Antartica by judy flores


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Antartica by judy flores

  1. 1. About Antartica
  2. 2. Antarctica <ul><li>The bottom of the world </li></ul>
  3. 3. Map of Antarctica
  4. 4. Rock surface of Antarctica and sea ground without its ice-shield, from 60 to 90 degrees South .
  5. 5. Antarctica is colder than the North Pole
  6. 6. Icebergs
  7. 8. Amundsen’s Discovery of South Pole
  8. 9. Discovery 1773 - Captain Cook - his wooden ship could not penetrate the ice ring. 1822 - James Weddell (Sealing) 1830 - Whalers came 1911 - Roald Amundsen reaches South Pole 1915 - Shackleton stuck in ice 1959 – Antarctic Treaty
  9. 11. Roald Amundsen <ul><li>Race with Scott </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs instead of horses and motorized sleds </li></ul><ul><li>Ate dogs as supply sleds didn’t need them </li></ul><ul><li>Reached Pole on December 16, 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Placed the flag of Norway </li></ul>
  10. 12. Robert Scott Entire expedition dies. <ul><li>Race with Amundsen </li></ul><ul><li>Took Siberian horses </li></ul><ul><li>Motorized sleds quickly broke down </li></ul><ul><li>Refused to eat dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Horses died </li></ul><ul><li>Men had to pull </li></ul><ul><li>Pole January 17, 1912 </li></ul><ul><li>All men died on return </li></ul>
  11. 13. Sir Ernest Shackleton Stuck in Ice – Lost Ship
  12. 14. Sir Ernest Shackleton Stuck in Ice – Lost Ship
  13. 15. <ul><li>Coldest Temp: -129°F (-89°C) on July 21, 1983 Location: Vostok Station Warmest Temp: +59°F (+15°C) on Jan 5, 1974 Location: Vanda Station Mean Temps: Winter: -40 to -94°F (-40 to -70°C) Summer: -5 to -31°F (-15 to -35°C ) </li></ul>
  14. 17. Antarctica is a Desert <ul><li>A desert is determined by the amount of rain or snow. (Less than 10 inches). </li></ul><ul><li>It snows very little in Antarctica, but the snow never melts because it is so cold. </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Scientists have their huts on frozen water instead of the land. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Why is Antarctica so Cold? <ul><li>Several factors combine to making Antarctica one of the coldest and least hospitable places on the Earth: </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the Arctic region, Antarctica is a continent surrounded by an ocean which means that interior areas do not benefit from the moderating influence of water. </li></ul>
  17. 21. <ul><li>With 98% of its area covered with snow and ice, the Antarctic continent reflects most of the sun's light rather than absorbing it. The extreme dryness of the air causes any heat that is radiated back into the atmosphere to be lost instead of being absorbed by the water vapor in the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>During the winter, the size of Antarctica doubles as the surrounding sea water freezes, effectively blocking heat transfer from the warmer surrounding ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctica has a higher average elevation than any other continent on Earth which results in even colder temperatures. </li></ul>
  19. 25. Blizzards: <ul><li>Blizzards are a typical Antarctic phenomenon in which very little, if any, snow actually falls.  Instead the snow is picked up and blown along the surface by the wind, resulting in blinding conditions in which objects less than a meter away may be invisible. </li></ul>
  20. 27. Whiteouts: <ul><li>Whiteouts are another peculiar Antarctica condition, in which there are no shadows or contrasts between objects.  A uniformly grey or white sky over a snow-covered surface can yield these whiteouts, which cause a loss of depth perception -- for both humans and wildlife. </li></ul>
  21. 28. Remote sensing equipment
  22. 29. Solar Energy: <ul><li>Because of the tilt of the earth's axis relative to its orbit around the sun, the sun does not shine at the South Pole for six months of the year. When the sun does shine, much less solar energy actually reaches the ground at the Pole because the sun's rays pass through a thicker layer of atmosphere than at the Equator. Also, due to the predominance of ice and snow covering Antarctica, most of the sun's rays that do reach the ground are reflected back into space. </li></ul>
  23. 30. General <ul><li>Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are key elements in the global weather system.  This is a system which creates and transfers energy as winds, clouds, rain and all other elements we call &quot;the weather&quot;. </li></ul>
  24. 31. <ul><li>This vehicle is used in mars and in Antarctica </li></ul>
  25. 32. Circulation : <ul><li>The source of this energy is the sun, and because its heating effect is greater at the equator than at the poles, it creates a circulation in the atmosphere.  Hot moist air rises over the equator and flows at a high level towards the poles, where it cools and sinks.  The equator is therefore a region of low pressure, and the poles are regions of high pressure. </li></ul>
  26. 34. Interaction : <ul><li>The atmosphere is not a closed system. It interacts with the land, the ocean, and the ice; and the ice in turn interacts with the ocean. Winds create currents in the ocean. The annual cycle of freezing and melting of the sea ice around Antarctica creates a vertical circulation in the ocean.  </li></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>&quot;Antarctica is the coldest, highest, windiest, driest, and iciest continent on earth&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Only scientists stay in Antarctica. There are scientist from every nation. </li></ul><ul><li>They never stay longer than 9 months </li></ul>
  28. 36. A full moon and 25-second exposure allowed sufficient light for this photo to be taken at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during the long Antarctic night. The station can be seen at far left, the power plant in the center and the mechanic's garage in the lower right. The green light in the background is the Aurora Australis.
  29. 38. The main entrance to the dome ramps down from the surface level. The dome base was originally at the surface level of the ice cap, but has been slowly buried in snowdrift.
  30. 39. The last section of the dome, which was dismantled during the 2009-2010 summer season
  31. 42. <ul><li>Coldest: -129° F at Vostox, July 21, 1983 (World low temperature record.) Highest: Average elevation 8200 feet (2500 meters). </li></ul>
  32. 45. <ul><li>Windiest: Gales reach 200 mph on Commonwealth Bay, George V coast </li></ul>
  33. 47. <ul><li>Driest: Average precipitation is less than 2 inches per year. </li></ul>
  34. 48. <ul><li>Iciest: The thickest ice found is in Wilkes Land, where it reaches a depth of 15,669 feet (4,776 meters ). </li></ul>
  35. 49. <ul><li>Weather observations in Antarctica have been recorded only for the last 150 years. Detailed climatic monitoring began in the late 1950's. </li></ul>
  36. 54. <ul><li>Most Antarctic stations today are equipped with sophisticated weather monitoring technology and are manned by professional meteorologists who perform observations around the clock . </li></ul>
  37. 56. Tourist <ul><li>Some tourist spend 2,200 Dollars' to go to Antarctica per person. They actually spends 2 week in a ship and when they arrive to Antarctica they only stay a day. </li></ul>
  38. 62. <ul><li>Automated stations and remote sensing equipment provide a wealth of previously unattainable data and help to paint a more accurate picture of Antarctic weather continent-wide. </li></ul>
  39. 63. Satellite measurements and photographs of the continent continue to reveal valuable information concerning cloud cover, storm movement, ice formation and distribution patterns, and a variety of other environmental characteristics.
  40. 64. An iceberg dwarfs a ship in this 1920s English magazine illustration of a whaler in the Antarctic.
  41. 67. Antarctic postal services.
  42. 69. Plants <ul><li>2 Flowering Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Pearlwort </li></ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul><ul><li>Only on Antarctic Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>There are also bacteria, molds, yeast, algae and fungi </li></ul>
  43. 70. More than 200 species of lichens are known to exist in Antarctica.
  44. 71. Animals that live in the Antarctica
  45. 79. Antarctic Birds <ul><li>Snow Petrels </li></ul><ul><li>Terns </li></ul><ul><li>Fulmars </li></ul><ul><li>Cape Pigeons </li></ul><ul><li>Skuas </li></ul><ul><li>Terns </li></ul><ul><li>Penguins </li></ul>
  46. 80. Snow Petrel <ul><li>Small as a robin </li></ul><ul><li>Dart over ocean like large mosquitoes </li></ul>
  47. 81. Skua <ul><li>Has hooked bill </li></ul><ul><li>Has sharp claws </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds only ashore </li></ul><ul><li>Eats penguin eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Eats weak penguin chicks </li></ul>
  48. 82. Albatross <ul><li>These birds roam the oceans at the bottom of the world. </li></ul>
  49. 83. Penguins <ul><li>18 species of penguins </li></ul><ul><li>4 live in Antarctica </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Adelie </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Gentoos </li></ul><ul><li>Chinstrap </li></ul>
  50. 84. Emperor <ul><li>Largest of all penguins </li></ul><ul><li>Hatch eggs during coldest winter months </li></ul><ul><li>Female lays egg in May </li></ul><ul><li>Male hatches egg for 2 months and loses 40% of body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Female takes over </li></ul>
  51. 85. Adelie <ul><li>Most numerous </li></ul><ul><li>Named after Captain d’Urville’s wife </li></ul><ul><li>Very small </li></ul>
  52. 86. Southern Gentoos <ul><li>Live on peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>2-1/2 feet tall </li></ul><ul><li>Gentle and timid </li></ul><ul><li>White connected patches above eyes </li></ul>
  53. 87. Chinstrap Black marking under chin from ear to ear
  54. 89. Whales <ul><li>Baleen </li></ul><ul><li>Toothed </li></ul>
  55. 90. Blue Whales - Baleen <ul><li>Baleen whale – strain food, mostly krill </li></ul><ul><li>Largest animal in the world </li></ul><ul><li>200,00 pounds - More than 5,700 mid-sized cars! </li></ul><ul><li>100 feet long </li></ul>
  56. 91. Humpback - Baleen <ul><li>Filters food </li></ul><ul><li>Eats mainly krill </li></ul><ul><li>Is less streamlined </li></ul><ul><li>Has long flippers </li></ul>
  57. 92. Sperm Whale - Toothed <ul><li>Uses echo sounding to find prey </li></ul><ul><li>Can dive 3,000 feet </li></ul><ul><li>Only males migrate to Antarctica </li></ul>
  58. 93. Orcas – Toothed Whales <ul><li>Resembles a dolphin </li></ul><ul><li>Largest carnivore </li></ul><ul><li>Eats seals and penguins </li></ul><ul><li>Hunt in packs </li></ul><ul><li>Will even bump icebergs to knock off penguins </li></ul>
  59. 94. Seals <ul><li>Crabeaters </li></ul><ul><li>Leopard </li></ul><ul><li>Ross </li></ul><ul><li>Weddell </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Elephant </li></ul>
  60. 95. Seals <ul><li>Live in groups called pods </li></ul><ul><li>Six species live in Antarctica </li></ul>
  61. 96. Seals
  62. 99. Elephant – Crabeater - Leopard <ul><li>Elephant – largest </li></ul><ul><li>Crabeaters </li></ul><ul><li>Leopard </li></ul>
  63. 100. Southern Elephant Seals <ul><li>Weigh up to 8,000 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Largest of the world’s seals </li></ul>
  64. 101. Southern Fur Seals <ul><li>Were nearly wiped out by seal hunters in the nineteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>Live in groups - pods </li></ul><ul><li>Have paddle like flippers or fins </li></ul><ul><li>Have a thick layer of blubber </li></ul>
  65. 103. Southern Fur Seal
  66. 108. Antarctica at night
  67. 109. A CAVE
  69. 121. Clips of Antarctica <ul><li>Antarctica in 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring Antarctica </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights from Antarctica </li></ul><ul><li>Whale hunting krill in Antarctica </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctica Time lapse A Year on ice </li></ul>
  70. 122. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  71. 123. <ul><li>THIS PRESENTATION HAS BEEN DONE BY JUDY FLORES. </li></ul><ul><li>THE PICTURES ARE FROM </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>THE INFORMATION WAS LOOKED UP IN ANTARCTICA GEOGRAPHIC AND OTHER RESOURCES www.nebo </li></ul>