MIND READING COMPUTER Presented By, Judy Francis
CONTENTS:1. IntroductIon2. What Is MInd readIng?3. Why MInd readIng?4. hoW does It Work?5. advantages and uses6. dIsadvantages and probleMs7. conclusIon
INTRODUCTION: People express their mental states including thoughtsand desire, all the time through facial expressions, vocalnuances and gestures. This is true even when they areinteracting with machines. The ability to attribute mental states to others fromtheir behaviour and to use that knowledge to guide ourown actions and predict those of others is known astheory of mind or Mind Reading. Existing human-computer interfaces are mind-blind,oblivious to the user’s mental states and intentions. Even they do not take the initiative, like the nowretired Microsoft Paperclip, they are often misguidedand irrelevant and simply frustrate the user.
WHAT IS MIND READING? Drawing inspiration from psychology, computer vision andmachine learning has developed mind reading machinecomputers. Using a digital video camera, the mindreading computersystem analyses a person’s facial expressions in real timeand infers that person’s underlying mental state. Prior knowledge of how particular mental states areexpressed in the face is combined with analysis of facialexpressions and head gestures occurring in real time. Software from Nevenvision identifies 24 feature points onthe face and tracks them in real time. The relationship between observable head and facialdisplays and the corresponding hidden mental states overtime is modeled using Dynamic Bayesian Networks.
WHY MIND READING? The Mind Reading computer system presentsinformation about mental state as easily as akeyboard and mouse present text and commands. Current projects in Cambridge are consideringfurther inputs such as body postures and gestures toimprove the inference. We are also looking at the use of mind reading tosupport on-line shopping and learning systems.
The mind reading computer system may also beused to monitor and suggest improvements in human –human interaction. The Affective Computing Group at the MIT medialaboratory is developing an emotional-socialintelligence prosthesis that explores new technologiesto augment and improve people’s social interactionsand communication skills. To implement this system in cars, to detect driver’smental states such as drowsiness, distraction andanger.
HOW DOES IT WORKS?Futuristic Head Band: The mind reading actually involves measuring thevolume and oxygen level of the blood around thesubject’s brain using technology called functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The user wears a futuristic head band that sends lightin that spectrum into the tissues of the head where it isabsorbed by active, blood filled tissues.
The results are often compared to an MRI, but canbe gathered with lightweight, non-invasiveequipment. Wearing the fNIRS sensor, experimental subjectswere asked to count the number of squares on arotating onscreen cube and to perform other tasks. Measuring mental workload, frustration anddistraction is typically limited to qualitativelyobserving computer users. Preliminary results show that using buttonizedsensors. Biological signals arise when reading orspeaking to oneself with or without actual lip orfacial movement.
ADVANTAGES AND USES:MIND CONTROLLED WHEEL CHAIR This prototype mind reading wheel chair developedfrom the University of Electro communications inJapan. A little from the Brain-Computer Typing machine,this thing works by mapping brain waves when youthink about moving left, right, forward or back andthen assigns that to a wheelchair. The system could send command to rovers on otherplanets, help injured astronauts control machines, oraid disabled people.
DISADVANTAGES AND PROBLEMS:TAPPING BRAINS FOR FUTURE CRIMES Using computer algorithms and functional magneticresonance imaging (fMRI), the scientists were able todetermine with 70percent accuracy. Individual brain differs, so scientists need to study asubjects pattern before they can train a computer to identifythose patterns or make predictions. In Dec 19,2006 the issue of The Economist, an articlequestioned the scientific validity of the notion of free will:Individual with particular congenital genetic characteristicsare predisposed, if not predestined, to violence. Max Planck Institute, neuroscience and bioscience are notat a point where we can reliably predict human behaviour.
DISADVANTAGES AND PROBLEMS: Nor is society deal with the ethical and practicalproblems posed by a system that classifies andcategorises people based on oxygen flow, geneticsand environmental factors that are correlated asmuch as poverty as with future criminality. In time, neuroscience may produce reliablebehaviour predictions. But until then, we shouldtake the lessons of science fiction to heart whendeciding how to use new predictive techniques.
CONCLUSION: Tufts university researches have begun a 3year research project which, if successful, will allowcomputers to respond to the brain activity of thecomputer’s users. Users wear a futuristic looking headbands toshine light on their foreheads and then performs aseries of increasingly difficult tasks while thedevice reads what parts of the brain are absorbingthe light. That info is then transferred to thecomputer and from there the computer can adjustit’s interface and functions to each individual.