Problem Gambling: Addictive Behavior


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By Julie Hynes, MA, CPS. For Addictive Behaviors course, University of Oregon, 5/17/2011.

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  • Oregon Lottery 2009: $1.24 billion (Oregon Lottery, 2009)Oregonians spent $1.6 billion on all forms of gambling in 2007 (EcoNW, 2007)Lane County citizens spent an average of $330 per capita on lottery games in 2009 (Oregon Health Authority, 2010)About $7 out of every $10 was spent on video lottery games (video poker & slots)
  • Oregon Lottery 2009: $1.24 billion (Oregon Lottery, 2009)Oregonians spent $1.6 billion on all forms of gambling in 2007 (EcoNW, 2007)Lane County citizens spent an average of $330 per capita on lottery games in 2009 (Oregon Health Authority, 2010)About $7 out of every $10 was spent on video lottery games (video poker & slots)
  • Oregon: 9 tribal casinosEach tribe has one casinoDifferent rules in OregonTobacco: OKAlcohol: OK (2 casinos as of 2/10)
  • online betting? Thanks to the 2006 Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA), the online operator of a betting site is committing a crime by accepting money from U.S. residents to fund their accounts. As for those using the sites, Humphrey says, "enforcement actions against individuals are just about non-existent." In 2010, notably, New Jersey became the first state to legalize some forms of online gambling (Washington, on the other hand, recently made it a felony to bet on the Internet).
  • Paid through Lottery fundsGambling Evaluation and Reduction Program (GEAR)Corrections Program27 outpatient treatment centers (Emergence Program in Lane County)3 crisis-respite programs1 residential treatment program
  • Problem Gambling: Addictive Behavior

    1. 1. problem gamblingAddictive Behaviors | 5.17.11 Julie Hynes, MA, CPSLane County Health & Human Services Oregon Problem Gambling Services
    2. 2. Today’s Class: Gambling: Overview & trends Defining the issues Causes Signs & addiction connections Addressing the issue Discussions & cheesy game
    3. 3. Assumptions for Today
    4. 4. To risk money orGambling something of value on the outcome of an event.
    5. 5. “Young EntrepreneurOpens CorvallisPlayers Den”Smith said that the most commonmisconception about poker is that itis gambling.- Hannah Mahoney, The Daily Barometer, 3/4/11 Photo: Curtis Barnard. Source:
    6. 6. “Addicted?” text says…“Behaviors most atrisk for becomingaddictive” (p.50)… Source: Freimuth, 2008
    7. 7. Gambling: A Continuum No Social At-Risk Problem Pathological Gambling Experimentation ~74,000 Oregon adults “problem gamblers” (2.7%) 1 Teens (13-17 y.o.): 6% at risk or problem gamblers 2 College: 5.6% (nat’l figure)3 | 3% (UO) 4 Older adults: 1.2% 5Sources: 1. Moore (2006; ibid). 2. Volberg, Hedberg, & Moore (2008). 3. Shaffer & Hall (2001). 4. Northwest Survey &Data Services (2007). 5. Moore (2001).
    8. 8. Definitions PATHOLOGICAL: Persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior...results in the “PATHOLOGICAL LOSS OF CONTROL over gambling.GAMBLING” also called (DSM-IV)“compulsive gambling” or“gambling addiction”
    9. 9. $ Opportunity
    10. 10. Oregon’s #1 tourist attraction. Until…
    11. 11. Legal Gambling in ?Oregon Nine tribal casinos opened 1994 - 2004 Video poker began 1992 Lottery approved1931 1984 1989 Sports Action Lottery
    12. 12. Oregon’s spendingon gambling$ Opportunity
    13. 13. Photo source: Daniel Berman.
    14. 14. Online Gambling
    15. 15. Groups: In-class discussion1. Do a search for "online poker.“2. Go to one of the sites that offers online poker. Is it a ".net" or ".com"? If its a ".net," change the end of the URL to a ".com," and vice versa if its a ".com.”  EXAMPLE: If you’re at, go to fulltiltpoker.net3. What changes between the URLs? What are the differences in content? Be prepared to discuss.
    16. 16. Legal to advertise in U.S.Free to play.
    17. 17. Not legal to advertise in U.S.Play with real money.
    18. 18.,,
    19. 19. Online Poker’s “Black Friday,”April 15, 2011
    20. 20. 1 in 146 1 in 146 million1 in 146,000 1 in 146 gazillion
    21. 21. 1 in 146 Million (146,107,962)Odds of getting struck by lightning: 1 in 280,000
    22. 22. 1% 39%4% 0.2%
    23. 23. About 4%(1 in 25) ofOregon teensmeet the criteriafor having agamblingproblem.
    24. 24. Sports betsLottery ticketsVideo & onlineBingo & raffles
    25. 25. Video lottery& online gambling
    26. 26. Research shows about whatpercentage of adults have agambling problem? 1% 0.2% 40% 3%
    27. 27. About 3%(2.7%) of Oregon adults have a gambling problem.
    28. 28. Signs: Pathological Gambling1. Preoccupation with 6. “Chases” losses gambling 7. Lies to others to conceal2. Increases amount of money gambling gambled 8. Has committed illegal acts3. Unsuccessfully tries to quit 9. Has jeopardized4. Restless or irritable when relationships trying to cut down/stop 10. Relies on others to bail5. Gambles as an escape him/her out *”Pathological” gambling = At least five of above, and not accounted for by a Manic Episode. Pathological Gambling is defined in DSM-IV as an “Impulse Control Disorder” Source: American Psychological Association (1994).
    29. 29. Identification: “Social” orProblem Gambler? Social Problem Gambler Gambler Occasional Frequent, preoccupied Sticks w/ limits Plays w/needed $, borrowsHopes to win, expects to Hopes & expects to WIN loseCan take it or leave it Primary source of “fun”
    30. 30.  Debt - $30,000 Crime – 25% Depression/suicide  48% seriously considered suicide  9% attempted suicide Relationship jeopardized/lost – 35% Concurrent alcohol problems – 34% Concurrent drug problems – 15%Source: Oregon Health Authority, 2011
    31. 31. Electronic GamblingMost Oregon problem Oregon Gambling Treatmentgambling treatment Gamblers Preferencesclients say electronicgambling is theirpreferred method(video poker/slots, line Electronic Gamblinggames) 87% Cards 6% Other 5%Source: Oregon Health Authority(2010; ibid)
    32. 32. Photo: Hynes
    33. 33. Photo: Hynes
    34. 34. “Addicted?” text says…The person who ismost likely torespond to theseexperiences bybecoming addicted(p. 50)… Source: Freimuth (2008).
    35. 35. Causes? (Risk Factors) Trauma -- stemming  Community norms/laws from abuse or neglect  Early initiation Mental health issues  Friends favorable Substance use toward gambling Parental attitudes & behavior Competitive family Sources: Moore (2002); Marotta & Hynes (2003)
    36. 36. Addiction? Mental health?PG has addictive PG classified asand physiological Impulse Disorder incomponents DSM-IVA&D type Cognitive/tx approach Behavioral approach to(e.g., GA) treatmentCo-occurrence with Co-occurrence withalcohol/drug addiction other MH disorders
    37. 37. Mental Health/Addictions Connections  Depression/mood disorders  Narcissistic personality disorder  PTSD  Impulsivity  ADHD  Substance abuse  Alcohol abuseSources Ledgerwood & Petry (2006). Kausch et al. (2006). Biddle et al. (2005). Oregon Health Authority (2010).The WAGER (2002, February 12); Specker, et al., (1995); Kim & Grant (2001)
    38. 38. • Gambler’s fallacy • Failure to see EACH roll of dice or EACH spin of wheel as independent chance-related events • “That slot machine is DUE to hit.” • Illusion of control • Relating winnings to skill, even in luck-based games • “I’m smarter than that player.” • Superstition • Selective memorySource: Tonneato, T. (1999). Cognitive psychopathology of problem gambling. Subst Use Misuse. Sep;34(11):1593-604.
    39. 39. Roles for Neurotransmitters Role in ImpulseNeurotransmitter Control Serotonin Behavior Initiation/Cessation Norepinephrine Arousal, Excitement Opioids Pleasure, Urges Dopamine Reward, Reinforcement Dopamine: most studied neurotransmitter in problem gambling
    40. 40. Decisions that will likely cause us to lose money vs. win moneySource: Brain Briefings (2007, October), Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC
    41. 41.  Cognitive centers in flux “The adolescent brain is especially sensitive to the Amygdala active effects of dopamine, a  Fight or flight, emotion chemical neurotransmitter that is activated by substance  Decision-making altered use, exposure to high-intensity More vulnerable to risk- media, and gambling, as taking & impulsive well as food and sex. “ 1 behaviors Brain especially sensitive to dopamineSource: Ramoski, S., Nystrom, R. (2007).
    42. 42. Gambling & Oregon Teens  Six percent problem gamblers or at risk  Preferred games in order:  Free Internet gambling-type games  Cards (poker)  Sports bets  Games of personal skillSource: Volberg, et al (2008)
    43. 43. Youth: A New Social
    44. 44. Product Placement
    45. 45. Youth and Gambling
    46. 46. Gambling and Other RiskyBehaviors
    47. 47. Youth Problem Gambling:One Component sexual behavior delinquency Problem smoking Behaviors gambling drug use
    48. 48. Other Groups Especially at Risk Youth Young adults Athletes Age 65+ Ethnic groups Incarcerated People with other mental health/ addictions issues Military Increasingly at risk: women For your reference, we offer more slides following this one online detailing risks of these groups.
    49. 49. inform | educate | prevent harm
    50. 50. Treatment is Free.24 hrs: 1877-my-limitOnline:
    51. 51. Who’s in Treatment?Lane County Problem Gambling Treatment, 7/09-6/10Estimated adult population 266,860Number of problem gamblers enrolled in treatment 169Average age of problem gamblers seeking treatment 48Gender of problem gamblers seeking treatment Female: 56% Male: 44%Ethnicity of problem gamblers seeking treatment White 89% Hispanic 5%Primary gambling activity reported Video poker: 54% Slots: 34% Cards: 2.4%Average debt (state figures) $29,974 Source: Oregon Health Authority, 2011
    52. 52. Gambling Treatment:Successful Completion 51.9% 48.1% Successfully Completed Treatment (Adjusted)* Left Against Staff Advice
    53. 53. Gambling TreatmentReduces Crime Percent of Problem Gamblers Who Committed Illegal Acts to Get Money30.0% 24.6%25.0%20.0%15.0%10.0% 5.3%5.0%0.0% At Admission to Treatment Six Months after Treatment
    54. 54. Getting Results Oregon is one of the few states that appears to have averted a significant increase in problem gambling prevalence while expanding legalized gambling. Source: National Center For the Study of Gambling, 2006.Source: 2. National Center For the Study of Gambling, 2006.
    55. 55. Key Challenges
    56. 56. Wrapping it All Up Gambling’s recent popularity has not come without cost Many population groups are susceptible to gambling problems Problem gambling has consequences similar to other addiction issues Problem gambling services are free, confidential, and effective
    57. 57. Thank You!  For More Info…Julie HynesLane County Health & Human Services541.682.3928 |
    58. 58. ReferencesAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.Cross, Del Carmen Lorenzo, & Fuentes (1999). The extent and nature of gambling among college student athletes. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Department of Athletics.Department of Defense (2002). Survey of health related behaviors among military personnel Washington, DC: Author. Report information available, C. (2003). Addiction and change: How addictions develop and addicted people recover. New York: Guilford Press.ECONorthwest (2009). The contributions of Indian gaming to Oregon’s economy. Economy-2007.pdfEngwall, Hunter & Steinberg (2004). Gambling and other risk behaviors on university campuses. Journal of American College Health. 52 (6); 245-255.Freimuth, M. (2008). Addicted? Recognizing Destructive Behavior Before Its Too Late . Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.Kerber (2005). Problem and pathological gambling among college athletes. Annual of Clinical Psychiatry. 17 (4); 243-7.LaBrie, R., Shaffer, H., LaPlante, D., and Wechslet, H. (2003). Correlates of college student gambling in United States. Journal of American College Health. 52 (2); 53-62.Moore , T.L. (2002.) The etiology of pathological gambling. Salem, OR: Department of Human Services.
    59. 59. ReferencesMoore, TL. (2006). Oregon gambling prevalence replication study. Salem, OR: Department of Human Services. http://www.oregoncpg.comMoore (2001). Older adult gambling in Oregon. Salem, OR: Department of Human Services. http://www.oregoncpg.comNorthwest Survey & Data Services (2007). Lane County Health & Human Services college gambling survey. Department of Human Services, Problem Gambling Services (2010). Oregon problem gambling awareness community resource guide. Salem, OR: Author.Oregon Lottery (2009). Oregon State Lottery Behavior and Attitude Tracking Study. November 2008. InfoTek Research Group, Inc.Oregon Lottery (2008). Overview through fiscal year 2009. Salem, OR: Author.Ramoski, S., Nystrom, R. (2007). The changing adolescent brain. Northwest Public Health., D.L., Beason, K.R., & Gilbert, J.D. (2002). Gambling by college athletes: An association between problem gambling and athletes. rockey.pdfShaffer, H.J., Donato, Labrie, Kidman, & LaPlante. (2005). The epidemiology of college alcohol and gambling policies. Harm Reduction Journal. 2 (1).Shaffer, H.J. & Hall, M.N. (2001). Updating and refining meta-analytic prevalence estimates of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92(3), 168-172.Volberg, R.A., Hedberg, E.C., & Moore, T.L. (2008). Adolescent Gambling in Oregon. Northhampton, MA: Gemini Research.