lot of ceremony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hired smart team of advisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely took positions on issues </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Harding’s Policies <ul><li>PRO-BUSINESS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Less government in business and more business in government.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cut the federal budget </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced taxes on wealthy Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought the wealthy would start business, improve the economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What recent presidential candidate does this sound like? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Harding’s Policies <ul><li>LITTLE HELP FOR FARMERS </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that “the farmer required no special favors at the hands of government.” </li></ul><ul><li>Fordney-McCumber Tariff </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised cost of foreign farm products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term help </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Ohio Gang <ul><li>Harding appointed highly skilled people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Mellon - Treasury Secretary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Evans Hughes – Secretary of State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbert Hoover – Commerce Secretary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filled lower-level positions with friends from Ohio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members were convicted of taking bribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called the “Ohio Gang” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harry Daugherty – Attorney General </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Albert Fall - Interior Secretary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edwin C. Denby – Navy Secretary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Teapot Dome Scandal <ul><li>Worst scandal involved: </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Fall - Secretary of the Interior </li></ul><ul><li>What does the Secretary of the Interior control? </li></ul><ul><li>Fall accepted bribes from oil companies in exchange to drill federal oil reserves on federal land in Wyoming known as the Teapot Dome </li></ul>
  15. 15. Harding’s Escape <ul><li>Harding never found to be connected with scandals </li></ul><ul><li>Took vacation to Alaska to escape rumors </li></ul><ul><li>Collapsed during a speech because of a heart attack </li></ul><ul><li>Died later that week </li></ul><ul><li>Popular when he died, but… </li></ul><ul><li>Overtime corruption and his failings ruined his reputation as President </li></ul>
  16. 17. Coolidge Becomes President <ul><li>On August 2, 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Vice-President Calvin Coolidge receives news of Harding’s death </li></ul><ul><li>Took the Oath of Office as dawn broke </li></ul>
  17. 18. Coolidge – The Man <ul><li>Brought up in rural Vermont </li></ul><ul><li>His father owned a local store, was an active Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Graduated from a college in Amherst, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Took up law and politics after college </li></ul><ul><li>Worked his way up in the Republican party </li></ul>
  18. 19. Coolidge <ul><li>Where have we heard of Calvin Coolidge? </li></ul>
  19. 20. Coolidge – The Politician <ul><li>Elected governor of Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Became famous by handling the Boston Police Strike </li></ul>
  20. 21. Coolidge – Taking Office <ul><li>His honest helped him deal with the erupting scandals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removed all officials suspected of corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Known as “Silent Cal” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hated small talk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well-liked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ran again and reelected in 1924 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Coolidge - Policies <ul><li>PRO-BUSINESS </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in the power of business </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that government took away resources businesses could use </li></ul><ul><li>Business would fuel America’s growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote arts and sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fund charities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LIMITED GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to weaken regulations on industry </li></ul><ul><li>“ Active inactivity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed few laws, policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stopped plan to help farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Vetoed bill to provide bonus to WWI vets </li></ul>
  22. 23. Coolidge – Indian Citizenship <ul><li>Did introduce the Indian Citizenship Act </li></ul><ul><li>Stated that all Indians born in the U.S. were granted citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>A long struggle for Native Americans </li></ul>
  23. 24. Coolidge’s End <ul><li>Coolidge’s presidency had led to an era of good times, but… </li></ul><ul><li>As the election of 1928 approached Calvin Coolidge declared: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I do not choose to run for President in 1928.” </li></ul><ul><li>And the nation was stunned. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Assignment <ul><li>Imagine that it is 1924 and you are Calvin Coolidge’s campaign team who will be helping him win the 1924 election. You need to write Coolidge’s platform for the Presidency addressing how he will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work to limit the damage of the scandals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore the reputation of the presidency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote pro-business policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote arts and sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fund charities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the role of government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once you have written your platform, you need to create a media campaign promoting your ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a slogan and then you can make campaign posters, buttons, etc. for the 1924 election. </li></ul>
  25. 26. For next class… <ul><li>Complete your campaign platforms and promotional materials. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either delegate what people need to do or find time to meet this weekend. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will present these on Monday! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check the blog for powerpoints </li></ul>

×