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  1. 1. Interactive information technology for quality management and quality assurance Juhani Anttila Academician, International Academy for Quality (IAQ) Venture Knowledgist, Quality Integration Helsinki, Finland juhani.anttila@telecon.fi , www.QualityIntegration.biz September 18, 2010 These pages are licensed under the Creative Commons 3.0 License1 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 (Mention the origin)
  2. 2. Interactive information technology for quality management and quality assurance Contents and key themes: 1. Business-integrated QM and QA 2. Information, knowledge and learning in the context of business management 3. From information technology (IT) to interactive technology (IT) 4. Examples ZEF and Dicole 5. Conclusion2 xxxx/2.9.2010/jan
  3. 3. Business management, quality management and quality assurance are based on business knowledge Successful business management is based on right business related knowledge and management skills to be used effectively and efficiently for the current and anticipated business needs. ==> Quality management (QM) is a business management issue. It equals quality of management.  Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to quality. Direction and control includes establishment of the policy and objectives, planning, control, assurance and improvement. ==> Quality assurance (QA) is a communication issue between an organization and its stakeholders.  A part of QM focused on providing confidence among an organization’s stakeholders that quality requirements will be fulfilled.3 3830/2.9.2010/jan (Ref.: ISO 9000)
  4. 4. Quality management (QM) and quality assurance (QA) - Consistent business management issues Quality management (QM) Output/Product Process management Input Product delivery Customer channel Quality assurance (QA) (**) QA communication (*) E.g. ISO 9004 for quality management guidance channel “e-Certificate” (**) Standard model ISO 9001 or tailored, and quality assurance plan / agreement4 3831/2.9.2010/jan
  5. 5. Guiding principles, core values and concepts of the QM are with high information and knowledge content The QM principles of the ISO 9000 standardization: The essence of the QM principles The fundamental truths and propositions that serve include: as the foundation for a system of belief and - Communicating and discussing behavior, and for a chain of reasoning for all - Sharing knowledge and pooling professional QM approaches in organizations experience – Customer focus - Training and learning – Leadership - Understanding – Involvement of people - Providing confidence – Process approach – System approach to management – Continual improvement – Factual approach to decision making – Mutually beneficial supplier relationships Also the performance excellence models, e.g. the Malcolm Baldrige model and EFQM model, are based on similar fundamental core values and concepts as the ISO 9000 standards5 3832/2.9.2010/jan (Ref.: ISO 9000)
  6. 6. Good management of an organization is particularly related to managing organizational information / knowledge Practically Quality Management equals with good management of organizational information and knowledge: Procedure document, standard, operational model, recorded operation, factual knowledge, etc. (explicit issue) Conscious Reality of the issue in the minds of the individuals and in the practical operations (implicit / tacit contents of the issue) Sub-conscious – This part is the most significant regarding to the actions for the issue realization. – The contents may change due to time and situation and depending on influences and learning. A serious problem in existing QM approaches is that explicit information, especially documentation and records,6 is overly emphasized and tacit (Ref.: http://qualityintegration.biz/TacitKnowledge.html ) knowledge almost ignored. 2645/9.9.2010/jan
  7. 7. Empirical fact-based information and inherent knowledge are needed for successful management Wisdom - myths - values Knowledge Intervention - explicit records Reflecting and deciding - tacit knowledge Plan / Act (know-how, competence) Information ”Ba” Analysing You get what A P you measure Data C D Environments Measuring ... Facts Effects7 The performance reality of the company business processes 0609/25.3.2008/jan
  8. 8. “Ba” as a shared context in motion Knowledge Individual Individual context context Shared context Ba: (originating+dialoguing+systemizing+exercizing) Ba = A shared space for emerging relationships8 2690/14.2.2006/jan (Ref.: Nonaka)
  9. 9. Enhancing and regenerating business knowledge through training learning Continuous organizational and personal learning are prerequisites for the quality of management and for a sustainable business success in organizations. Investments in training by traditional or e-learning means have not proved very effective. - Only basic skills may be learned through traditional training and education means. - Responsible business people are very busy and they have not enough time to attend comprehensive training and education programs and they are not very interested to use e- learning systems. On-the-job learning offers a cost-effective way to link learning to the organizational needs and priorities. Effective learning requires application of new learning theories like connectivity, interactivity, and sharing knowledge that are based on collaboration.9 3833/2.9.2010/jan
  10. 10. Informal learning – The other 80% "The best learning ”Cappuccino U is a metaphor for a new approach to learning based on happens in real life community, networking, self-study, distance education, and with real problems technology. The Third Place, the coffee shop where people gather to work and chat, we can transpose it to libraries, hotels, and other and real people and locations (including our homes) where we might work and meet with not in classrooms." other people, or may be alone in a crowd – or just alone.” (*) Charles Handy ”3rd place hosts the regular, voluntary, informal, and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals beyond the realms of home and10 work.” (**) 3423/17.1.2008/jan (*) Jay Cross: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NlETGJ0mnno (**) Ray Oldenburg
  11. 11. The knowledge-conversion process: Tacit  Explicit Knowledge conversion process, SECI: t Tac Taci it Knowledge Explicit Exp it Tac Conscious licit Socialization Externalization Sub-conscious S E Tacit I C Tacit Expl Internalization Combination t ici it Exp plic11 licit Ex 3528/14.5.2009/jan (Ref.: Nonaka - SECI, Shiba)
  12. 12. An example: Traditional IT and communications in / from / to a grouped business community  E-Mailing Business environment - good for in one-to-one Interested parties communication Stakeholders - ineffective in group communication  Intranet domain - difficult to use and maintain - ineffective in use  Homepage in the Internet The - passive, stagnant Community  Phone, SMS - good for acute one-to-one communication - disturbing, expensive  Physical meetings - necessary for networking - expensive, time consuming - difficult to arrange  Publications -difficult to know what and where, passive, expensive What are the needs for enhancing effectiveness and transparency?12 IT Systems 3808/6.9.2010/jan
  13. 13. New IT* supported information/knowledge-intensive business operations New integrated and effective solutions: • Portal solutions, integrated information technology solutions (sustaining technology): TOP DOWN: – Complicated FOCUS ON – Difficult to use and maintain TECHNOLOGY – Expensive • Interactive technology solutions: Collaborative groupwork and social networking infrastructures, Web 2.0, Enterprise 2.0, RTE - Real Time Ecosystem (disruptive technology): – Simple BOTTOM UP: – Easy to use FOCUS ON PEOPLE – cheap, or free of charge Human inside (open source)13 3514/20.1.2010/jan (*) IT = Interactive Technology
  14. 14. Cloud computing and SaaS Cloud computing is an Internet-based provision of shared resources, software and information provided to computers and other devices on-demand, “computing on tap”. You pay for what you consume. SaaS (software as a service) means that a complete software application is offered as a service, on-demand. A single instance of the software runs on the provider’s infrastructure and serves multiple client organizations. Business management applications of the cloud computing are very hot isses right now world-widely.14 3816/2.1.2010 /jan
  15. 15. Practical examples Practical examples are considered here from two areas of business activities that are interesting from the professional quality approaches’ point of view: o Information and knowledge acquisitions by using interactive surveys technology  ZEF o Collaborative cooperation for knowledge-working by using Web 2.0 social media technology  Dicole There are already many service providers and commercial products available for these applications. Here described ZEF and Dicole may at least be used as good experienced benchmarks.15 3834/2.9.2010/jan
  16. 16. Example: ZEF evaluation methodology ZEF is an advanced interactive evaluation methodology and tool that is originated from strong core competences of evaluation technique and human interface technology. Origin: • ZEF methodology was developed in Finland at Oulu University as Z-scored Electronic Feedback (= ZEF) tool. Effectiveness of its two dimensional evaluation structure was validated by University of Lapland. • Commercial ZEF solution is a product of Oulu based company ZEF Solutions Inc. Usage: • ZEF is an all-purpose tool that is suitable for all kinds of organizations. • ZEF evaluation services are web-based solutions operating as SaaS (Software as a Service). With ZEF on-line tool one may collect, compare and evaluate data effectively and efficiently from even a big group of people. • ZEF tool has been used by a lot of organizations for business information and hundreds thousands of ordinary citizens in several survey-cases of general societal interest.16 3336/.20.3.2008/jan (Ref.: http://zefsolutions.com/www/english , http://qiblog.blogspot.com/2007/06/carry-out-appropriate-surveys.html )
  17. 17. ZEF as a communication media An advanced questioning methodology is more than only collecting information. It functions as a media between specialists and other parties. By means of an effective surveying tool a specialist can communicate his/her area of expertise that might be difficult to others to understand, and receive valuable information as a feedback. The tacit knowledge of different parties becomes visible (ref. the SECI process). Within organizational environments, this comes into question when a professional expertise is used in communication with the management, personnel, suppliers, customers, and other stakeholders.17 3835/2.9.2010 /jan
  18. 18. Performance evaluation for excellence through a multi-faceted and consistent approach Overall business performance (e.g. 3-In-1 criteria) 2. Strategic 5. Human management resource focus 7. Business 1. Leadership results 3. Customer and 6. Process market focus management 4. Measurement, analysis,and knowledge management Leadership performance Customer satisfaction Information security Social responsibility Market communication Product Innovations performance IT Governance Board operations Strategic performance Process performance Corporate security People satisfaction Project performance Risk management 360 feedback Supplier performance Networking capability OHS assessment Quality Assurance:18 ISO 9001, AQAP 3325/26.3.2008/jan Environmental management
  19. 19. Results of ZEF evaluations19 3334/.20.8.2007/jan
  20. 20. Statistical inferences from ZEF evaluations Detailed business information is obtained from ZEF raw data through statistical treatments. All individual respondent answers to the query items in the ZEF evaluations are recorded as separate data pieces that are then used for statistical analyses as needed:  The basic ZEF report shows the means and standard deviations of all respondents’ answers per query items in one or two dimensions as needed.  The result data may be normalized according Z-scored transformation that is useful to emphasize relative differences among query items.  Answers from respondents may be grouped in arbitrary way or presented as individual answers.  Results of different ZEF evaluations, e.g. of different points in time, may be compared by using ZEF’s “comparison engine” function.  Raw data of evaluations may be presented in the formats of Excel (.xls) or "Concurrent Versioning System" (.cvs) in order to facilitate the use of more sophisticated statistical tools, e.g. SPSS, for data analyses. ZEF tool’s interactive user-interface enhances user’s deliberation when he/she is responding to the query items and also enhances understanding the relative differences among query items. That makes answering more motivated and justified.20 3471/.20.3.2008/jan
  21. 21. Results of ZEF evaluations (“3-in-1”) Assessesment scheme “3in1”: EFQM, Malcom Baldrige and ISO9000 combined in one scheme Category 4: Measurement, analysis, and knowledge management 1. We follow up fulfilment of targets and development of performance on company and process levels with adequate measures and indicators. 2. We follow up effectiveness and efficiency of our business processes. 3. We have easily available analyzed and current information on performance of our company and its development against targets and other references. 4. Our real-time internal accounting operates in advance. 5. Our employees measure, analyze and evaluate quality of their own work in order to make decisions and initiate improvement actions for their work in line with our21 company-wide plans. … … Etc. other assessment items 3475/20.3.2008/jan
  22. 22. Example: Knowledge Work Environment, KWE (Dicole) Dicole (Discover-Collaborate-Learn) product from Helsinki, Finland based company Dicole Ltd ( www.dicole.com ):  SAAS (Software as a Service) from Dicole’s server in trusted IT hosting environments in Helsinki - No software installation needed for a particular XXX application  Technical support from Dicole as the need arises  Connected via https://xxx.dicole.net by the Internet secure protocol  Interactive social technology (Web 2.0) based on open software  Operated directly by ourselves (not by secretaries or IT people)22 3817/16.3.2010/jan
  23. 23. Collaborative knowledge work environment, “KWE”, for a business community (Web 2.0) Community-members’ information and profiles (Net-working) Common shared knowledge-base accumulated and updated by the community-members (Wiki) Knowledge feeds from community-members findings, observations, and reflection, and comments (Blog) Published presentations etc. (Media)  Additional features or possibilities:  Links to: • Sub-groups • Other tools (calendar, to-do list, diary, Skype, • Tagging virtual meeting room, etc.) • Discussion forums • Social utilites • Aggregators (RSS feeding) • Legacy IT systems of the organization • Mashups • Administration of the IT environment23 • Web pages and documents 3770/15.1.2010/jan
  24. 24. New knowledge creation and distribution by the social media tools Sharing information (Blogs) Participants Collecting knowledge assets (Wiki) New knowledge artefacts collaborate for creating new knowledge Reflecting and contributing (Blogs) Feeding information (Aggregators)24 3207/2.9.2010/jan
  25. 25. KWE user-interface Icons to individual tool-windows Other tools, e.g. aggregator, and Wiki administration On-line authorized members Blogs25 3819/21.2.2010/jan https://verkko.dicole.net
  26. 26. Other business areas for the use of KWE Typical cases where the KWE approach has proved useful are cases where participating people are operating in networks and work is strongly knowledge-intensive:  Corporate-internal expert groups • E.g. product designers, sales people, human resource people, quality managers, and maintenance people  Project groups  Process teams  Organizations supplier or customer networks  Benchmarking clubs of different organizations  Collaborating business-clusters  Networked SMEs • E.g. small cooperating consulting or expert companies  Educational institutes supporting learning of networked business26 3820/21.2.2010/jan
  27. 27. Conclusion A good business management (quality management, QM) may be summarized with a triple PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) approach that includes: 1. Control to achieve required results 2. Continual performance improvement (Kaizen) 3. Breakthrough change management Although different managerial practices are used in the P, D, C, and A steps they all extensively encompass information and knowledge aspects: – Control and continual improvement emphasize factual data and rational actions although also certain managerial and collaborative knowledge are needed. – Breakthrough transformations predominantly require new knowledge, learning and creative actions. Quality assurance (QA) consists essentially of communications between an organization and its stakeholders based on both explicit and tacit knowledge. For both QM and QA, we have unlimited and still much not-yet-invented possibilities to be attained by utilizing new disruptive information acquisition and social media technologies. In this development we are still in a beginning stage.27 3836/2.9.2010/jan
  28. 28. Juhani Anttila, Independent Expert Independent expert, Venture Knowledgist • Expertise of more than 40 years in the field of quality • 35 years at different quality related positions at Telecom Finland and Sonera Corporation • Several decades’ involvement with international and national standardization of quality, reliability, information security and telecommunications • Many years Assembly Representative and Vice President of the European Organization for Quality (EOQ) • A founder and developer of the Finnish National Quality Award, Developer and assessor of the European Quality Award • International Academician for Quality (Member of the International Academy for Quality) • Honorary Member of the Finnish Society for Quality • Board member or chairman in some companies • Expert adviser in several organizations in quality management, dependability management, information security management, crisis management and social media • Lecturer in some universities • Expert in projects in some developing countries • Contributing by writings, lectures, and speeches globally on five continents28 3678x/3.9.2010/jan (Ref.: http://www.qualityintegration.biz/contacts.html )