2008 Chicago Schools


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  • 2008 Chicago Schools

    1. 1. “Privileged youth”: Well-educated and well-to-do, but what of well-being?
    2. 2. Study 1: Suburban vs. Inner-city teens (mid 1990’s) Suburban girls 14 Suburban boys 12 Inner city girls Inner-city boys 10 8 6 4 2 0 Substance use Anxiety Depression
    3. 3. Proportion of youth above clinical cutoffs _____________________________________________ GIRLS BOYS Norm Suburb Norm Suburb Depression 7% 22% 7% 5% Anxiety 17% 22% 17% 26% _________________________________________________ Substance use Alcohol 61% 72% 61% 63% Illicit drugs 38% 46% 38% 59% ____________________________________________
    4. 4. Correlates of substance use Suburban youth: • substance use linked with depression, anxiety: ‘self-medication’ • ‘negative affect’ subtype shows high continuity Suburban boys: • substance use linked with peer popularity • links robust with controls for internalizing, externalizing & academic indices
    5. 5. Questions: • do problems generalize to pre-teens? • causes of such problems in ‘privileged’ groups? • Study 2: Sixth & seventh graders in suburban school • n = 302, 92% Caucasian, median family income $102,000
    6. 6. Findings • problems low among 6th graders • 7th grade girls: 14% above clinical cutoff for depression: twice as high as normative rates • 7th grade boys: 7% drinking to intoxication once / month, 7% marijuana use once / month • Correlates of substance use as in Luthar & D’Avanzo (1999) • internalizing symptoms among boys & girls • peer popularity among 7th grade boys Luthar & Becker (2002), Child Development
    7. 7. Roots of adjustment problems? 1. Achievement pressures • maladaptive perfectionism (self-report) • parents’ emphasis on achievements (ranking: personal success versus personal integrity / decency) 2. Isolation from adults • children often alone at home (supervision after school) • little relaxed “family time” (closeness to mother, father) Results showed multiple links for both achievement pressures and isolation from adults
    8. 8. Generalization of Problems: The New England Study of Suburban Youth (NESSY) • all sixth graders from both middle schools in a town • parallel with study of inner-city middle schoolers Demographics: • 93% Caucasian • median family income > $125,000 • one third adults with graduate/ professional degrees
    9. 9. Family dimensions: NESSY vs inner-city 6th graders on seven dimensions Comparable mean values on Mom closeness Dad closeness Dinner with parents Emphasis on integrity (vs own success) Suburban youth fared better on After school supervision Perceived criticism Suburban youth fared more poorly on: Parent expectations Material wealth does not imply “superior” family functioning
    10. 10. Containment Parents differ in how seriously they react when they discover types of rule-breaking behaviors among their teenage children. Reactions can range from simply talking about the incident or giving warnings for the future, to revoking privileges that are very important to the person. For each of the following items, please indicate how serious the consequences from your parents would be, if they found out you’d done the behavior in question. Substance use Delinquent behavior Rudeness / unkindness Academic indolence
    11. 11. Female Male 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 Substance Use Delinquency Rudeness Academic Disengagement Perceived parent containment Luthar & Goldstein (2008), Development & Psychopathology
    12. 12. Psychologists & pediatricians warn that youth in affluent communities are highly stressed due to over-scheduling, with far too many after-school activities.
    13. 13. Hours spent in extra curricular activities Suburban youth higher on Sports activities Academic activities Arts activities Suburban youth lower on Civic activities (e.g., volunteering, church, temple)
    14. 14. PREDICTORS OF PERSONAL AND ACADEMIC ADJUSTMENT: Activity / family indices * Sports hours Arts hours Academic hours Civic hours Parent criticism Girls & After school supervision boys Parent expectations Boys Mom achievement emphasis Dad achievement emphasis Dinner with parents * Luthar, Shoum, & Brown (2006). Developmental Psychology.
    15. 15. GENERALIZABILITY OF HIGH DISTRESS AMONG AFFLUENT YOUTH Is this just a suburban phenomenon? -data on private school students -60% parents with graduate degrees -74% Caucasian, 8% Asian, 2% Hispanic 4% African-American, 11% other
    16. 16. Private High School Juniors/seniors with symptoms quot;Much Above Averagequot; (T>65) 30.0% Normative samples Pvt school girls Pvt school boys 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% Norms: 7% 5.0% 0.0% Anxious/ Depressed Withdrawn/ Somatic Complaints Rule Breaking Depressed
    17. 17. P teHig Sc o riva h ho l Junio / s nio a o l us c m a d to no s rs e rs lc ho e o p re rm US Girls Private sch. Girls US Boys Private sch. Boys 84% 75% 50% 47% % who used alcohol in last year
    18. 18. GENERALIZABILITY OF HIGH DISTRESS AMONG AFFLUENT YOUTH Is this just a suburban phenomenon? Is this restricted to the East coast? -data on West coast youth -33% parents with graduate degrees - 84% Caucasian, 12% Asian, 2% Hispanic, 1% African-American, 1% other
    19. 19. West Coast High School Juniors/seniors with symptoms “Much Above Average” (T > 65) 30% % Norm % Girls Much Above Average % Boys Much Above Average 25% 20% 15% 10% Norms: 7% 5% 0% Anxious/ Withdrawn/ Somatic Rule Breaking Depressed Depressed Complaints
    20. 20. Non-suicidal Self-injury (NSSI)* Two cohorts: Cross sectional: 1,036 9-12 graders (West Coast) Longitudinal: 245 students followed annually, grades 6-12 (East Coast) * Yates, Tracy, & Luthar (2008). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
    21. 21. • Self-injurious behavior: “a prominent and recurrent phenomenon among the 1,300 children of highly educated, white-collar professionals” • Nearly a third reported NSSI during the previous year • Three quarters of injurers endorsed recurrent episodes • Rates higher than in other school settings Most prevalent: Girls: self-hitting, cutting, body-picking Boys: self-hitting, body-picking, and self-biting
    22. 22. Conclusions regarding symptoms: Adolescents of highly educated, well-to-do parents clearly show some signs of elevated symptoms relative to norms - as seen in suburban and urban samples - on East and West coast Preliminary impressions re gender differences - boys show elevations in rule breaking and substance use - girls show elevations across multiple domains: the “traditionally female” internalizing symptoms and the more typically male externalizing problems - compared to youth in harsh urban poverty, on average, - perceptions of family functioning are not necessarily “better” - peers endorse rebellious behaviors at least as much
    23. 23. Complex underlying causes Family pressures? • in some instances --- as is true in all demographic groups Peer values • reinforcing rebellious behaviors Social comparisons • competition for few “Ivy league spots” • competing with “friends” – low intimacy & self-doubt Schools: Advanced Placement courses • encouraged by schools and by parents The American Dream: “More is better” • material rewards make for ultimate happiness • acquired through competitive schools and colleges
    24. 24. COMPETITION AND FAST-LANE LIFE • Little leisure time… • Youth are taking lunch hour to study • Should schools require them to take recess? • How many of us adults can be “forced to relax”?
    25. 25. CASA • Important things for parents to do: – Set a good example – Have dinner with your kids – Keep open channels of communication – Show / express love – Know their whereabouts – Know who their friends are – Have real consequences for substance use
    26. 26. CASA • Important things for parents to do: – DON’T SET A BAD EXAMPLE (Set a good example) – Keep open channels of communication – Show / express love – Have real consequences for substance use – Know their whereabouts – Know who their friends are – Have dinner with your kids
    27. 27. Does angst dissipate post adolescence? - no, according to preliminary data in college - Particularly problematic: substance abuse (including prescription medications), eating problems Women’s development in the context of “privilege” • media suggestions of high expectations, guilt, anxiety
    28. 28. “ urg d us to b , s ulta o ly, ind p nd nt, a hie m nt-o nte , … e e im ne us ee e c ve e rie d s c s ful, the e ua to a m n a ye a p a uc e s q l ny a nd t p e ling to m n, s lfle s e e s, a c m o a , nurturing the c nne tive tis ue tha ho s a fa ilie c o m d ting , o c s t ld ll m s to e r, a o c urs , s a b a g the nd f o e lim nd e utiful. W re lly w res p s d to e a e up o e b c m s m hyb b tw e Mo r Te s , Do eo e o e rid e e n the re a nna Sha la Ma la , rtha Ste a a C y C w rd . w rt, nd ind ra fo ” Do la & Mic e , TheMo m Myth, p3 5 ug s ha ls m y 2.
    29. 29. …there is something about motherhood that provokes a psychological crisis in privileged women's lives. They suffer from …a quot;choking cocktail of guilt and anxiety and resentment and regret.quot; They lose their sense of self. They worry about whether their children will turn out okay. And they begin to feel estranged from their husbands who have stimulating professional work.. …. For the author and others, motherhood does not bring the expected joy and fulfillment. On the contrary, it is the source of painful conflict, self-doubt, and existential angst. Review of Warner, Motherhood in the Age of Anxiety, 2005
    30. 30. Internet-based study of mothers • oversampling for highly educated mothers of middle- & high schoolers • N 360, recruiting through PTA and word-of-mouth • measures of • personal adjustment (e.g.,well-being, depression, substance use) • relationships (e.g., marriage, role restrictions, guilt), personal authenticity, e.g., “The self” I show to others – my “outer self” – is very much the same as my “inner self”
    31. 31. 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 High School College College + MA Doctoral Mothers' Subjective Well-Being by Education
    32. 32. 24 23.5 23 22.5 22 21.5 21 20.5 20 19.5 High School College College + MA Doctoral Mothers' Personal Authenticity by education
    33. 33. Drug Dependence - MCMI Ph.D. / MA College degree mothers mothers Alcohol Dependence – MCMI Anxiety BSI Depression- BSI Somatization- BSI Personal authenticity Mother Incompetence/guilt
    34. 34. Drug Dependence - MCMI Ph.D. / MA College degree mothers mothers Alcohol Dependence – MCMI .38*** .09 Anxiety BSI .33*** .22** Depression- BSI .42*** .12 Somatization- BSI .38*** .10 Personal authenticity -.31*** -.26** Mother Incompetence/guilt .23** .16
    35. 35. Quality of Marriage by Education High School College College + MA Adv. Grad
    36. 36. S a t is f a c t io n wit h b e in g a P a re n t b y E d u c a t io n High School College College + MA Adv. Grad
    37. 37. Marital status / employment status? • no difference in major outcomes • quality of relationships much more significant CAVEAT TO FINDINGS • relatively small sample of mothers • need further multivariate analyses
    38. 38. http:// www.MomsasPeople.com For mothers: As individuals... and not just quot;momsquot; This national online survey explores the inner lives of mothers. In developmental research, women are typically considered in terms of their behaviors as mothers - rarely in terms of their own personhood. This survey will explore how you feel about your different roles not only as a mother, but also as a spouse, as a friend, as an individual with various hopes and fears -- and how you cope with the challenge of balancing multiple roles. Many of the survey questions will inquire about your relationship with your child. If you currently have more than one child in middle or high school, please consider the oldest of these children for this survey. Your responses will be entirely anonymous. Our interest, in this project, is solely in aggregate or average trends; no one (not even I) will be able to identify any individual mother in terms of her survey responses. If you would like a copy of the summary results on completion of this survey, please provide your email address. momsaspeople From one mother to another - many thanks and best regards. Suniya S. Luthar, Ph.D. Professor of Clinical and Developmental Psychology Teachers College, Columbia University
    39. 39. This research has been supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse & the William T. Grant Foundation Collaborators Doctoral students: Monica Ghalian, Adam Goldstein, Mia Ihm, Jason Karageorge, Shoshanna Must, Rebecca Prince, Aparna Sampat, Skip Teel, Dana Zelman Faculty colleagues Bronwyn Becker, Britt Galen, Shawn Latendresse, Chris Sexton, Tuppett Yates, Laurel Bidwell Zelazo Yale Mother-Child Study Pamela Brown, Erica Shirley, Karen Shoum, Julie Scott Heartfelt thanks to the children and families of the New England Study of Suburban Youth