Flowers

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Flowers

  1. 1. Flowers
  2. 2. Floral Parts A flower contains four sets of parts arranged in whorls on the receptacle the swollen tip of the pedicel Accessory parts1. Sepal (calyx) - protects the inner part of flower - prevents dessication2. petal (corolla) - most noticeable portion - different colors Perianth – calyx and corolla
  3. 3. Essential Parts: 1. Stamen (androecium) - male gametophyte a. pollen b. anther c. filament 2. Carpel (gynoecium) - female reproductive leaf and ovule bearing structure of a flower a. ovary - swollen basal part b. stigma c. style (tube like structure)
  4. 4. Modified stem: - receptacle or peduncle (floral stalk)
  5. 5. Floral Variations:1. Parts present a. Complete - flowers with four modified leaves (petal, sepal, stamen and carpel b. Incomplete - lacks any of the modified leaves Rue anemone with 5-10 sepals but no petals
  6. 6. 2. Sexuality a. Perfect - bisexual or hermaproditic - carpel and stamen - animal pollinated b. Imperfect - unisexual - carpel or stamen - wind pollinated
  7. 7. Two types of imperfect flower:1. pistillate – female flower2. staminate – male flower
  8. 8. As to distribution of imperfect flowers plants can be:a. Monoecious - plant with both imperfect flowers
  9. 9. b. Dioecious - imperfect flowers are borne in separate plants
  10. 10. c. Polygamous - perfect and imperfect flowers are found in the same plant
  11. 11. 3. Number of flower parts a. Dicotyledonous - flower parts in 4’s and 5’s or divisible by 4 or 5 ex. magnolia b. Monocotyledonous - flower parts are in 3’s or divisible by 3’s Patersonia
  12. 12. 4. Nature of flowers a. Regular - modified leaves are of the same size and shape b. Irregular - modified leaves are different in size and shape
  13. 13. Irregular Flowers:1. Papilionaceous a. standard/banner - largest outermost showy petal b. wings or alae - two lateral petals c. keel or carina - innermost petals ex. blue pea Broom (Cytisus scoparius)
  14. 14. 2. Caesalpinaceous - flower consists of 5 petals a. banner - smallest innermost petal b. 2 wings c. 2 keels same size and shape ex. caballero
  15. 15. 3. Bilabiate (2- lipped) - petals are partially united -partially united petals form the upper and lower lips ex. sky flower
  16. 16. 4. Orchidaceous - flower has 3 petals labellum – petal which is entirely different in size and shape
  17. 17. 5.Symmetry of flowers a. Actinomorphic - radial symmetry - flowers can be divided into 2 equal halves along any plane b. Zygomorphic - bilateral symmetry - divided into 2 equal halves only by a medial cut through the central axis
  18. 18. 6. Position of the ovary a. Superior ovary - petals and sepals ovary inserted below the ovary - hypogynous b. Inferior ovary - petals and sepals inserted above the ovary - epigynous
  19. 19. 7. Placentation placenta - tissue where ovules are attached inside the ovary placentation - arrangement of placenta in the ovary locule - chamber
  20. 20. a. axile placentationb. parietal placentationc. free centrald. basal placentation
  21. 21. Inflorescence or Anthotaxy- Flower clusters- differ in: a. number of flowers present b. sequence of floral maturity c. length of the pedicel d. number and arrangement of peduncles
  22. 22. Kinds of Inflorescence:1. Raceme - unbranched main axis or peduncle - florets mature all at the same time - pedicels are of the same length ex. gladiola, corrales pedicel
  23. 23. 2. Panicle - branched main axis or peduncle - florets mature at the same time ex. rice, cadena de amorBranched peduncle
  24. 24. 3. Spike - elongated axis - sessile (florets without pedicel) ex.Seifritz’s flower
  25. 25. 4. Ament or catkin - special type of spike - elongated axis hanging or drooping - flowers are usually unisexual ex. buntot pusa
  26. 26. 5. Spadix - fleshy spike with both male and female flowers - petalloid bract (spathe) ex. anthurium, gabi pongapong
  27. 27. Amorphophallus titanumThe world’s largest flower- spadix is 46 inchestall! A rare plant of theIndonesia rain forest
  28. 28. 6. Cyme - inflorescence is more or less flat or convex - pedicels of younger flowers at the margin are longer than the older flowers at the center ex. Shanghai beauty Younger flowers santan, mayana
  29. 29. 7. Corymb - similar with chyme - pedicels of younger flower shorter (center) - pedicels of older flower longer (margin or base) ex. caballero
  30. 30. 8. Umbel - axis is shorter Simple umbel - pedicillate flowers radiated from the rounded apex of the axis ex. Japanese bamboo Compound umbel
  31. 31. 9. Head or capitate - flowers are sessile (no pedicel) - arrangement of flowers similar to umbel - flowers may be of 2 kinds: 1. disc flower - located at the center 2. ray flower - located at the margin ex. sunflower, cosmos
  32. 32. 10. Fascicle - closed cluster or small bundle of pedicelled or sessile flowers on one side of the stem ex. abaca, false birds of paradise

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