World of insects

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World of insects

  1. 1. World of InsectsWorld of InsectsCharacteristics, Orders, andCharacteristics, Orders, andCollectingCollecting
  2. 2. What You Should KnowWhat You Should KnowAbout Insects …About Insects …
  3. 3. Taxonomy• Kingdom – Animalia• Phylum – Arthropoda•Class - Insecta
  4. 4. Insects Are ArthropodsInsects Are Arthropods• Insects are the largest group ofArthropods• Jointed appendages (bendable)• Segmented bodies• Exoskeleton of Chitin that mustbe molted to grow• Related to spiders, ticks,scorpions, millipedes, crustaceans
  5. 5. MAIN CHARACTERISTICSMAIN CHARACTERISTICS• Three body regions– head, thorax, and abdomen• One pair antenna (head)• Six legs or 3 pairs (thorax)• One-two pairs of wings (thorax)
  6. 6. Count the Legs!Count the Legs!There are ALWAYS SIXSIX legs, and they areattached to the THORAXTHORAX
  7. 7. AntennaAntenna• One Pair on head• Jointed• Sensory (smell)• Called “feelers”• Filiform mostcommon shape(segments = size)• May be modifiedFILIFORM
  8. 8. Antenna Modifications
  9. 9. Wings or No WingsWings or No Wings• Most adults have 2pairs• Called forewings andhindwings• Some insects arewingless (silverfish,fleas, some termitesand ants)
  10. 10. More on WingsMore on WingsA network of Veins strengthens wingsMEMBRANEOUS (clear) WINGSMEMBRANEOUS (clear) WINGS
  11. 11. Some Wings Are CoveredWith Powdery ScalesBUTTERFLIES & MOTHSBUTTERFLIES & MOTHS
  12. 12. Wings May Be ModifiedWings May Be Modified• Order Diptera(flies)• 2ndpair of wingsmodified intoHALTERES• Used forbalance• Makes flieshard to catch!
  13. 13. Beetle WingsBeetle Wings• Hard Forewing calledElytra• Meet in straight linedown the abdomen• Membranoushindwings foldedunderneath (flight)ELYTRA
  14. 14. CIRCLECIRCLE THE INSECTSTHE INSECTS
  15. 15. INSECT ORDERSINSECT ORDERSINSECTS WITH WINGSINSECTS WITH WINGS
  16. 16. Why Can’t I Call All of ThemWhy Can’t I Call All of ThemBugs?Bugs?• EVERY BUGEVERY BUG is aninsect, but NOT ALLNOT ALLINSECTSINSECTS are bugs!• True BUGS are in theOrder HEMIPTERAHEMIPTERA• Posterior thorax isPosterior thorax istriangulartriangular; called; calledSCUTELLUMSCUTELLUM• Last 3Last 3rdrdof wing CLEARof wing CLEAR
  17. 17. Which of these are BUGS?Which of these are BUGS?ALLALL
  18. 18. More HemipteransAssassin BugAssassin BugGiant WaterGiant WaterBugBug Leaf HopperLeaf HopperWater BoatmanWater Boatman
  19. 19. ColeopteraColeoptera• Called beetlesbeetles• Toughexoskeletonexoskeleton• Forewingscalled ElytraElytra•Fly withmembranoushindwings•Larva calledgrubsRhinoceros beetleRhinoceros beetleCucumber beetleCucumber beetleLadybird beetleLadybird beetle
  20. 20. Ephemeroptera• Called MayfliesMayflies• Juveniles areaquaticaquatic; called naiadsnaiads• Adults found nearAdults found nearwater &water & don’t feeddon’t feed• Adults reproduce &Adults reproduce &die in 24 hoursdie in 24 hours• SoftSoft bodies with 2bodies with 2longlong CeriCeri (tail fibers)(tail fibers)ADULTNAIAD
  21. 21. Diptera• Containsmosquitoesmosquitoes &fliesflies• One pairOne pairfunctional wings• Club-shapedhaltereshalteres forbalance• Bodies oftenhairyhairyGreen Bottle flyGreen Bottle fly Hover FlyHover FlyFruit Fly Aedes MosquitoAedes Mosquito
  22. 22. Dermaptera• Called earwigsearwigs• Long, flatflat bodies• ForcepsForceps (pincers)on end of abdomen• Short, hardShort, hardforewingsforewings(membranous wingsfolded underneath• Large jaws(mandiblesmandibles) on headEARWIG EATINGEARWIG EATINGCATERPILLARCATERPILLARPINCERS
  23. 23. Orthoptera• Grasshoppers, locusts,Grasshoppers, locusts,crickets, katydidscrickets, katydids• Very longlong bodies• Rear legs modified forjumpingjumping• Females with egglaying tube (ovipositoron end of abdomen)• Often communicatewith chirping sounds
  24. 24. Lepidoptera• Moths, butterflies, &Moths, butterflies, &skippersskippers• SiphoningSiphoning mouthpartscoiled under head• Powdery scalesPowdery scales on wings• Butterflies fold wingsflatflat above body at rest• MothsMoths are night activenight active• Important plantpollinators
  25. 25. Neuroptera• LacewingsLacewings• Net veinedNet veined wings• Small, delicateinsects• Long antennaLong antenna• Predators onother insects• May feed onnectar
  26. 26. Thysanoptera• ThripsThrips• Two pairs of fringed wingsfringed wings• Feed on plant sapplant sap
  27. 27. Isoptera• TermitesTermites• Live in coloniescolonies• Feed on woodwood• Soft bodiesSoft bodies &short antenna• CastesCastes –workers,soldiers, kings,and queen
  28. 28. Mecoptera• Scorpion fliesScorpion flies• Last abdominalabdominalsegments curvedsegments curved likescorpion• Two pairs of narrownarrowwingswings• Head elongated intoa beak (rostrum)beak (rostrum)• LongLong antenna
  29. 29. Homoptera• Cicadas, leafCicadas, leafhoppers, winglesshoppers, winglessaphidsaphids• If wings present,held roof likeroof likeover body &membranousmembranous• Piercing-suckingPiercing-suckingmouthpartsAphidsCicadaLeafhopper
  30. 30. Odonata• Dragonflies &Dragonflies &damselfliesdamselflies• DragonfliesDragonflies holdclear wings spreadperpendicularperpendicular tobody at rest• DamselfliesDamselflies holdclear wings togethertogetherover abdomenover abdomen
  31. 31. Plecoptera• StonefliesStoneflies• Aquatic nymphsAquatic nymphs• Aerial adultsadults areshort livedshort lived• Make drummingdrummingsoundsound to findmates
  32. 32. Hymenoptera• Bees, ants,Bees, ants,waspswasps• Narrow waiNarrow waistconnects thorax& abdomen• Abdomen curvedAbdomen curveddownward• May have stingerstingeron end ofabdomenCarpenter beeRedantYellow jacket
  33. 33. INSECT ORDERSINSECT ORDERSWINGLESS INSECTSWINGLESS INSECTS
  34. 34. ThysanuraThysanura• Called Silverfish• Found around houses oroutside under stonesor wood• Fast runners• Damage books• Secretive and activeat night.• Flat, long bodies• Long antennae• Three, long, tail likeappendages
  35. 35. SiphonapteraSiphonaptera• FleasFleas• EctoparasitesEctoparasites• Bodies laterallycompressed• Enlarged hindhindjumping legsjumping legs• Very shortantenna
  36. 36. Collembola• Called springtailsspringtails• Small & softbodied• FurculaFurcula (jumpingmechanism) onabdomen• Furcula folds underfolds underthe bodythe body at rest• Found in decayingdecayingplant materialplant material
  37. 37. Anoplura• Sucking liceSucking lice• ParasitesParasites ofmammals• Very smallsmall• HeadHead and bodybodylicelice areexamples• Attracted tochildren’s finehair• Carry disease
  38. 38. Mallophaga• Biting liceBiting lice• Externalparasites on birdsbirds& mammals& mammals• Broad headBroad head &flattened body• Feed on deadskin, feathers,and fur
  39. 39. MetamorphosisMetamorphosisCHANGE IN FORM FROM EGG TO ADULTCHANGE IN FORM FROM EGG TO ADULT
  40. 40. IncompleteINCOMPLETEINCOMPLETEMETAMORPHOUSMETAMORPHOUSInsects changeshape gradually!
  41. 41. CompleteCompleteMetamorphosisMetamorphosisFour stages thatall look different
  42. 42. Amorphic InsectsAmorphic InsectsSpringtailsSpringtailsSilverfishSilverfish
  43. 43. Insects withInsects with CompleteCompleteMetamorphosisMetamorphosis• ColeopteraColeoptera (beetles)• HymenopteraHymenoptera (bees,ants, wasps)• DipteraDiptera (flies)LepidopteraLepidoptera(butterflies)EGGEGG  LARVALARVA  PUPAPUPA  ADULTADULT
  44. 44. Insects withInsects with IncompleteIncompleteMetamorphosisMetamorphosis• SiphonapteraSiphonaptera (fleas)• IsopteraIsoptera (termites)• OrthopteraOrthoptera(grasshoppers &crickets)• HemipteraHemiptera (true bugs)• HomopteraHomoptera (cicadas &hoppers)EGGEGG  NYMPHNYMPH  ADULTADULTWings NOTfullydeveloped

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