HISTORY OF ADVERTISINGWhen studying todays advertising industry, its useful to understand thehistory of advertising. You can look at the GCSE pages for introductoryinformation and links.Early AdvertisingAlthough word of mouth, the most basic (and still the most powerful) form ofadvertising has been around ever since humans started providing each otherwith goods and services, Advertising as a discrete form is generally agreed tohave begun alongside newspapers, in the seventeenth century. FrenchmanThéophrasteRenaudot (Louis XIIIs official physician) created a very earlyversion of the supermarket noticeboard, a bureau des addresses et desrencontres. Parisians seeking or offering jobs, or wanting to buy or sellgoods, put notices at the office on Île de la Cité. So that the maximumnumber of people had access to this information, Renaudot created LaGazette in 1631, the first French newspaper. The personal ad was born.In England, line advertisements in newspapers were very popular in thesecond half of the seventeenth century, often announcing the publication of anew book, or the opening of a new play. The Great Fire of London in 1666was a boost to this type of advertisement, as people used newspapers in theaftermath of the fire to advertise lost & found, and changes of address. Theseearly line ads were predominantly informative, containing descriptive, ratherthan persuasive language.
Let Them Drink CoffeeAdvertisements were of key importance, even at this early point in theirhistory, when it came to informing consumers about new products. Coffee isone such example. Coffee was first brewed into a drink in the Middle East, inthe fifteenth century. The Arabs kept the existence of this vivifying concoctiona secret,refusing to export beans(or instructions on how to grind and brewthem). Legend has it that Sufi Baba Budan smuggled seven beans into Indiain 1570 and planted them. Coffee then spread to Italy, and throughoutEurope, served at coffeehouses. The rapid spread of coffee as both a drinkand a pattern of behaviour (coffeehouses became social gathering places) isin no small part due to the advertising of coffees benefits in newspapers.
The ad to the right is the first advertisement in London for coffee, andappeared in 1657 (source: http://www.web-books.com/Classics/ON/B0/B701/15MB701.html). In Modern English, it reads:In Bartholomew Lane on the back side of the Old Exchange, the drink called Coffee (which is a verywholesome and Physical drink, having many excellent virtues, closes the Orifice of the Stomach,fortifies the heat within, helps Digestion, quickens the Spirits, makes the heart light, is good againstEye-sores, Coughs, or Colds, Rheums, Consumptions, Head-ache, Dropsy, Gout, Scurvy, Kings Eviland many others) is to be sold both in the morning and at three oclock in the afternoon.This early example of advertising copy makes coffee sound like a wonderdrug. While the claims in the first half of the sentence may be true (coffeedoes indeed stave off hunger pangs and quicken the Spirits), thepresentation of coffee as a cure-all for specific medical conditions like dropsy,gout and Kings Evil (scrofula - swollen abscesses in the neck) is pureadvertising hyperbole. But it worked – people flocked to coffee houses to trythis new beverage for themselves, and engendered a caffeine habit thatpersists in our society today.Advertising and the Industrial RevolutionWhen goods were hand made, by local craftsmen, in small quantities, therewas no need for advertising. Buyer and seller were personally known to oneanother, and the buyer was likely to have direct experience of the product.The buyer also had much more contact with the production process,especially for items like clothing (hand-stitched to fit) and food (assembledfrom simple, raw ingredients). Packaging and branding were unknown andunnecessary before the Industrial Revolution. However, once technologicaladvances enabled the mass production of soap, china, clothing etc, the closepersonal links between buyer and seller were broken. Rather than selling outof their back yards to local customers, manufacturers sought markets a longway from their factories, sometimes on the other side of the world.This created a need for advertising. Manufacturers needed to explain andrecommend their products to customers whom they would never meetpersonally. Manufacturers, in chasing far-off markets, were beginning tocompete with each other. Therefore they needed to brand their products, inorder to distinguish them from one another, and create massrecommendations to support the mass production and consumption model.
Newspapers provided the ideal vehicle for this new phenomenon,advertisements. New technologies were also making newspapers cheaper,more widely available, and more frequently printed. They had more pages, sothey could carry more, bigger, ads. Simple descriptions, plus prices, ofproducts served their purpose until the mid nineteenth century, whentechnological advances meant that illustrations culd be added to advertising,and colour was also an option. Advertisers started to add copy under thesimple headings, describing their products using persuasive prose.Bubbles — the Pears Soap Advertising InnovationAn early advertising success story is that of Pears Soap. Thomas Barrattmarried into the famous soap making family and realised that they needed tobe more aggressive about pushing their products if they were to survive. Hebought the copyright to a painting by noted Pre-Raphaelite artist, Sir JohnEverett Millais, originally entitled Bubbles. Barratt added a bar of Pears Soapto the bottom left of the image, and emblazoned the company name acrossthe top, launching the series of ads featuring cherubic children which firmlywelded the brand to the values it still holds today. He took images consideredas "fine art" and used them to connote his brands quality, purity (ie untaintedby commercialism) and simplicity (cherubic children). The campaign was ahuge success.History of BubblesHowever, Millais was attacked across the board for allowing his work to besullied by association with a commercial product. Marie Corelli wrote thishysterical letter in response to seeing the ad:Dear Sir John Millais!...I get inwardly wrathful whenever I think of your "Bubbles" in the hands of Pears as a soap-advertisement! Gods of Olympus! – I have seen and loved the original picture, – the most exquisiteand dainty child ever dreamed up, with the air of a baby Poet as well as of a small angel – and I
look upon all Pears "posters", as gross libels both of your work and you! [...] "Bubbles" should hangbeside Sir Joshuas "Age of Innocence" in the National Gallery where the poor people could go andsee it with the veneration that befits all great art. (Corelli, "To John Millais", 24 Dec. 1895)Thus began the opposition between advertising, and Art.The First Advertising AgenciesHowever, it was not until the emergence of advertising agencies in the latterpart of the nineteenth century that advertising became a fully fledgedinstitution, with its own ways of working, and with its own creative values.These agencies were a response to an increasingly crowded marketplace,where manufacturers were realising that promotion of their products was vitalif they were to survive. They sold themselves as experts in communication totheir clients - who were then left to get on with the business ofmanufacturing. Copywriters emerged who – for a fee – would craft a series ofpromotional statements. Many of these men were aspiring novelists, orjournalists, who discovered they could more profitably turn their wordcraft tothe services of sales – John E. Powers was reportedly earning the vast sum ofUS$100 per day writing copy in the 1890s. They joined forces withprofessional illustrators who began to produce designs specifically for thepurpose of an advertisment.A good early example of this is the advertising produced for Arrow Shirts bythe copywriting team of Earnest Calkins and Ralph Holden, who hired JosephLeyendecker to create an image for the campaign. Leyendecker used his real-life partner Charles Beach as the model, and created a character who wasntso much about shirts as a whole lifestyle. Suave, crisply coiffed, impeccablyturned out in a sharply creased collar, the Arrow Shirt Man represented a
whole set of aspirational choices for the target audience, and formed thebasis of Arrow Shirts advertising for the next quarter century.Innovators like Claude Hopkins and Albert Lasker developed the scope andsophistication of advertising in the early years of the twentieth century. Unlikehis predecessors, Hopkins was a great believer in learning all about theproduct he was meant to be selling. He used the fact that Schlitz Beer steamcleaned its bottles to promote the brand - notwithstanding that this wascommon practice amongst breweries at the time. However, throughassociation by advertising, Schlitz became the brand associated with goodhygiene and purity. While Hopkins became an expert in the products he wasselling, Lasker focused on the target audience, closely monitoring adcampaigns against sales curves.Advertising and the First World WarPoster advertising was much more common in Europe than the US before1914. From the 1870s on, French roadsides were adorned with cheaplyprinted Art Nouveau lithographs, advertising, among other things, the Folies-Bergère Cabaret, and Lefèvre Utile biscuits. The suffragettes in Britain used aseries of art posters to publicise their cause. When war broke out, all thevarious governments involved turned to posters as propaganda. The mainrequirement of fighting in World War I was young men to use as cannonfodder. The ENLIST! posters dreamed up by advertising agencies on bothsides of the Atlantic ensured a plentiful supply of recruits.
No less a political commentator than Hitler concluded (in Mein Kampf) thatGermany lost the war because it lost the propaganda battle: he did not makethe same mistake when it was his turn. One of the other consequences ofWorld War I was the increased mechanisation of industry – and increasedcosts which had to be paid for somehow: hence the desire to create need inthe consumer which begins to dominate advertising from the 1920s onward.Advertising Through The Great Depression
Post war affluence and optimism was short and sweet. Spurred by theintroduction of "hire purchase" agreements, consumers treated themselves tocostly new goods such as cars, washing machines, and radiograms, which allneeded ads. Advertising quickly took advantage of the new mass media, usingcinema, and to a much greater extent, radio, to transmit commercialmessages to a widespread audience. The first radio ad appeared in 1922,and, because direct selling was not permitted, broadcast a direct indirectmessage about the benefits of living in a particular development in JacksonHeights, New York.Radio Commercials from 1920s-40s —Old Time RadioThe public had an appetite for radio, but there was no real way to get themto pay directly for the costly broadcasts. Advertising stepped in as the middlecomponent, paying the broadcasters for their listeners time. Thisarrangement led to the direct funding of radio dramas by, for instance,Proctor & Gamble, hence the term soap opera. However, when the Wall St.stock market crashed in 1929, the media landscape changed forever.
Hard-hit consumers cut back on newspapers and listened to the radio in evengreater numbers. Cash-strapped newspapers and magazine owners put theirpublications up for sale, only to see them absorbed into the developing newsconglomerates. Cinema attendance remained buoyant - picture palacesoffered the only avenue of escapism in the economic gloom. The tide ofadvertising dollars that had flowed into print publications stemmedconsiderably, and then started to turn in other directions.Advertising spending plummeted by around 60% after the Crash, and didntreturn to 1920s levels until the early 1950s - although radio advertising spenddid increase significantly in this period. Ad agencies were hard hit, oftenhaving to downsize considerably as the clients dried up. Perhaps as a result ofthis, advertising got tougher. By the mid-1930s, the hard sell had becomecommonplace, with sex, violence and threats creeping into ads. Items weremarketed as necessities, rather than luxuries, with items like hats ormouthwash positioned as vital tools in the battle to get, and stay, ahead.Rather than reassuring consumers, ads bullied and hustled, playing on fearsin order to attach their target audiences sparse disposable income to theirbrand.One agency that thrived during the Depression was Young & Rubicam. Theyfocused on research and facts, investigating the impact of successful andfailed campaigns. In 1932, agency head Raymond Rubicam hired an academicnamed George Gallup as the first ever market research director in adland.Gallup developed a lot of the techniques still used today to find out which adswork and why - questionnaires, focus groups, listeners panels - as well asdevising audience measurement techniques (the coincidental method forradio, and the impact method for print and TV).Advertising & TVThe 1950s not only brought postwar affluence to the average citizen butwhole new glut of material goods for which need had to be created. Not leastof these was the television set. In America it quickly became the hottestconsumer property - no home could be without one. And where the setswent, the advertisers followed, spilling fantasies about better living throughbuying across the hearthrug in millions of American homes. The UK andEurope, with government controlled broadcasting, were a decade or so behindAmerica in allowing commercial TV stations to take to the air, and still havetighter controls on sponsorship and the amount of editorial control advertiserscan have in a programme. This is the result of some notable scandals in theUS, where sponsors interfered in the content and outcome of quiz shows in
order to make their product seem, by association, more sexy. See theexcellent Quiz Show (1994), directed by Robert Redford which deals with thedisillusionment of the American people.Unhappy with the ethical compromise of the single-sponsor show, NBCexecutive Sylvester Weaver came up with the idea of selling not whole showsto advertisers, but separate, small blocks of broadcast time. Several differentadvertisers could buy time within one show, and therefore the content of theshow would move out of the control of a single advertiser - rather like a printmagazine. This became known as the magazine concept, or participationadvertising, as it allowed a whole variety of advertisers to access theaudience of a single TV show. Thus the commercial break as we know it wasborn.Madison Avenue - how the Mad Men came to beAlthough advertising agencies had begun to flock to offices in MadisonAvenue, New York, before the war, it was only in the heady days of post-warprosperity that this street became the de facto headquarters of the USadvertising industry. A lot of new, 20+ storey office buildings wereconstructed there in the late 1940s and early 1950s, and these prestigiousskyrise workspaces attracted agencies who wanted to exude glamour andpanache, and take advantage of all the fine restaurants that thronged thestreet level.
By the 1950s, advertising was considered a profession in its own right, notjust the remit of failed newspapermen or poets. It attracted both men andwomen who wanted the thrill of using their creativity to make some seriouscash. Hard-working (early heart attacks were common), hard drinking (thoselegendary three martini lunches), unconventional and often amoral, theflannel-suited Ad Man became a recognisable archetype, the epitome of anew kind of cool. Cary Grant even played one in North By Northwest (1959).For many, Englishman David Ogilvy embodied this quintessential type. Hestarted his own ad agency, and from the very beginning, parlayed his charmand personality into the agency brand, using his British accent to stand outfrom the crowd.Ogilvys advertising ethos involved bold creativity and risk-taking, but heunderstood that advertisings main - indeed, only - function, was to sell. Tothat end copy and pictures had to be clear, simple, and provide a directconnection between customer and brand. He specialized, in the early days, inattention-grabbing campaigns that relied on a clever idea rather than a hugebudget. One of his earliest, most successful campaigns was for HathawayShirts. Like the Arrow Shirts team almost half a century before, he latchedonto an image that suggested a lifestyle, rather than just a clean collar. Headded a rakish eyepatch to the model (and to 25 years of subsequent
Hathaway models and the logo to this day), he intrigued the audience, whowould then read the copy to find out what was going on. Hooked. TheHathaway man appeared in a variety of scenarios (buying a Renoir, at theOpera, driving a tractor etc), and was in fact Baron George Wrangell, aRussian aristocrat with 20/20 vision. Ogilvy only ran the ads in The NewYorker magazine, adding to their allure. The Hathaway brand became the #1best-selling dress shirt in the world.Much has been written about David Ogilvy, especially as he was one of thefirst ad men to recognize that if you create a story around an ad campaign,youre getting a lot of free advertising. He made his agency part of the story-telling process of a campaign. Although he disliked the label, Ogilvy washailed as a genius in his day, and more than a decade after his death, is stillvery much considered a guru of modern advertising.However, not all the ad industry archetypes being generated in MadisonAvenue in the 1950s were positive ones. In 1957, sociologist Vince Packardpublished his exposé of the advertising industry, The Hidden Persuaders.Packard accused the entire ad industry of psychologically manipulating thepublic into buying products they didnt want or need, usually via embedded orsubliminal messages in ads and images. He also suggested these techniqueswere being imported into politics, and were used to persuade voters to acceptpoliticians and policies they would otherwise have objected to. As aconspiracy theory, it convinced, especially given the Cold War paranoia of theera. People were used to the concept of the enemy within, on the alert forsubtle Communist propaganda, leery of the concept of mind control. TheHidden Persuaders became a best-seller, and has coloured attitudestowards the advertising industry – painting them as villains, out to exploit andbrainwash the public – ever since.
Recommended ReadingA sophisticated & professional industry called Indian AdvertisingIndian Advertising starts with the hawkers calling out their wares right from the days when cities and markets firstbeganShop front signagesFrom street side sellers to press adsThe first trademarksHandbills distributed separately from the products18th Century
Concrete advertising history begins with classified advertisingAds appear for the first time in print in Hickeys Bengal Gazette. Indias first newspaper (weekly).Studios mark the beginning of advertising created in India (as opposed to imported from England) Studios set up forbold type, ornate fonts, more fancy, larger adsNewspaper studios train the first generation of visualisers& illustratorsMajor advertisers: Retailers like Spencers, Army & Navy and Whiteaway& LaidlawMarketing promotions: Retailers catalogues provided early exampleAds appear in newspapers in the form of lists of the latest merchandise from EnglandPatent medicines: The first brand as we know them today were a category of advertisersHorlicks becomes the first malted milk to be patented on 5th June 1883 (No. 278967). The 1900s1905- B Dattaram& Co claims to be the oldest existing Indian agency inGirgaum in Bombay1912- ITC (then Imperial Tobacco Co. Ltd.) launches Gold Flake1920s- Enter the first foreign owned ad agencies- Gujarat Advertising and Indian Advertising set up- Expatriate agencies emerge: Alliance Advertising, Tata Publicity- LA Stronachs merges into todays Norvicson Advertising- D J Keymer gives rise to Ogilvy & Mather and Clarion1925
- LR Swami & Co, Madras1926- LA Stronach& Co (India) Pr. Ltd, Bombay starts- Agency called National set up for American rather than BritishAdvertisers- American importers hire JaganNathJaini, then advertising managerof Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore. National today is still run byJainis family- Beginning of multinational agencies- J Walter Thompson (JWT) opened to service General Motors business1928- BOMAS Ltd (Formerly DJ Keymer& Co Ltd) set up1929- J Walter Thompson Co Pr. Ltd formed Indian agencies, foreign advertising in the thirties1931- National Advertising Service Pr. Ltd. Bombay set up- Universal Publicity Co, Calcutta formed1934- VenkatraoSista opens Sista Advertising and Publicity Services as firstfull service Indian agency
1935- Indian Publicity Bureau Pr Ltd, Calcutta established1936- Krishna Publicity Co Pr. Ltd, Kanpur begins operations- Studio RatanBatra Pr. Ltd, Bombay established- Indian Broadcasting Company becomes All India Radio (AIR)1938- Jayendra Publicity, Kolhapur started1939- Levers advertising department launches Dalda - the first majorexample of a brand and a marketing campaign specifically developedfor India- The Press Syndicate Ltd, Bombay set up Indianising advertisements in the forties1940- Navanitlal& Co., Ahmedabad set up1941- Lux signs LeelaChitnis as the first Indian film actress to endorse theproduct- Hindustan Thompson Associates (HTA), the current incarnation ofJWT, coins the Balanced Nourishment concept to make Horlicksmore relevant to India
- Greens Advertising Service Agents, Bombay formed1943- Advertising & Sales Promotion Co (ASP), Calcutta established1944- Dazzal, Bombay comes into existence- Ranjit Sales & Publicity Pr. Ltd, Bombay started1945- Efficient Publicities Pr. Ltd, Madras set up- Tom & Bay (Advertising) Pr. Ltd., Poona begins operations in India1946- Eastern Psychograph Pr. Ltd., Bombay set up- Everest Advertising Pr. Ltd, Bombay established1947- Grant Advertising Inc, Bombay formed- Swami Advertising Bureau, Sholapur started1948- RC Advertising Co, Bombay set up- Phoenix Advertising Pr. Ltd, Calcutta formed Corporate advertising in the fifties
1950s- Radio Ceylon and Radio Goa become the media option1951- Vicks VapoRub: a rub for colds, causes ripples with its entryin the balm market1952- Shantilal G Shah & Co, Bombay1954- Advertising Club, Mumbai set up- Express Advertising Agency, Bombay- India Publicity Co. Pr. Ltd., Calcutta1956- Aiyars Advertising & Marketing, Bombay- Clarion Advertising Services Pr. Ltd, Calcutta1957- VividhBharati kicks off1958- Shree Advertising Agency, Bombay1959- Associated Publicity, Cuttack
Creative revolution in the sixties1960- Advertising Accessories, Trichur started- Marketing Advertising Associates, Bombay set up1961- Industrial Advertising Agency, Bombay comes into existence- BalMundkur quits BOMAS to set up Ulka the same year1962- Indias televisions first soap opera - Teesra Rasta enthrallsviewers1963- BOMAS changes names to SH Bensons- Stronachs absorbed into Norvicson- Lintas heading for uncertainty- Levers toying with giving its brands to other agencies- NargisWadia sets up Interpub- Wills Filter Tipped cigarettes launched and positioned as made foreach other, filter and tobacco match1965- Kersey Katrak sets up Mass Communication and Marketing (MCM)1966- Government persuaded to open up the broadcast media
- AyazPeerbhoy sets up Marketing and Advertising Associates (MAA)1967- First commercial appears on VividhBharati1968- NariHira sets up Creative Unit- India wins the bid for the Asian Advertising Congress1969- Sylvester daCunha left Stronachs to run ASP; later sets updaCunha Associates1970- Frank Simoes sets up Frank Simoes Associates The problematic seventies1970-1978- National Readership Studies provided relevant data onconsumers reading habits1970- Concept of commercial programming accepted by All India Radio- HasanRezavi gives the very first spot on Radio Ceylon1971- Bensons undergo change in name to Ogilvy, Benson & Mather
1972- Western Outdoor Advertising Pvt Ltd (WOAPL) introduces firstclosed circuit TV (CCT) in the country at the race course inMumbai1973- RK Swamy/BBDO established1974- MCM goes out of business- Arun Nanda &AjitBalakrishnan set up Rediffusion1975- Ravi Gupta sets up Trikaya Grey1976- Commercial Television initiated1978- First television commercial seen1979- Ogilvy, Benson & Mathers name changes to Ogilvy & Mather Glued to the television in the eighties1980- Mudra Communications Ltd set up- King-sized Virginia filter cigarette enters market with brand nameof Charms
1981- Network, associate of UTV, pioneers cable television in India1982- The biggest milestone in television was the Asiad 82 whentelevision turned to colour transmission- Bombay Dyeing becomes the first colour TV ad- 13th Asian Advertising Congress in New Delhi- Media planning gets a boost1983- Maggi Noodles launched to become an overnight success- Canco Advertising Pvt. Ltd. founded- ManoharShyam Joshis Hum Log makes commercial televisioncome alive- Mudra sponsors first commercial telecast of a major sporting eventwith the India-West Indies series1984- Hum Log, Doordarshans first soap opera in the colour era isborn- Viewers still remember the sponsor (Vicco) of Yeh Jo HaiZindagi!1985- Mudra makes Indias first telefilm, Janam1985-86- 915 new brands of products and services appearing on the Indian
Market1986- Sananda is born on July 31. The Bengali magazine stupefies Indiaby selling 75,000 copies within three hours of appearing on thenewsstands.- Mudra Communications creates Indias first folk-history TVserial Buniyaad. Shown on DD, it becomes the first of themega soaps- Price quality positioning of Nirma detergent cakes boost sales1988- AAAIs Premnarayan Award instituted1989- Advertising Club Bombay begins a biennial seminar calledAdvertising that Works- Advertising & Marketing (A&M) magazine launched Tech savvy in the nineties1990- Marks the beginning of new medium Internet- Agencies open new media shops; go virtual with websites andInternet advertising- Brand Equity (magazine) of The Economic Times is born
1991- First India-targetted satellite channel, Zee TV starts broadcast- Close on the throes of the Gulf War enters STAR (SatelliteTransmission for Asia Region)1992- Spectrum, publisher of A&M, constitutes its own award known asA&M Awards- Scribes and media planners credit The Bold And The Beautifulserial on STAR Plus channel as a soap that started the culturalinvasion1993- Indias only advertising school, MICA (Mudra Institute ofCommunications Ahmedabad), is born- Tara on Zee TV becomes Indias first female-centric soap1995- Advertising Club of Bombay calls its awards as Abby- Countrys first brand consulting firm, SABRE (Strategic Advantage forBrand Equity) begins operations1996- The ad fraternity hits big time for the first time by bagging threeawards at the 43rd International Advertising Festival, Cannes- Sun TV becomes the first regional TV channel to go live 24 hoursa day on all days of the week1997- Media boom with the growth of cable and satellite; print mediumsees an increase in titles, especially in specialised areas
- Government turns towards professional advertising in the privatesector for its VDIS campaigns- Army resorts to the services of private sector agencies- Advertising on the Internet gains popularity- Equitor Consulting becomes the only independent brand consultancycompany in the country- Several exercises in changing corporate identity- For the first time ever, Indians stand the chance of winning the $ 1-million booty being offered by Gillette as part of its Football WorldCup promo 1998- Events assume important role in marketing mix- Rise of software TV producers banking on ad industry talent- Reinventing of cinema -advertising through cinema begins1998- Lintas becomes AmmiratiPuriLintas (APL)1999- B2B site agencyfaqs.com launched on September 28, 1999- The Advertising Club Bombay announces the AdWorks Trophy In the new millennium2000- Mudra launches magindia.com - Indias first advertising and marketingGallery
- Lintas merges with Lowe Group to become Lowe Lintas and Partners(LLP)- bigideasunlimited.com - a portal offering free and fee ideas for moneylaunched by AlyquePadamsee and Sam Mathews- Game shows like KaunBanegaCrorepati become a rage; media buyingindustry is bullish on KBC- KyunkiSaasBhiKabhiBahuThi marks the return of family-oriented soap on TV- French advertising major Publicis acquires Maadhyam2001- Trikaya Grey becomes Grey Worldwide- BhartisRs 2.75-crore corporate TV commercial, where a babygirl is born in a football stadium, becomes the most expensivecampaign of the year2002- Lowe Lintas& Partners rechristened Lowe Worldwide- For the first time in the history of HTA, a new post of president iscreated. Kamal Oberoi is appointed as the first president of HTA