Biome presentation


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Biome presentation

  1. 1. W orld B iom esF ollow along with your note packet toadd/m odify any notes you took as youread the chapter.
  2. 2. Found nearequator…little variationin temperatures. Nodistinct seasonalchanges.Earths most complex landbiome
  3. 3. TropicalRainforestAbiotic factors high biodiversity andbiomass both hot and moist; ideal for bacteria and othermicroorganisms; theyquickly decompose matteron the forest floor allowingnutrients to be recycled. <1 cm of topsoil About 100 in/yr of rainfall
  4. 4. Bougainvillea Sunlight is a major limiting factor Plants grow in layers (canopyreceives most light) Shallow, wide roots since soil is sothin and poor in nutrients Little sun reaches the floorTropical RainforestPlant adaptationsBangul Bamboo
  5. 5.  Many symbioticrelationships Live in differentlevels of canopyWagler’s pit viperSilvery GibbonSlender Loris animals arespecialists and requirespecial habitatcomponents to surviveCamouflage is common
  6. 6. Threats to the TropicalRainforest Humans strip the rainforestsfor uses including logging andcattle ranching. In addition to the plants andanimals that are displaced bythis destruction, entirecivilizations of people are alsowithout a home. You can help by promotingsustainable use of therainforests’ products
  7. 7. Temperate Deciduous ForestsLocation: found in temperate zone(about 480North lat) Much of the human population lives in this biome
  8. 8.  Characterized by anabundance of deciduous(leaf bearing) treesCharacterized by 4 seasons Soils: Deep soil layers,rich in nutrients Precipitation: 30–100 in/yrin all forms (snow, rain,hail, fog, etc.)Temperate Deciduous ForestsAbiotic Factors
  9. 9. More diversity in the deciduous forest vs.the coniferous forest due to increasedsunlight.Trees adapt to varied climate bybecoming dormant in winterWhite BirchBirch FernGeulder RoseTemperate Deciduous forestPlant adaptationsDeciduous forests grow in layersMore sunlight reaches the groundcompared to a rainforest so youwill find more ground dwellingplants.
  10. 10.  Lose WinterCoat Adapt to manyseasons Eat fromdifferent layersof the forestBald EagleFat DormouseLeast Weasel DeciduousForestAnimal Adaptations
  11. 11. Threats to Temperate DeciduousForests forests arecleared toprovide housingfor humans.Careful use of theresource canprovide arenewablesystem if wedon’t take toomuch habitataway.
  12. 12. Taigaaka Northern ConiferousForest or Boreal ForestLocation: Foundonly in NorthernHemisphere
  13. 13. TaigaAbiotic factors Winters are longand cold Averages 100 in/yrprecipitation—mostly snow Soil poor innutrients and veryacidic Growing season isvery short
  14. 14. Balsam Fir Coniferous (needle-bearing) treesare abundant Roots long to anchor trees Needles long, thin and waxy Low sunlight and poor soil keepsplants from growing on forest floor Plant adaptations
  15. 15. Moose Adapt for cold winters Burrow, hibernate, warmcoat, insulation, etc. Great Grey OwlAnimalAdaptations ofthe Taiga
  16. 16. Threats to the TaigaMining operations canirreparably damagethis fragileecosystem.Pollution left behindcan also put animalsand plants at risk.
  17. 17. Savannas (TropicalGrasslands)Contain the greatest number of grazing animals on Earth.Location: Found in the tropics…near equatorAmount of precipitation supports tall grasses but only occasionaltrees.The word savanna stems from an Amerind term for plains
  18. 18. Tropical SavannaAbiotic FactorsRainy and dry season25-150 in/yr precipitationFire plays a large role in this ecosystem
  19. 19. WhistlingThornUmbrella Thorn AcaciaTropical SavannaPlantAdaptations Grows in Tufts Resistance to Drought Many plants have thorns andsharp leaves to protectagainst predation. PawsBaobab
  20. 20. Adapt for short rainyseason—migrate asnecessaryLimited food leads tovertical feedingReproduce during rainyseason—ensures moreyoung survive BaboonTropical SavannaAnimal Adaptations
  21. 21. Threats to the TropicalSavanna Invasive species Changes in fire management Because of their low elevation,some savannas are threatenedby minor rises in sea levelassociated with global climatechangeKoalaElephant
  22. 22. SteppeDry, cold, grasslandsLocation: Found inRussia and theUkraine
  23. 23. Steppe Abiotic<50 in/year precipitationMountains often play a rolein climatecharacteristics
  24. 24.  most abundant are plants called Bunch grasses,fine bladed grasses that grow in clumps topreserve waterTumbleweedSweet VernalPlant adaptations of the Steppe
  25. 25.  Many migrate, hibernate or burrowduring extremes in temp andprecipitation of Steppe AnimalsMongolian GerbilSaiga AntelopeGazelle herd
  26. 26. Threats to the Steppe Overgrazing…nomadic tribeshave started to spend more timein one location, Infrastructure development(roads, buildings, etc) Unmanaged hunting and poachingis destroying herds of animalsCorsac foxLynxMilk vetch
  27. 27. Prairie and Steppe:Grassland areas 50-75 cm/yr Characteristic high Winds
  28. 28. Sod-forming grasses thatwon’t dry out or blowaway in wind.Fleabane GrassPrairie Plant Adaptations
  29. 29. Many adaptations to surviveextremesPrairie dogBobcat Animal AdaptationsGeoffrey’s cat
  30. 30. Grasslands
  31. 31. ChaparralLocation: Primarily incoastal areas withMediterraneanclimates. About 300N and S of theequator.
  32. 32. Chaparral—Abiotic Factors Climate: hot, drysummers, mild, wetwinters. Slightvariations in seasonaltemperatures…NICE!California ChaparralMediterranean Chaparral
  33. 33. Chaparral—PlantAdaptationsMostly low-lying shrubsand small trees.Many plants have leatheryleaves to resist waterlossMany plant species haveoils in leaves to helpthem resist fire…the firewill take out “weaker”plants that don’t belong.Blue OakFairy Duster
  34. 34. Chaparral—AnimalAdaptationsCamouflage—to avoidpredationMany animals will changetheir diet as the seasonchanges.PumaAardwolf
  35. 35. Threats to the ChaparralHuman development—very desirable climatefor humans to live.Grey FoxKing ProteaWild Goat
  36. 36. DesertEcosystems Location:Dependingon type ofdesert, youwill findthem invariouslocations.
  37. 37. DesertAbioticfactors <10 in/yr ofrain Little to notopsoil due tohigh winds. Minerals notdeep in soil. Too dry fordecay there are many types ofdeserts, they all share onecharacteristic: They are thedriest places on Earth!
  38. 38. Joshua Tree PlantAdaptations: Spines Succulents Thick, waxy cuticle Shallow, broadrootsBarrel Cactus Ocotollio
  39. 39. Desert Animal Adaptations: Get water from food Thick outer coat Burrow during day Large ears Smaller animals =less surface area CatArmadillo Lizard
  40. 40. Threats to the DesertResidential developmentOff road recreationalactivities destroy habitatfor plants and animals.Some plants are removed bycollectors, endangering thepopulation.Sonoran DesertDry Desert
  41. 41. ofthe ArcticCircle
  42. 42. Tundra Abiotic Factors <25 in/year Temp rarely higher than 100C Permafrost layer Short growing season
  43. 43. Tundra Plant AdaptationsGrowing close to the groundHaving shallow roots to absorb thelimited water resources.Trees grow less than 1 m high!cottongrassReindeer lichen
  44. 44. PerennialsWoodyshrubs of Tundra Plants
  45. 45. Many visitors, migrationFew predatorsLittle CompetitionSmall earsInsulation, thickcoatArctic foxsnowy owlGrizzly BearTundra AnimalAdaptations
  46. 46. Threats to the TundraOne of themostfragilebiomes onthe planetThe tundra isslow torecover fromdamage.Oil drillingisproposedin Alaskaand otherTufted SaxifragePolar Bear
  47. 47. Freshwater Ecosystems• Salinity <0.5 ppt.• Lake are the deepest of fresh water systems• Lakes are fed by underground aquifer or stream• Ponds are fed by rainfall and may be seasonal
  48. 48. Ponds• Sun can reach bottom• Fed by rainfall• May be seasonal• Algae and plantsthroughoutMicroscopic Animalsand Algae
  49. 49. Lakes and ponds—Abiotic FactorsLittoralzone:nutrient richarea foundclose to shoreBenthiczone:bottom of thelake where nosunlight
  50. 50. • Plants are floatingalgae and plantsalong shoreline• Animals live in ornear waterLakes and ponds:Plants andAnimalsAdaptations
  51. 51. Threats to lakes and pondsAll watersystemsare beingpollutedanddegradedby
  52. 52. Marsh Animal/planthomes Carbon“sink” Waterrechargeareas,removingpollutantsTypes: Brackish andfreshwater
  53. 53. Marsh—Plantadaptations• Very shallow withland occasionallyexposed• Saturated soil• Low oxygen in waterand soil• Emergent plants
  54. 54. Swamp/BogsLocation: Found on flat, poorlydrained land, often near streams
  55. 55. Swamps/Bogs AbioticfactorsLand soaked because of poor drainageDecay is slow - Soil is acidicSwampsLarge trees/shrubsAdapted to muddy soilsBogs - sphagnummoss isdominant
  56. 56. Threats to WetlandsPrevious backfillingand clearing forfarmland ordevelopment hasbeen a concern.www.kathimitchell.com
  57. 57. RiversAt headwaters,usually coldand highlyoxygenated.As it flows, itwill broadenout, warm upand thiscompletelychanges the
  58. 58. River: Plant and AnimalAdaptationsWill vary basedon where inthe river theyare…at theheadwaters,organismsneed to hangon!
  59. 59. Threats to RiversIndustry useswater todispose ofwaste productsRunoff fromhomes andother placescauseschanges inDams alter theflow of
  60. 60. Estuaries• Fresh and salt watermeet
  61. 61. Plant and Animal Adaptations ofEstuariesVery productivebiome becauseit receives lotsof light andnutrientsOften used asnursery & www.visualparadox.comManateeandgoose
  62. 62. Threats to Estuaries Many ports arefound on estuaries—pollution Human
  63. 63. Coral Reefs• Close to equator• Consistent water temperature• Shallow water• Low in Nutrients
  64. 64. • Breeding area formany fish adaptations ofthe Coral Reef
  65. 65. Threats to the Coral ReefsTemperature is important,too hot or too cold andthe animals can’t livethere to create limestoneHuman intrusion (scuba diving)is damaging if youtouch/step on the reefPollution is also a
  66. 66. Oceans
  67. 67. Ocean Abiotic factorsOpen ocean is one ofthe least productiveareas on earth, toolittle sunlight tosupport plantgrowthCovers nearly¾ of theEarth’ssurface.
  68. 68. Plants are micro and macroscopicHave floating plants (kelp shown here)Ocean Plant adaptations
  69. 69. Ocean Animal AdaptationsZooplankton—sea’s smallestherbivoresDeep ocean animalsfeed on detritus—floating debris in thewater column. fish
  70. 70. Threats tothe OceansWhile theoceans arevast, theyarebecomingmorepollutedOverfishing andsome fishingmethods aredestroyingfishinggrounds.
  71. 71. Polar EcosystemsCan beconsideredmarineecosystemssince the baseof food chain
  72. 72. Arctic vs. AntarcticArcticRelativelyshallow, lotsof nutrientsfor largevariety ofanimals infood web,People, sealsand polar nmml.afsc.noaa.govAntarcticPenguins live here—only continent notused by humans(exc. Research)
  73. 73. Threats to the Polar EcosystemsReserves of mineralsdraw humans tothese fragileecosystems.The main threat towildlife has beenthe increase intourism—garbageleft