Stage 1


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Stage 1

  1. 1. Tobacco: Panacea to Pandemic<br />Tobacco: People to Profit<br />A walk through dual sided exhibit, portrayed in 11 individual stages of tobacco history.<br />The Tobacco Installation unveils both sides of the controversy simultaneously.<br />Story lines-<br />the tobacco plant, <br />agent of administration, <br />Protagonist - people/ public/ victim and heros<br />Antagonist the industry.<br />
  2. 2. Tobacco: Panacea to Pandemic<br />Table of Contents- Stages<br />1.Origins of tobacco in the US-1492-1492-1700<br />2.Tobacco Farming and product manufacturing 1700-1800<br />3.The origins of tobacco manufacturers 1800-1880<br />1880 <br />4.The modern American cigarette1880-1913<br />5.Mass Marketing1900-1950<br /> <br />6.Discovery of the Health Hazard 1950-1954<br />7.The industry response to the health hazard 1954-1968<br />8.The public health response to the health hazard (SGR reports/warnings/ clean air)1964<br /> 9.The fight for clean air/Famir/ shifting public attitudes <br />11.Tobacco litigation <br />12.Global tobacco use today and in the future <br />
  3. 3. Tobacco: Panacea to Pandemic<br />Staff <br />Curator - Alan Blum / Michael Cummings<br />assistant curator - Julia Purpera<br />chef researcher Tracey / Anthony<br />research assistant: Tracey / Anthony/ jp<br />historian: Gene Borio<br />designer:JP/ Paul Hage / Anthony Brown/ science museum folk<br />audio visual: paul/hage…other companies/ squeaky wheel- brianmilbrand-<br /> press Tony Billonni/Deb Pettibone<br /> <br />Launch Date: No World tobacco date May 2012.<br /> <br />Audience: pedestrian / educational<br />
  4. 4. Stage 1: The beginning<br /><ul><li>Beginning- Local Indian tribe set up small tobacco history exhibit.</li></ul>Tobacco was first cultivated in the Americas in 6000 BC. Some thought it was a new<br />medicine. Few thought of it as a health hazard. England was the first country to take<br />up smoking for pleasure and profit.<br /> <br />
  5. 5. Columbus 1492<br />1492 Christopher Columbus mentions tobacco in hisjournal on his first voyage to the New World. <br />By 1493, tobacco has reached Europe.<br />This video moves you from the indian to columbus to nicot.<br /><br />
  6. 6. French ambassador Jean Nicot: Refers to Tobacco as Panacea<br />Define: Panacea<br />Science: Composition of Tobacco <br />
  7. 7. 1602: Introduce King James/Philatesother view on tobacco<br />King James<br />Introduces Philiates<br />1602 King James of England authors<br />A Counterblaste to Tobacco. It says,<br />“Smoking is a custom loathsome to the<br />eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the<br />brain, dangerous to the lungs.” The king<br />notes that autopsies found smokers’<br />“inward parts … infected with an oily<br />kind of soot.”<br />
  8. 8. Enter Tobacco Field:60-90 second narration <br />1614 Tobacco grown in the first English colony, Jamestown,<br />Va., enters the global marketplace under English protection.<br />It will be used as a “cash crop” for approximately 200 years in America, lasting twice as long as the gold standard. <br />Revolutionary war<br />Tea/tobacco party<br />Ben Franklin quote<br />Curing Barn:60-90 second narration <br />
  9. 9. Stage 2: Introduction after 1790-1880Branding of the companies<br />
  10. 10. Introduction of tobacco curing 1832-1839<br />Representation of a curing barn<br />Difference in tobaccos curing posesses<br />Aromatic fire cured <br />Bright leaf charcoal cured<br />Burley<br />White burley<br />Oriental Tobacco<br />Perique<br />
  11. 11. Stage 3: Modern Cigarette how and why <br />1864 -Match was develop making smoking more convenient<br />1880- Bonsack patented rolling machine which could produce 120, 00 cigarette per day.<br />1880 import and year for America transportation system was developed making coast to coast transportation of cigarette possible, tobacco brands could go national<br />
  12. 12. Develop Antibac side:<br />1602- Publication of chimney sweeper of warning for tobacconist “anonymous dr.”<br />1761 John Hill “cautions against the immoderate us of snuff” first clinical study of tobacco<br />1761Pervuca Potts Chimney soot =cancer causing theorizing connection<br />1787 Dr. Percival Potts connects cancer of the lip to snuff<br />1795 Samuel Thomas von Soemmering reports cancer of the lips in pip smoker.<br />1858 Fear of health affects raised in Lancer<br />1890 peak of chewing tobacco<br />1892: regulation: Reformers petition congress to prohibit the manufacture, importation and sale of cigarette the senate committee epidemic, while deciding only the states can regulate<br />1896: Regulation: Smoking banned in the House; chewing allowed<br />1898 Tenn supreme court upholds a total ban on cigarettes ruling they are “not legitimate articles of commerce, because wholly noxious and deleterious to health. “<br />
  13. 13. Stage 4: Mass marketing phase 1before 1911<br />Development of the Package<br />Use of trans coastal branding and marketing due to improvement in transportation<br />Billboards<br />1898 Thomas Edison Admiral Commercial<br />Radio red skeleton radio ads.<br />1790’s Lorillard creates first national campaign disturbing posters via the post office.<br />1800 trading cards, tobacco wrappers, snuff boxes<br />1860 Lorillard wraps hundred dollar bills <br />1878 trading cards and coupons begin widely used in cigarette packs <br />
  14. 14. Stage 5: American Tobacco Company1880-1910<br />
  15. 15. 1911 Anti trust<br />TRUSTBUSTERS<br />
  16. 16. After Anti trust return to these companiesPM never part of Anti trust<br />
  17. 17. Stage 6: 1913 -1954 Birth of the Reynolds Cigarette/birth of health crisis <br />1913 Introduce camel the first pre blended packaged cigarette. “THE CAMELS ARE COMING” <br />1914 425 Million packs sold<br />Modern advertising was born in the early 20thcentury, and the tobacco industry embraced its methods.<br /> Celebrities and sports stars all endorsed<br />cigarettes. <br />Even physicians and nurses were depicted in cigarette advertisements, which appeared in medical journals and included many health claims.<br />
  18. 18. Stage 6: Three part time line Historic<br />1914 WORLD WAR 1<br />1917 3 brands Lucky Strike, Camel, chesterfield<br />1917 usa joins ww1 <br />Entire generation become addicted<br />1918 World War 1 ends<br />1919 RJR dies of pancreatic cancer<br />1920 Women suffrage 1920<br />1925 Duke, Potts dies<br />1939: BUSINESS: Tobacco companies are found price-fixing<br />1939-1945 WORLD WAR II<br /> <br />1941: HEALTH: An article by Dr. Michael DeBakey notes a correlation between the increased sale of tobacco and the increasing prevalence of lung cancer<br />…<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  19. 19. Stage 6: Three part time line Historic<br />Historic<br />TV in American homes 1950<br />1953: Claude Teague survey of cancer causing <br /> ***************************<br />1954 Cooper V. Reynolds<br />1954 Pritchard<br />1957 Sen Bennett introduces bill requiring cigarette packs carry label”prolonged use of this product may result in cancer, in lung, heart, and circulatory ailments, and in other diseases.<br />1958 Tobacco Institute formed<br />1963-07-17: LITIGATION: B&W's General Counsel ADDISON YEAMAN writes in a memo, "Moreover, nicotine is addictive. We are, then, in the business of selling nicotine, an addictive drug effective in the release of stress mechanisms." Yeaman was concerned about the<br />upcoming Surgeon General's report, and was writing of "the so-called 'beneficial effects of<br />nicotine': 1) enhancing effect on the pituitary-adrenal response to stress; 2) regulation of bodyweight.<br /> <br />
  20. 20. Stage 6: Three part time line Health<br />Health<br />Health<br />1911 ATC creates research committee<br />1914: OPINION: Thomas Edison writes to Henry Ford on the health danger of cigarettes:<br />1916: Henry Ford publishes anti-cigarette pamphlet titled "The Case against the Little White Slaver". <br />1918: Frederick J. Pack publishes "Tobaco and Human Efficiency," the most comprehensive<br />compilation of anti-cigarette opinion to date<br />1919: HEALTH: Washington University medical student Alton Ochsner is summoned toobserve lung cancer surgery--something, he is told, he may never see again. He doesn't seeanother case for 17 years. Then he sees 8 in six months--all smokers who had picked up the habit in WW I.<br /> <br />1939: HEALTH CONTROVERSY STARTS GAINING MOMENTSINDUSTRY ANSWERS to OCHNER <br /> <br />1941: Drs. Alton Oschner and Michael DeBakey published “Carcinoma of the Lung”<br />1942 Reader digest “cigarette advertising fact and fiction”<br />1950 Jama Morton Levin papers on smoking and lung cancer<br />1950 Hill and Doll<br />1953 Ernst Wynder reports results of mouse paintings experiments<br />1953 <br /> <br />************************<br /> <br />1955 FTC issues cigarette advertising guidelines no health claims to be made unless they can be backed up<br /> 1957 Surgeon General reports excessive smoking causes cancer<br />1959 FTC <br /> <br /> <br />1959 FTC <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  21. 21. Stage 6: Three part time line INDUSTRY<br />Industry Marketing/Industry Response<br />1913 RJ Reynolds introduces “the camels are coming”<br />1916 ATC its toasted Target weight issue<br />1919 Lorillard unsuccessfully targets women<br />Industry target women successfully<br />1925 pm mild as may<br />1929 freedom march<br />1929 athlete smoke<br />1933: Johnny pm<br />1935: old gold’s better for your teeth<br />1939: PM a cigarette recognized by eminent medical authorities.<br />1940s: ENTERTAINMENT: "Raleigh Cigarette Program" airs on radio. Red Skelton's show for a period was broadcast under this name.<br />1941 Camels smoke ring billboard becomes a Times Square landmark (DR.HANK)<br />1942 FILMS Casablanca now voyager<br />1943: Industry answers with ad “don’t smoke is advice hard for patients to swallow. May we suggest instead ‘smoking Philip Morris? ‘test showed three out of four cases of smokers’ cough cleared on changing to Phlip Morris. <br />1949: Camel caravan on television<br />1952 Lorillard introduces the Kent Micronite filtered<br />
  22. 22. Stage 6: INDUSTRY<br />Industry Marketing/Industry Response<br />1953 B&W introduces viceroy filtered cigarette adds filters to Kool<br />1954 Pm introduces Marlboro filtered<br />********************************<br />TIRC FORMED<br />1954 FRANk STATEMENT TO SMOKERS<br />1957 Cullman becomes president of PM<br />1958 Tobacco Institute formed<br />1962: BUSINESS: Philip Morris begins picturing a cowboy in scenes depicting recognizable American landmarks, with the new slogan, "Marlboro Country."<br />1962 American tobacco introduces <br />1962 lm introduces Lark<br />1962 RJR introduces Tempo<br />1962 Bw introduces avalon<br />
  23. 23. Stage 7: Luther Terry Surgeon General<br />1961 JKF- president<br />The members, announced on October 27, 1962, were:<br /> Dr. Stanhope Bayne-Jones, former dean, Yale School of Medicine<br /> Dr. Walter J. Burdette, head of the Department of Surgery, University of Utah School of<br />Medicine<br /> William G. Cochran, professor of Statistics, Harvard University<br /> Dr. Emmanuel Farber, chairman, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh<br /> Louis F. Fieser, professor of Organic Chemistry, Harvard University<br /> Dr. Jacob Furth, professor of Pathology, Columbia University<br /> Dr. John B. Hickam, chairman, Department of Internal Medicine, Indiana University<br /> Dr. Charles LeMaistre, professor of Internal Medicine, the University of Texas<br />Southwestern Medical School CONSULTANT FOR BW???”<br />• Dr. Leonard M. Schuman, professor of Epidemiology, University of Minnesota School<br />of Public Health<br />• Dr. Maurice H. Seevers, chairman, Department of Pharmacology, University of<br />Michigan.<br />
  24. 24. Stage 7: Luther Terry Surgeon General<br />Picture of Luther terry with JFK<br />Luther terry Headline from January 12, 1964<br />Luther Terry video<br />
  25. 25. Stage 7 Industry response<br />1964 TIRC changes to CTR Industry response to 1964 <br />Industry self regulates: Voluntary advertising code adopted - -no health claims to be made unless evidence to prove the accuracy and <br />Illustration by changing packs throughout these couples of years<br />1965: health warning appears on cigarette packs.<br />1966 Liggett withdraws from voluntary advertising ban.<br />1967 ATC withdraws from voluntary advertising ban<br />1967 Cullman becomes CEO PM<br />
  26. 26. Stage 8: Health warning label TV pollay video commercials<br />
  27. 27. Stage 8 Tobacco under defense<br />Banzaf<br />Self regulation pm cullman<br />The mouse House<br />Cullman Babies<br />Tobacco institute <br />8 tv screen in Tobacco Institute symphony<br />Introduction to Banzhaf convincing the FCC to apply the fairness doctrine<br />Show PSA ads resulting in a cigarette consumption declines<br />1969 congress modifies health warning the surgeon general has determined that cigarette smoking is dangerous to your health.<br />Stage 8 B: <br />1969: REGULATION: FCC issues a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to ban cigarette ads on<br />TV and radio. Discussions, both in Congress and in private between legislators and tobacco<br />companies, result in cigarette advertisers Cullman agreeing to stop advertising on the air in return for a<br />delay in controls on the sale of cigarettes.<br />INDUSTRY <br />1971 Cigarette ads move into print and sponsorship <br />Nascar<br />Virginia slims<br />Joe camel Billboards and merchanidiing<br />Marlboro miles<br />Introduction to dr. Blum and DOC<br /> <br />1971, Cullman, babie<br />
  28. 28. Stage 9 Doc Ought to Care vs the tobacco institute<br />All of the public relation people <br />W. Merriman<br />Anne browder<br />Brennonlawson<br />Bill dwyer<br />Knoper<br />Cullman<br />One major in the middle the other screen are black until the middle say a similar phrase<br />Tobacco Institute Cacophony Symphony<br />
  29. 29. Stage 10 the fight for clean air Famri / smoke free Heros<br />Create hero<br />Patty Yong<br />LaniBlissard<br />LeisaSudderth<br />Tie in hero who was developed throughout timeline<br />Installation includes air plane, people sit down to peanuts and water, and receive informative brochure along with a small narration of how it felt to work on the airplanes by “????<br />While Patty Young tells us about her experience the enclosure fills up with vapor to show how smokey it got on airplanes before the ban.<br />Smoke free work spaces<br />Display of picture show people smoking on the workplaces while the lung cancer rate increase.<br />
  30. 30. Stage 11 Litigation: 7 dwarfs 1994<br />WHERE are they now video.<br />Roswell Park Documents<br />The officers who appeared before Henry Waxman's (D-CA) Committee beginning April<br />14, 1994, were:<br /> <br />William Campbell, CEO, Philip Morris<br />James Johnston, CEO, RJR Tobacco Co<br />Joseph Taddeo, President, U.S. Tobacco Co<br />Andrew Tisch, CEO, Lorillard Tobacc<br />Thomas Sandefur, CEO, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co<br />Ed Horrigan, CEO, Liggett Group<br />Donald Johnston, CEO, American Tobacco Co.<br />
  31. 31. Stage 11 Litigation: joe Camel<br />
  32. 32. Conclusion<br />End of installation<br />Last stats sign<br />Last consumption row sign<br />Talley of amount of people who died while watching experiencing this video.<br />S<br />Conclusions.<br />Second pac man video game with the industry eating up and splitting of companies.<br /> <br />Audio : Dan Delen Taking about tobacco returning to a time of chew and snus.<br />Audio Of PM International Louis Camerlli “nicotine is not hard to give up”<br /> <br />Global impact<br />Stats for today.<br />Change in marketing product because of the smoke free movement.<br />Urban wave Experiment<br />