I’m going to rest this talk on 3 sources:The literatureMy personal teaching experience – and I know that I share that experience with many of you here this afternoonMy own perceptions, based on conferences, seminars and other sources that the educational models and practices on which we’ve relied for so long are not wrong, but they may be no longer adequate for the future .
Prof Hartley – challenges the question – should there be a pedagogy of e-learning. Instead s/b pedagogy of learning – all forms of technology, a pedagogy that is all embracing. We have these tools let us go ahead and use them. Concentrate on what tools can do, what it is that we want students to do and how can we get them to do thatWhat can we do with technology?What do we want students to do?How can we get them to do that?– there should not … instead s/b pedagogy of learning. I agree with this in part. IN other words, e-learning is simply another, albeit complex, medium for doing what we have always done.
He proposed that he would sit on the fence and get some splinters – there might be a pedagogy of e-learning
Where Peter Hartley took his approach as an academic, Neil Winton as a practitioner and somewhat of a web2.0 expert, and I’m taking an academic developer’s approach. I suspect that there are not sides on this debate – it’s more a continuum of thought, depending at any one time on what we mean by e-learning or even blended learning – and I also suspect that our position on that, will vary according to the types of teaching that we are doing, and the types of technology tools that we’re using – I hope to involve you in that a little later on. So where does my practice I sit on that continuum?90% of my formal teaching activities are carried out online with students whom I’ll never meet face to face, and yes I have indeed had to adapt, to find new ways of doing things, new forms of engagement, interaction and ways of providing support. I work with educators who also find themselves in contexts where the students may be distance, international, or on campus and who are all keen to exploit what they see as the potential for elearning to enhance or even transform the learning experiences of their students.
Dialogue – one to many, many to one, synchronous, asynchronous, closed groups, open groups, many opportunities for that dialogue to be recorded and replayed as many times Logging of activities – for personal records, for monitoring, for sharing. (Wikis, tracking features in VLE) – importantly for learner analytics being a new field of researchLinks to other media – sound, tv, videoFeedback loops – either from teacher to student, student to student, within the materials themselves such as quizzesOpportunity for personalisation - choice of routes through materials, some offerings allow for students to choose resources according to their learning preferencesEase of Access to learning resources – data on an epic scale, means that the ‘course’ is no longer custodian of knowledge, and RSS feeds and Search engines makes it possible to navigate this data. Certainly there are many examples where technology is being used to replicate constructivist pedagogies using the traditional course structure, the role of the lecturer as ‘expert’ and the role of the student as consumer of knowledge. And there are many very good arguments for continuing to do that. Professional body requirements, student and staff expectations and the tyranny of the timetable to name but three. And to a certain extent, if we do continue to do that, then there’s less of an urgent need to think about an e-pedagogy. But when we think about fully online courses, where there’s little or no possibility for students and staff to meet face to face, then I think that’s a different story.
Many of the real changes that we have seen in education today, such as the flexibility of access which enables so many people to participate in education haven’t not be driven by technology at all – the primary drivers of these changes have been changes in organisational processes, procedures and structures. In fact many of these structural changes have sought to maintain and enhance some important pedagogical approaches. Face to face driver - most of the teaching is delivered fact to face, but any online resources are offered on an individual basis Rotation between self paced and face to faceFlex – mostly online but face to face support as requiredOnline lab – generally speaking campus based, online platform for all of the materials, but mostly students attend a lab – often scheduled timetables for this. Typically software packages are learned like this. Self blend – adding to learner creditsOnline driver – totally online with students working remotely. Often face to face induction, or periodic face to face interactions. Much of our international provision to overseas markets is delivered in this way. Let’s see how the continuum works in the room. These models are important because they help us to definie what it is that we are talking about.
There’s a very real fear that if we say that there’s not so much difference, same art and science with just a different medium, then it makes it much, much harder to academics to say ‘HELP – HOW DO I DO THIS?”Many of the students who come onto the BOE have little or no experience of technology, although most are extremely experienced teachers. They’ve never experienced what it’s like to learn online, so they find it very, very difficult to imagine how they should teach online. Many have never taken part in an online discussion and so their attempts to start an online discussion have often been lacklustre to say the least. By enrolling on the BOE – they feel like they’ve done something about the fact that they really didn’t know how to teach online. Not knowing how to do something can be intimidating when faced for the first time with a module which requires a level of expertise that we don’t feel we have. But different people can be intimidated by different things, and I want to explore that with you …
These children are more intent on play than learning
University Of Glasgow Gilmorehill Chemistry Class, 1890sA Chemistry class lecture at the University of Glasgow during the 1890s. The lecturing bench has scientific equipment laid out for a demonstration during the lecture.The class is full but the seat numbers by which the Professors noted attendance can be clearly seen. The photograph was taken after women were allowed to become matriculated students at the University.Women students were often required to sit at the front during lectures, emphasising the fact that they were in a minority and different.
Press F5 or use the tool bar to enter presentation mode in order to see the poll.\r\nIn an emergency during your presentation, if the poll isn't showing, navigate to this link in your web browser:http://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/LTQyNDE1OTk1NAIf you like, you can use this slide as a template for your own voting slides. You might use a slide like this if you feel your audience would benefit from the picture showing a text message on a phone.
Developing educators with traditional approaches which closely reflect our own educational experience may be dangerous – can we really develop in new lecturers the capacity to exploit the potential of new curriculum developments, of technological developments and students expectations for far more bespoke provision -but try to do all that with 50 year old pedagogies?QAA Regionalroadshow – accomodating variety of learner characteristics, need for flexibility, again and again, people say to me but we need to time to learn how to do all those things. They felt unable to take forward these ambitions for curriculum with their existing skill set.
Digital literacy (weaving in technology)Accessibility – every good lecturer is aware of trying to ensure that their provision is as accessible as possible, and … providing notes before hand, encouraging the recording of lectures, but how many are aware of the amazing array of assistive software, and how many know about the best way to present web links to make them most readable by screen readers? Many academics have vague understanding of the need for cream background and ariel font, but they have little understanding about why that is helpful, and what can be done to support student learning, and especially students with learning impairments in far more proactive ways. So how can pedagogic theory help? There’s a wide-growing and impressive literature which is underpinning thinking and practice in e-learning and curriculum reform and innovations. And I strongly feel that this should be more widely recognized.
My pedagogical aha moment …The community of inquiry model represents the process by which students and tutor(s) collaborate to conduct an academic inquiry related to a particular topic. Garrison, Anderson and Archer identify three crucial elements of an educational experienceCognitive presence – The extent to which participants are able to construct meaning through sustained dialogue. This involves a triggering event, exploration integration and resolution (provoking a sense of puzzlement, connecting ideas)Teaching presence – instructional management (structuring activities), direct instruction (correcting misunderstandings)Social presence – emotional expression, (humour, first names, sharing personal experience) open communication, group communication (encouraging interaction amongst the participants) Finding your voice online, and helping students to find theirs. So let’s move from theory back to practice …
Thank goodness that there is Still a very great deal of research on-going in to how best to teach online …I have numerous experiences of making a post, dropping my contribution into the conversation and hoping that it will create ripples of interest, perhaps curiousity or even puzzlement, only to find it killing a conversation dead. The research (on topics such as instructor intervention) in this area has really helped me to analyse some of the online dialogue that I have facilitated, and to base my conclusions on evidence based research rather than on anecdotes and on my pedagogical experience gained in a different environment. ( I have recently come to the conclusion that my messages that have sunk without trace, are mostly too long – and that short focussed messages may be more effective)Don’t find that kind of topic in your generic pedagogical syllabus!Let’s broaden it out from my experience, brings us nicely on to more broad aspects of the tutor role.
New online pedagogic approaches, enable new roles for teachers.Tutors not as sage, not as guide, not as even as ghostin the wings but co-tutors and co-learners. New pedagogical approaches enable the dulling of the bright line between tutor and learner, remoulding the traditional hierarchies that have been played out on campus. An example of this is where learners are given more control – encouraging encourage activities where students generate resources and lead activities. The student led seminars in our own programme are an example of that. I presented at SEDA last year about our experience of student generated content, great interest in how we might use SGC for PG Certs – but there was a cry from many of the delegates (who are themselves academic developers) about how they feared that they didn’t have the levels of digital literacy that would be required to implement such approaches. New models of curriculum design are going to call for new ways of managing resources, time and students. Calls for collaboration across institutions, and within institutions demand more pedagogical and professional flexibility than the traditional boundaries allow. The prospect of teaching in new situations in unfamiliar spaces is enlivening and invogorating, but it can also be a bit scary.
Understanding interactions in new spaces – social hang out areas.. Already having to deal with situations where students have used Facebook inappropriately which has called into question their fitness to practice in certain professional roles.Literature emerging around digital identities. That’s important ..Discussion forums themselves can be difficult spaces:There’s reports of ‘Trolling’ posts … anonymous, purpose is to provoke and to bully - I haven’t had to deal with that – but I have had to reckon with Pathological politeness – no effective challenging (check on seminar 3b)You can imagine that the width and depth of the dark side could be endless, and we have to be aware of that and make serious attempts to understand ... So where does that leave us visa vi the fence?
And the question of whether or not there is a pedagogy of e-learning. I suggest that a pedagogy of e-learning may not be a broad enough conception for the future. E-pedagogy – the art and science of teaching and learning with technology is only one plank in the fence. What I propose is an extended pedagogy … like this
There’s traditional pedagogy, and we’ve recognized that,There’s e-pedagogy and we’ve looked at some of the affordances of e-learning in relation to that I’ve mentioned the significance of digital literacyA lot of the developments in each of these areas, are certainly being informed, but perhaps even driven by developments in Curriculum innovation and reform. So is there a distinctive e-pedagogy?Yes, there is. But not e for electronic, e for extended.
Is there an E pedagogy?
Is there a pedagogy ofe-learning?Julia FotheringhamEdinburgh Napier UniversityLecturer – Academic Practice
Review & Preview• InspireED series so far …• What might be distinctive about an e-pedagogy?• What do we need to know and be able to doto design and deliver a curriculum of thefuture?• Propose an extended pedagogy
Professor Peter Hartley“should there be a pedagogy of e-learning? -there should not …”
Neil Winton“There might be a pedagogy of e-learning…. I’m going to sit on the fence and getsome splinters”
What features make e-learning sopedagogically important?Ease ofaccess toexperts andsupportLoggingofactivitiesFeedbackloopsOpportunity forpersonalisationLearners incontrolStephenson, J (2002)
Staker’s Blended Learning ModelsStaker, H (2011)
Danger ofeducationalinertiaWhat are the newthings that weneed to know andbe able to do?
So what is there to learn?a selection …Digital literacy: what tools to use and whenHow to use them in a pedagogically effectivewayMotivating and managing without visual cuesTechnical fearlessnessAccessibility
Social presenceTeachingpresenceCognitivepresenceESupportingdiscourseSettingtheclimateSelectingcontentGarrison, Anderson and Archer (1999)
References• Staker, H (2011) The Rise of K-12 BlendedLearning [online athttp://www.innosightinstitute.org/innosight/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/The-Rise-of-K-12-Blended-Learning.pdf]• Garrison, R., Anderson., and Archer, W. (1999).Critical Inquiry in a Text-based Environment:Computer Conferencing in Higher EducationThe Internet and Higher Education, Vol. 2 (2 -3), pp 87 - 105.
References• Mayes, T (2001) Learning technology andlearning relationships. In Stephenson, J. Ed.Teaching and Learning Online: Pedagogies forNew Technologies, London:Kogan Page Ltd: