Commons as an Alternative Jukka PeltokoskiKSL Civic Association for Adult Learning email@example.com http://slideshare.net/jukpelto
What kind of Alternative?● Commons = shared resources● Commoners = producing and sharing res.● Cooperation, co-creation● Community vs. private and public● Close to social economy● Power of networks, wisdom of crowds● Open source, Wikipedia, Linux, crowdsourcing, time banking, couchsurfing, cooperatives, urban space, everymans right, biodiversity...
Themes of the lecture● Precariat as a new subjectivity● Commons ■ Concept ■ Types ■ P2P ■ Solidarity economy ■ Peer to peer state ■ Theoreticians● Vision: Coalition of constructive powers● Commons.fi
What is precariat?● Latin "precarius"● Italian (precario), French (précaire), Spanish (precario)● Uncertainty, being at the mercy of● Compare "pray"● Crisis of welfare state● Flexibility of labor markets
What is precariat?● Studied from the 1970s● Politicized in the 2000s● EuroMayDay process 2003-2010● Temp workers, part time workers, self employed, entrepreneurs, unemployed, immigrants, students, media and social movement activists, radical unionists, greens, leftists, etc.● Demand for social Europe and basic income
From Precarity to Commons● Common resources reduce uncertainty● Creative work is based on commoning● New possibilities to create alternative ■ Subjective ■ Technological ■ Permanent state of crisis● New necessities really to do it! ■ Ecological catastrophe ■ Neo-fascist comeback ■ Debt economy
What are the Commons?"General term for shared resources in whicheach stakeholder has an equal interest. Goodswhich are jointly developed and maintainedby a community and shared according tocommunity-defined rules."- P2P Foundation
What are the Commons?"The salient characteristic of commons, as opposed toproperty, is that no single person has exclusive controlover the use and disposition of any particular resource inthe commons. Instead, resources governed by commonsmay be used or disposed of by anyone among some (moreor less well-defined) number of persons, under rules thatmay range from anything goes to quite crisply articulatedformal rules that are effectively enforced."- Yohai Benkler
What are the Commons?The commons “refers to that vast range ofresources that people collectively own, butwhich are rapidly being enclosed: privatized,traded in the market, and abused.”- David BollierSee: https://vimeo.com/album/245612/video/17781175
What are the Commons?"Every commons has four characteristics: aresource; the people who share it; the valuecreated through its production orpreservation; and the rules that govern it."- Silke Helfrich
What are the Commons?"The word common is the best starting point for theanalysis. The common thing within a commons are theresources, which are used and cared for, are the goodsresulting from joint activities, and are the socialrelationships emerging from acting together. These threeaspects are so different for all commons, that no onecould describe them in a reasonably complete manner."- Stefan Meretz
Distinctions● Private / public / common● Commons / common pool res. / public goods● Natural / social / informational commons● Scarce / abundant● Conservation / creation● Can commons be made by private or public actors?
Etymology● Latin communis = shared, public, common● Co = together● Munus = gift, duty● Immunis = free from duties● Communitas = political association● Res Communes = third property form● Common land = land system in Medieval England and Wales ■ Large enclosures in the end of the 18th century
Tragedy of the Commons● Garrett Hardin 1968 ■ Overconsumption of the common land ■ Individual rationality causes social damage ■ Claims for social restrictions and privatisation● Elinor Ostrom (Nobel 2009) ■ Tragedy of the unrestricted commons ■ Human history proves about sustainable commons ■ Commons vs. common pool resources● Michael Heller: Tragedy of the anticommons, 1998
Other CommonersYohai Benkler, Chris Andersson, David Bollier,Michel Bauwens, Peter Linebaugh, LawrenceLessig, Richard Stallman, Eben Moglen, RickFalkvinge, Michael Heller, Elinor Ostrom, SilkeHelfrich, Christian Siefkes, Antonio Negri,Michael Hardt, Nick Dyer-Witheford, GeorgeCaffentzis, John Holloway, David Harvey
Stephan Meretzs Taxonomy of Goods http://www.slideshare.net/StefanMz/understanding-commons-and-peer-production
Commons Based Peer Production● Yochai Benkler: The Wealth of Network, 2006● Network model of production● Mass participation without trad. hierarchy● Emphasis on intrinsic motivation, open participation and shared information● Microtask, crowdsourcing, open innovation...
P2P as Hyper-productivity (Bauwens)● Internet enabling the self-organizing of the value production on global scale● Open innovation communities, ethical entrepreneurship● Challenge to apply the experience of free and open software to hardware● Struggle between netarchy and cognitariat● Partner state needed to enable commoning and fair trade
Becoming of the Commons Coalition http://youtu.be/-tj72CWhK-k
Commons.fi | What is to be Co-done?● New publication and research project● Commons, solidarity economy, social movements● Open network of interested people● Common pool resource http://commons.fi Commons.fi Group in FB: https://www.facebook.com/groups/303831303047659
Commons ● https://vimeo.com/album/245612/video/17781175 (Bollier on commons) ● http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwaNZgY9PCQ (Tragedy of the commons) ● http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k0ZWFPVBTws (What are commons) ● http://www.slideshare.net/StefanMz/understanding-commons-and- peer-production (Meretz’s presentation) ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_commons ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_anticommonsP2P ● http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-tj72CWhK-k (Bauwens: Grand Coalition) ● http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/03/20123111423139193. html (Bauwens: Partner State) ● http://www.tni.org/article/unleashing-creativity-labour (Stuttgart model) ● http://blog.p2pfoundation.net/summary-theses-on-the-emergence-of-the- peer-to-peer-civilization-and-a-new-political-economy/2010/02/28 (Bauwens: Thesis Summary)Solidarity economy ● http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidarity_economy ● http://turbulence.org.uk/turbulence-1/solidarity-economics/Commons.fi ● http://commons.fi
Thank you! Jukka Peltokoski KSL ry | http://www.ksl.fi firstname.lastname@example.org://slideshare.net/jukpelto