What health problems can you see in thisDirty ole picture?town
What is this cartoon saying about Landlords and conditions for the poor?
I will be able to highlight the change in the role of Government towards Public Health in the 19th Century I will also be able to explain the reasons for this
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 Bethnal Green 10 5 Liverpool 0 WiltshireWhat does this Bar Chart tell you? NB Wiltshire isa county and mainly Agricultural
Carried out report in 1842 “The Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population” The Government ignored report New Government introduced “Public Health Act” of 1848” to encourage local authorities to improve condition in their area However they had to get support of local ratepayers to do this
Read p 111 and use bullet points to explain who opposed Public Health improvements and why? Why couldn’t Chadwick prove that his idea’s would save lives?
What did John Snow discover? How did he do this?
Snow was a British physician who is considered one of the founders of epidemiology for his work identifying the source of a cholera outbreak in 1854. John Snow was born into a labourers family on 15 March 1813 in York and at 14 was apprenticed to a surgeon. In 1836, he moved to London to start his formal medical education. He became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1838, graduated from the University of London in 1844 and was admitted to the Royal College of Physicians in 1850.
At the time, it was assumed that cholera was airborne. However, Snow did not accept this miasma (bad air) theory, arguing that in fact entered the body through the mouth. He published his ideas in an essay On the Mode of Communication of Cholera in 1849. A few years later, Snow was able to prove his theory in dramatic circumstances. In August 1854, a cholera outbreak occurred in Soho. After careful investigation, including plotting cases of cholera on a map of the area, Snow was able to identify a water pump in Broad (now Broadwick) Street as the source of the disease. He had the handle of the pump removed, and cases of cholera immediately began to diminish. However, Snows germ theory of disease was not widely accepted until the 1860s. Snow was also a pioneer in the field of anaesthetics. By testing the effects of controlled doses of ether and chloroform on animals and on humans, he made those drugs safer and more effective. In April 1853, he was responsible for giving chloroform to Queen Victoria at the birth of her son Leopold, and performed the same task in April 1857 when her daughter Beatrice was born. Snow died of a stroke on 16 June 1858.
Why did Parliament decide to give Bazalgette money to build new Sewers for London? Bazelegette
As chief engineer to Londons metropolitan board of works in the mid-19th century, Bazalgette had a significant impact both on Londons appearance and, through his design of an efficient sewage system, on the health of its inhabitants. Joseph Bazalgette was born in London on 28 March 1819. His father was a captain in the Royal Navy. Bazalgette began his career as a railway engineer, gaining considerable experience in land drainage and reclamation. In 1842 he set up in private practice. In 1856, Londons metropolitan board of works was established. The board was the first organisation to supervise public works in a unified way over the whole city, and it elected Joseph Bazalgette as its first, and only, chief engineer. In the mid-19th century, London was suffering from recurring epidemics of cholera. In 1853 - 1854 more than 10,000 Londoners were killed by the disease. It was thought at the time to be caused by foul air. The hot summer of 1858 created the Great Stink of London, which overwhelmed all those who went near the Thames - including the occupants of Parliament. This, together with the frequent occurrence of cholera, gave impetus to legislation enabling the metropolitan board to begin work on sewers and street improvements. By 1866 most of London was connected to a sewer network devised by Bazalgette.
He saw to it that the flow of foul water from old sewers and underground rivers was intercepted, and diverted along new, low-level sewers, built behind embankments on the riverfront and taken to new treatment works. By 1870 both the Albert and the Victoria Embankments had been opened. These replaced the tidal mud of the Thames shore with reclaimed ground for riverside roads and gardens behind their curved river walls. The Victoria Embankment protected Bazalgettes low-level sewer, as well as a service subway and the underground railway. The Chelsea Embankment was completed in 1874, reclaiming over 52 acres from the Thames. Throughout this busy time, Bazalgette continued to train young civil engineers and provide independent advice to other British towns and cities - as well as places as far apart as Budapest and Port Louis, Mauritius. Bazalgette died on 15 March 1891.
All towns were forced to provide clean water, proper drainage and Sewers Also had to appoint a Medical Officer of Health Why did this happen?
New Voters – Working class men had vote in 1867 Scientific Developments – Pasteur Statistics – William Farr used birth and Date rates to prove link between unhealthy living conditions and high death rates Education –In 1870 local authorities forced to set up new schools. Health Education taught in many of these
Sing out about the “Great stink of 1858?” Following website is useful: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/victorian _britain/social_conditions/victorian_urban_pl anning_01.shtml