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THE EASTERN
QUESTION
The Balkans
1870 - 1914
Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it extended over parts
of Asia, Africa and Europe between the Eastern M...
After the
Congress of
Vienna
The Ottoman
Empire was
predominant in the
Balkans.
But by the end of
the century the
Turks we...
Turkey crumbles down
• After Greece, other Christian peoples tried to break away
from Turkish rule.
• The European powers ...
* Russia needed an
outlet to the
Mediterranean and
hoped to influence the
Slav nations when they
became independent.
THE CRISIS OF 1875 - 1877
Atrocities of Ottomans against Christian population were an
everyday reality to which Europe had...
The Russo-Turkish War 1877 - 1878
Russia was the only power
that helped the Christians.
In January 1878, the Turks
signed ...
The Congress of Berlin 1878
• Bulgaria became independent but was divided in three.
• Serbia, Montenegro and Rumania retai...
Failure
In spite of the Sultan’s promise, massacres of Christians
took place at regular intervals.
Two of the parts into w...
FIRST BALKAN CRISIS
1908
Austria took over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Russia and
Serbia protested. Germany made it clear that...
Effects of the 1908 crisis 1
Austria - Hungary
• Felt confident that
Germany would back it up
in future disputes.
• Too co...
Effects of the 1908 crisis 2
The Balkan League, 1912
• Greece, Serbia,
Montenegro and Bulgaria
joined to persuade the
Turk...
SARAJEVO 28 JUNE 1914
The Eastern Question
The Eastern Question
The Eastern Question
The Eastern Question
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The Eastern Question

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Based on Ben Walsh's "GCSE Modern World History" and google images.

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The Eastern Question

  1. 1. THE EASTERN QUESTION The Balkans 1870 - 1914
  2. 2. Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it extended over parts of Asia, Africa and Europe between the Eastern Mediterranean, the Black Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Red Sea. The Turkish (or Ottoman) Empire thus possessed some of the most important highways by land and sea between these three continents.
  3. 3. After the Congress of Vienna The Ottoman Empire was predominant in the Balkans. But by the end of the century the Turks were no longer able to control that large Empire. Greece had already declared its independence.
  4. 4. Turkey crumbles down • After Greece, other Christian peoples tried to break away from Turkish rule. • The European powers had their own interests in the area: * Britain wished to maintain Turkey as a buffer state and avoid the formation of Russian “satellite” states. * Austria – Hungary feared the advance of Russia and also that the independency ideas of peoples under Turkish control should attract peoples in the empire. It also hoped to extend its power towards the SE.
  5. 5. * Russia needed an outlet to the Mediterranean and hoped to influence the Slav nations when they became independent.
  6. 6. THE CRISIS OF 1875 - 1877 Atrocities of Ottomans against Christian population were an everyday reality to which Europe had remained indifferent. In 1875 a rebellion began in Bosnia and Herzegovina, extending later to Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria.
  7. 7. The Russo-Turkish War 1877 - 1878 Russia was the only power that helped the Christians. In January 1878, the Turks signed an armistice to end the war (the Treaty of San Stefano) and lost most of her European Empire. The other powers did not like the treaty; they called a meeting in Berlin to revise it but made several secret agreements before the Congress in Berlin.
  8. 8. The Congress of Berlin 1878 • Bulgaria became independent but was divided in three. • Serbia, Montenegro and Rumania retained their independence. • Russia kept some land. • Austria – Hungary was allowed to administer Bosnia and Herzegovina. • Britain gained Cyprus. It would be a naval base to keep an eye on Russia.
  9. 9. Failure In spite of the Sultan’s promise, massacres of Christians took place at regular intervals. Two of the parts into which Bulgaria had been divided united in 1885 and did not become a Russian satellite. Serbia and Montenegro resented Austro-Hungarian administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  10. 10. FIRST BALKAN CRISIS 1908 Austria took over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Russia and Serbia protested. Germany made it clear that it would support Austria - Hungary.
  11. 11. Effects of the 1908 crisis 1 Austria - Hungary • Felt confident that Germany would back it up in future disputes. • Too confident? Serbia and Russia • Russia resented being faced down. • It quickened its arms build-up. • After a series of local wars, Serbia emerged as the most powerful country in the Balkans.
  12. 12. Effects of the 1908 crisis 2 The Balkan League, 1912 • Greece, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria joined to persuade the Turks to deal fairly with. their Christian subjects. • In 1912 they defeated Turkey at war after just 6 weeks Major powers • Greatly alarmed by Balkan League’s success. • The Kaiser told Austria that he would support her if she went to war with Serbia. • Russia declared she would support Serbia. Serbia allowed terrorists to train on Serb soil before undertaking terrorist activities inside the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
  13. 13. SARAJEVO 28 JUNE 1914

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