1. QUARTER I – 21st
Century Philippine Literature
from the Regions
1. LC #1(EN12Lit-Ia-21)
a.Explain the geographic, linguistic, and
ethnic dimensions of Philippine literary history
from pre-colonial to the contemporary.
b.Present unique culture and tradition of
Region 1 through song and dances.
c.Show appreciation of the literature of the
Region through songs and dances.
Region 1 was first
inhabited by the
they were pushed
the narrow coast.
Pangasinan was not
a part of the region.
The Spanish arrived in
the 16th century and
institutions to control
the native population
and convert them to the
In 1901, the region came under
American colonial rule, and in 1941,
under Japanese occupation.
During 1945, the combined
American and the Philippine
Commonwealth troops including the
Ilocano and Pangasinese guerillas
liberated the Ilocos Region from
Japanese forces during the Second
8. In 2000, the region’s total population
was 4,174,000. It increased by 8.86%
since 1995. In 1995, the province of
Pangasinan had the largest population
at 2,178,412 or 57.27 %. La Union had
15.7%, Ilocos Sur at 14.3% and Ilocos
Norte, 12.7%. In 1990, the urban
population comprised 37.75% of the
total population while that of the rural
population was at 62.25%
9. Region I is composed of:
116 municipalities, and
11. Ilocos Norte
located at the northwest
corner of Luzon Island,
bordering Cagayan and
Apayao to the east, and
Abra and Ilocos Sur to
the south. Ilocos Norte
South China Sea to the
west and the
Luzon Strait to the
12. Map and Places of Ilocos
Norte• Towns/Cities in Ilocos-Norte (Region-
• Adams Bacarra
• Badoc Bangui
• Banna (Espiritu) Batac
• Burgos Carasi
• Currimao Dingras
• Dumalneg Laoag City (Capital)
• Marcos Nueva Era
• Pagudpud Paoay
• Pasuquin Piddig
• Pinili San Nicolas
• Sarrat Solsona
13. Ilocos Norte: Cultures &
Bain is the Ilocano
trait for hiya or amor
propio (sense of
fear of gossip and
would strongly avoid
being envied by
It is essential to
(respect for the
tend to speak about
themselves in the
humblest of terms.
14. Ilocos Norte: Cultures &
(formal announcement) to thesoon-
to-be bride’sparentsabout his
intention of marrying their daughter.
Hisparentswill then visit the
bride’sparentsto set thewedding
date. Usually, parentsconsult a
planetario , which islikean almanac
that identifies“lucky” days.
Another highlight of thefeast isthe
bito r wherein guestscontributecash
to thenewlywedseither by dropping
money onto theplatesor by pinning
• To announceadeath of afamily
member, apieceof ato ng wood islit in
front of thedeceased’shouse. It iskept
burning until after theburial. Thefireis
extinguished with whitewine.
• Beforethefuneral, relativespay respect
by kissing thedeceased’shandsor
raising it to his/her forehead(mano)
• Thosewho attended theburial in the
cemetery must return to thedeceased’s
homeby taking adifferent routefrom
theonethey’vetaken to get there. Upon
arrival, they must wash their facesand
hands. It issaid to removethepower of
15. Ilocos Norte: Cultures &
• Pamulinawen Festival, Laoag City, February
A floral parade and street dancing festival.
Guling-Guling Festival, Paoay, Eve of Ash
Residents, dressed in their Ilocano costume
adorned with antique jewelries, dance and sing
around town while being blessed with the Sign of
the Cross using pounded rice instead of gray ash.
December Festival, Laoag City
Highlighted by the lantern parade and decor
competition ending in the Palarong Pamasko.
16. Ilocos Norte: Cultures &
• Farmer’s Festival, Bacarra
This festival highlights a street dance parade
participated by dressed up farmers with their
products, agro-industrial, trade fair, contest of the
biggest farm harvest and livestock and "pinaka"
contests of agro products.
Magdadaran: Talip Festival, Adams &
In tribute of the ancient peace pact that has brought
lasting peace between and among ethnic tribes in
the province of Ilocos Norte. This also aims to
cultivate and highlight their rich culture, customs
and indigenous traditions. Is also celebrated to
enhance fellowship and stronger ties among the
28. Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur is bordered by
Ilocos Norte and Abra to
Mountain Province to the
east, La Union and
Benguet to the south, and
the West Philippine Sea to
the west.The capital of
the province is VIGAN
29. Map & Places of Ilocos Sur
• Alilem -Banayoyo -Bantay
• Burgos -Cabugao -Candon City
• Caoayan -Cervantes -Galimuyod
• Gregorio Del Pilar (Concepcion)
• Lidlidda -Magsingal -Nagbukel
• Narvacan -Quirino (Angkaki)
• Salcedo (Baugen) -San Emilio
• San Esteban -San Ildefonso
• San Juan (Lapog) -San Vicente
• Santa Catalina -Santa Cruz
• Santa Lucia - Santa Maria
• Santiago -Santo Domingo
• Sigay -Sinait -Sugpon - Suyo
• Tagudin - Vigan City (Capital) - Santa
• The native Ilocano is a
weaver, wood carver and
pottery expert. The
Ilocano cuisine ranges
from the exotic "abu-os"
(ant eggs) to vegetable
broth "dinengdeng," the
sticky "tinubong" to the
• Sinait Garlic Festival
It happens during the 1st to 3rd of May that
showcase the talent, ingenuity and hard work
trait of Ilocano
Viva Vigan Festival
Every first week of May, Vigan featuring
painting and product exhibits, a Calesa
parade, and other cultural activities.
held every January 22features the “longest
Longaniza” with the hope of entering to the
Guinness Book of Records as the longest
Longaniza of the world
Pinakbet Festival, Ilocos Sur Philippines
A festival celebrating a favorite dish of the
Ilocanos, “pinakbet” featuring street dances,
Tabako Festival, Ilocos Sur Philippines
Celebrated every last week of March in
Candon City, as thanksgiving for the city's
bountiful harvest of tobacco.
31. Ilocos Sur:Products
• shellcraft, broommaking, pottery-
making, wine and vinegar making,
jewelry making, wood and stone
craft, among others jars and
antiques can also be bought in
35. La Union
• The City of San Fernando is situated in the mountainous area at almost the
mid-section of La Union along the China Sea. It was founded in 1786 and
made the “cabecera” or provincial capital on the same day that La Union
became province in 1850.
• During the Spanish times, a settlement was a place where there were about
200 families. Around this area, there were two settlements, San Vicente de
Balanac and San Guillermo de Dalangdang, San Vicente de Balanac was
along the coast and during summer, when the sea was calm and perfect for
sailing, pirates would come and plunder the settlement, taking along with
them the women and children leaving behind them a trail of blood. San
Guillermo de Dalangdang, however, was at the foothills of the Cordillera
mountains, and during summer, when the fire trees were in bloom, the
populace was attacked by headhunters who saw in the red flowers of fire
trees, a sign of the gods asking for human offerings.
37. San Fernando City, La Union
• In 1759, an Augustinian priest, Father Jose Torres, convinced the two
settlements to come together to a place not so near the sea and not so near the
mountains so they will not be plagued by their annual problems. They chose
the area called Pindangan, meaning, a place where they dry fish and in this
place, they built in a church with San Guillermo the Hermit as the patron
saint. In 1765, the newly assigned priest, however, suggested to the
inhabitants that they change the name of Pindangan to San Fernando, after
the Catholic King of Spain, retaining San Guillermo as their patron saint. The
name of the parish priest was Father Fernando Rey, Rey being the Spanish
word for King. This was also the time of Diego Silang, and as we know,
Silang would travel to and from Manila on his white horse and was killed on
May 28, 1763. When an earthquake destroyed the church at Pindangan,
renamed San Fernando, the parish priest decided not to rebuild in the same
place because during the rainy season, the church was transferred until it
found its present place, and it is now called the Cathedral of St. William the
Hermit, of the Diocese of San Fernando, La Union.
38. San Fernando City, La Union
• On May 1786, the Ministerio de San Fernando was established. However, due to lack
of priests during the period 1792 to 1831, San Fernando became a “visita” of Bauang
and San Juan. In 1831, Father Juan Sorolla, the parish priest of Bauang in 1829, was
assigned in San Fernando.
According to historical records, the construction of the present church started in 1817
by Father Simon Torrado with Father Sorolla as its first parish priest.
• San Fernando has grown slowly from the time it was founded. This slow growth
maybe attributed to the fact that travels during those days was long and tedious.
Sectionalism was rampant because education was not widely diffused. Intermingling
of the people was limited to neighboring towns. Only the well-to-do and the
powerful obtained their education and this too, was limited as it was then the policy
of the Spaniards to deny education to the masses. In spite of this backward policy, the
people improved economically, educationally and spiritually. An offshoot of this
improvement was the revolt of the people against the Spaniards which assumed in
greater proportions when the Spaniards became abusive. Although the people were
subservient to the ruling power, there were fateful prohibitions that cut deep into the
private life of the people which found outlet in the form of uprisings and occasional
revolts to give vent to their pent-up emotions. The climax came in 1896 when the
country was swept by a widespread revolt. In 1898, the Spanish garrison in San
Fernando was attacked by Filipino insurgents under the leadership of General
Manuel Tinio and Mauro Ortiz. In the end, the Filipinos prevailed over the
39. San Fernando City, La Union
• Then the Americans came. Spain fell in ruins, victims of her own greed and
ambition. San Fernando experienced naval bombardment of the Americans as well as
actual fighting on land when General Gregorio del Pilar commanded the rearguard of
General Emilio Aguinaldo to cover the latter’s retreat. In a short while, Aguinaldo
and his officers and soldiers were captured by the Americans. Peace and order were
restored. A democratic form of government took the place of that once proud
despotic government of Spain. The people of San Fernando took advantage of all the
Americans could teach politically and economically. San Fernando progressed with
the rest of the towns in the province.
• In 1941, the Japanese came. Japanese planes bombed San Fernando. The guerillas of
the 21st Infantry became active and engaged a do or die battle against the Japanese
Imperial Forces. A bloody fighting took place in Barrio Bacsil until the town was
liberated in 1945.
The destruction of property in San Fernando was appalling. Only few houses
remained standing in what was once a thriving town of beautiful houses. Thus, from
the nibbles of war, San Fernando rose until it became the administrative capital of
40. San Fernando City, La Union
• In May 14, 1996, the Sangguniang Bayan of San Fernando passed Resolution
No. 20 requesting the House of Representatives, Congress of the Philippines
for the conversion of the Municipality of San Fernando into a Component
City. That time, the municipality of San Fernando had satisfactorily met the
basic requirements for its conversion into Cityhood pursuant to the provisions
of the Local Government Code 1991. In a certification issued by the Bureau
of Local Government Finance, the average annual income of San Fernando
for calendar years 1994, and 1995 based on 1991 constant prices was P
44,351,821.66. Further, in a certification by the Land Management Bureau of
the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, the land area of San
Fernando is 10,526 hectares, well above the minimum requirement of 10,000
The Sangguniang Panlalawigan of La Union, after a comprehensive study
and judicious evaluation of the petition of the Sangguniang Bayan of San
Fernando, adopted Resolution No. 425-96 endorsing its cityhood bid to the
House of Representatives, Congress of the Philippines.
41. San Fernando City, La Union
• Upon the sponsorship of the Congressman Victor F. Ortega (1st District- La
Union) at the House of Representatives, House Bill 7594 (Act Converting the
Municipality of San Fernando, La Union into a Component City to be known as
City of San Fernando) was approved.
• The petition was likewise approved at the Upper House through the sponsorship
of Senators Vicente Sotto III and Juan Flavier. On February 13, 1998, Republic
Act 8509 was signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos and finally on March
20, 1998, the residents of San Fernando manifested their resounding YES in the
Plebiscite that ratified said law, thus, the fulfillment of the dream for San
Fernando to become a city.
• Located some 8 kilometers from the city proper, on a forest mountain is nestled
the La Union Botanical Garden – a green spot on the map that is probably the
only one of its kind in the country. The 10 hectare garden located at Barngay
Cadaclan is a display of varied species of living plants and a sanctuary of
varieties of wild animals. Clean and green are the bywords of the garden which
provide the visitors maximum satisfaction and a healthful promenade.
42. San Fernando City, La Union
• The City of San Fernando is now the seat of national government
agencies in Region I and center of trade, commerce, financial and
educational institutions, among others. From a deep rooted potential of
stable community governance to the best gift of Mother Nature- a
seaport community governance to the best gift of Mother Nature- a
seaport responsive to international shipping, an airport with viable
capacity to accommodate international air traffic, natural terrain
conducive to tourism development and a people endowed with cultural
and virtuous heritage of industry, spirituality, nationalism and
aspiration for growth, peace and prosperity, the City of San Fernando
has emerged as the booming Metropolis of the North.
43. Agoo, La Union
• Agoo was founded in 1578 by Franciscan missionaries
and was the first town in the province of La Union. As to
its name “Agoo” was derived from “aroo tree” that used
to abound along the banks of a small river that traversed
the town. Some referred to as “arojo” but finally the
town got its name as it has been referred to ever since.
According to Miguel de Loarca’s “Relacion de las Islas
Pilipinas (1582) – “The beliefs of the early inhabitants of
Agoo, as a part of Pangasinan were based on spirits and
hierarchy of deities… and their clothing was similar to
those used by other inhabitants.
44. Bauang, La Union
• Bauang is a first class partially urbanized municipality in
the Philippine province of La Union. According to the latest
census, it has a population of 72,391 people in 15,669
• It is bordered by San Fernando City to the north, Caba to the
south, Naguilian to the east, and the South China Sea to the west.
• The MacArthur Highway runs through this town, which junctions
with Naguilian Road, one of the mountain roads leading
to Baguio City.
45. La Union Tourist Spots
• Museo de La Union, La Union
Located at the Provincial Capitol ground in San Fernando, the Museum
showcases archaeological finds in La Union during the pre-Spanish period.
The Museum is open on Monday to Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Saturday visit is by arrangement.
Pottery-making, La Union
Clay products are on display and produced in Taboc, San Juan utilizing the
same age-old procedure in pottery-making. Taboc is about 9 kilometers away
from San Fernando City.
Blanket-weaving, La Union
This age-old practice of weaving wider Ilocano blankets is a prime home
industry in Bangar. Rayon, cotton and polyester combination, and the
“tinagudan” are yarns used in the weaving of blankets and other products.
46. La Union Tourist Spots
• Basi-making, La Union
Basi, the Ilocano native wine concocted from sugar cane juice and
bark of “duhat” tree for the coloring, is a home industry in Lioac,
Naguilian. Utilizing the age-old process, the taste of the basi differs
from one producer to another.
Museo de Iloko, La Union
The old “presidencia” of Agoo houses artifacts and other pieces of
cultural importance to the Ilocanos. The Museum is open from
Monday to Friday at 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Saturday visit is by
The term pangasinan means "land of
salt" or "place where salt is made"
from the root word asin meaning
salt in the native language, and the
prefix pang and the suffix an
meaning place. The term was
derived from one of the main
occupations of the people in the
coastal villages which was, and still
is, that of making salt from sea
water through the process of solar
evaporation in well-laid-out
Pangasinan is a long, wide, verdant
crescent bounded by the wild Zambales
range to the west and to the east by the
Cordilleras -- the formidable mountains
that form the spine of the island of
Luzon. To the south, Pangasinan
extends to the rice-and-sugar farmlands
of Tarlac, and north to the crowning
glory of Lingayen Gulf and the South
China Sea. This shoreline is a great arc
of variegated character: from
fantastically tall, craggy rock roughly
chiseled by the surf, to the mildest of
white sand beaches. The coast is
fringed by well-hidden coves and inlets,
promontories and caves, forests and
woodland, charming fishing villages,
and then the islands. It faces the Asian
mainland, outstretched widely in
anticipation and welcome.
48. PEOPLE, CULTURE & THE ARTS
*About half the people of Pangasinan are
Pangasinenses -- a distinct ethnoliguistic
group found along the central coast and
interior plains of the province.
*The rest of the province’s people are
descendants of Ilocano migrants who settled
the eastern and western parts of Pangasinan.
In the vicinity of Bolinao, about 30,000
people speak Sambal-Bolinao.
*The Pangasinenses are also noted for their
industry and their enterprise. Buri hat
making, mat weaving, wooden shoe
manufacture, brick and pottery making and
metalcraft are among the traditional
industries that continue to thrive in
Pangasinan. Lingayen was once the primary
center of commerce in the province and had
a thriving Chinese community to direct its
trade. Industries such as bakeshops, soap
and candle-making, and the manufacture of
shoes and slippers are centered in the town.
*Pangasinenses also engage in trade, investing
in expensive shawls, blankets, white and
blue cloth, needles, scissors and mirrors
from China as well as other products which
they bring to nearby northern provinces. The
ubiquitous cattle-drawn wagons that travel
across northern Luzon and Manila are from
49. *Pangasinan abounds in handicrafts and is
famous for bamboo and rattan artifacts.
There are also handicrafts made of
marsh grasses. A familiar sight down
Central Luzon after harvest time are the
bullock caravans originating from
Pangasinan laden with bamboo, rattan,
and grass crafts, including chairs,
tables, hampers, baskets, lamps, mats,
and household bric-a-brac.
Binalatongan (now San Carlos City)
and Calasiao are known for
bamboocraft that have been exported
.Another unique feature of the ancient
culture was the dances. These were
indicative of the peoples' values and
skills. Thus, the imunan was a
courtship dance, the tagam a war
dance, and the kumakaret a test of
dexterity. These dances were
accompanied by the music of the
tulali, a flute used during festivities.
50. Dances of Pangasinan
*Binasuan (beeh-nah-SOOH-ahn) This colorful and
lively dance from Bayambang in the Pangasinan
province shows off the balancing skills of the
dancers. The glasses that the dancers gracefully,
yet carefully, maneuver are half-filled with rice
wine. Binasuan, meaning "with the use of a
drinking glass" in Pangasinan, is often performed
as entertainment at weddings, birthdays, and
*Binoyugan (beeh-noh-YOOH-gahn) A dance
originally from the Ilokano region of Pangasinan.
Binoyugan features women balancing on their
heads a banga or clay pot which they use to fetch
water from the river or well, or in which to cook
rice. The dance culminates with the women laying
stomach down on stage, and rolling from side to
side, all while balancing the pot.
*Oasiwas (wah-SEE-wahs) After a good catch,
fishermen of Lingayen would celebrate by
drinking wine and by dancing, swinging and
circling a lighted lamp. The name "Oasiwas"
in the Pangasinan dialect means "swinging."
This unique and colorful dance calls for skill
in balancing an oil lamp on the head while
circling in each hand a lighted lamp wrapped
in a porous cloth or fishnet.
*Sayaw ed Tapew na Bangko A dance native
to the province of Pangasinan (especially in
Lingayen), and demands skill from its
performers who must dance on top of a
bench roughly six inches wide.
51. 1ST DISTRICT
*ANDA- This lone island town of Pangasinan, which thrives on farming and deep-sea fishing, is unlike other
"out-of-way" places for progress has already caught up with it. If a Pangasinense has a surname beginning
with the letter C, chances are, he is from this town.
*BOLINAO- This quaint little town boasts of several attractions aside from its rugged coastline and wide
expanse of unspoiled seascapes. Its museum, a branch of the national museum, showcases the rich heritage
of the people. Santiago Island, Cape Bolinao Beach, and the Church of St. James, almost 400 years old, are
its stronger points.
*BANI- This town thrives on the bounties of sea and farm. It boasts of a new park which is a haven for those
who want to lose themselves in the sweet clutch of nature.
*AGNO- Known as an "old seat of civilization", it competes with Hundred Islands in natural beauty. Its
umbrella rocks that just out of its clear lake and its long-winding beachline are tourists' musts.
*BURGOS- The "Cowboy Country" or "Marlboro Country" of Pangasinan is not for dudes alone as its
Cabungaoan Beach Resort, Klowar Spring, and Sangbay Falls are crowd-drawers.
*DASOL- A town gifted with tourist lures: Noah's Island Beach Resort, Tambobong Beach, Salabusoban Falls,
and Magunao Resort in Equia, all simply marvelous.
52. *INFANTA- Once the rice granary of Western Pangasinan, it now has its beaches to rely on for
exposure, the Balqui Island Beach Resort, for one.
*MABINI- This rustic town is visited for its Cacupangan Caves, formerly Balincaguing Caves, a
lair of 1001 bats, Balincaguing River, basin perfect for skinny dipping, Binmatya Spring and
*ALAMINOS CITY This is Hundred Islands town. The 100 islands, some 123 of them, is the
most popular tourist destination in the province.
*SUAL- The zigzagging way up Sualsalito and the panoramic view of Sual from up there are
reasons enough to visit this boom town in the making. The historic Aguinaldo debarkation
point is another count in too the alluring Cabalitian Island beach resort.
*DASOL- A town gifted with tourist lures: Noah's Island Beach Resort, Tambobong Beach,
Salabusoban Falls, and Magunao Resort in Equia, all simply marvelous.
53. 2ND DISTRICT
*LABRADOR- This boat building town beckons to tourists through a religious shrine, Lawis
Uyong, and two resorts, Tandoc and Stone Quarry Falls.
*BUGALLON- San Jose Hillside Resort is its main tourist attraction, but historically, its Salasa
Church offers more having housed, for instance, the bell that lures tourists to the Agoo Basilica
*AGUILAR- Once a bastion of the brave, and an anathema to invaders of yore, it is a
breathtaking dip in rusticana, with its green meadows and thick forests.
*MANGATAREM, URBIZTONDO - The "corn and cacao basket of Pangasinan", Urbiztondo
stands as a symbol of man's will to survive, metamorphosing from a sleepy town to a hive in a
matter of years.
*BASISTA- Once a part of San Carlos City, it is now a big town for its cottage industry and a
name in international markets for its handicrafts.
54. *LINGAYEN- An encomienda when Pangasinan was created, it was then designated
and remains the provincial capital. Lingayen earned a place in contemporary history
when American forces designated it the landing area for the liberation of Northern
Luzon from the Japanese. The town is likewise noted for the Limahong Channel
which the men of the Chinese pirate dug to elude the pursuing forces of Salcedo. Its
"bagoong", also known as maniboc, referring to its place of origin, Barangay
Maniboc, is the best in the market, local, national or international.
*BINMALEY- A standout for three things: the largest church in the province, its
furniture industry centered in Malindong, and its fishponds which gained for itself
the title "Bangus Queen of the Philippines."
SAN CARLOS CITY- Became a city through a congressional act authored by the late Congressman Angel B.
Fernandez after the late Speaker Eugenio Perez Sr. authored the city charter of Dagupan. The home town of
legendary hero Palaris is the seat of exportable handicrafts.
CALASIAO- Religious devotees flock to this town, thanks to its miraculous Sanctuario del Señor Tesoro,
chewy puto, tender Bocayo and coconut pastilles flavored with anise.
STA BARBARA- Tagged as the agricultural nursery of Pangasinan, it is expected to progress by leaps and
bounds with the Agricultural Training Institute (ATI) there, and with the entry of La Tondeña Distillery
Plant. Its mango-tree-lined highway offers a breather to motorists.
MAPANDAN- A nationally known spot in Mapandan is Barrio Golden, once selected as a "model barrio" in
integrated community development. "Tanggal Ya Bato" or stonewalls is its other tourist bait.
MALASIQUI- Like other Central Pangasinan towns, the Pangasinan dialect it its pure form is spoken here, in
lilting tones in fact. Three of its barangays, Canan, Palapar and Lareg-lareg, offer spots ideal for relaxation.
BAYAMBANG- The site of the biggest fishing sanctuary in the province, the Mangabul Fishing and Hunting
Park, and the best local school for teachers education, the Pangasinan State University-College of Education
(formerly Central Luzon Teachers College once referred to as "Normal School"), it is part of history as the
first national anthem was sung here by the revolutionary forces under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo.
56. 4TH DISTRICT
DAGUPAN CITY- The commercial, financial, educational and communication center North of
Manila, was traditionally called Nandaragupan meaning a "meeting place or rallying point". It
used to be part of Binalatongan, now San Carlos City, four centuries ago. The City by the Gulf
is where the great Pangasinan chieftain Andres Malong assembled his forces for a last stand
against the Spanish troops after which people began calling the place as Nandaragupan. It is
famous for its blue beach and Bonuan bangus.
SAN FABIAN- This town has always known for its beaches, nestled in a cove, so that only the
gentlest of waves ripple across the crystalline blue waters. Now it is also byword for its beach
resorts, rivaling those of La Union, its pawnpushres (it has the only chess school in the
country, in fact) and its amateur pugilists.
SAN JACINTO- A tobacco belt and one of the province's earliest municipalities, its people's
hospitality makes it ideal for residential purposes.
MANAOAG- Before Agoo, there was already Manaoag and inspite (or maybe because) of Agoo,
pilgrimage to this town has increased over the past few months. The trek to the shrine of
Nuestra Señora de Manaoag or "Apo Baket" or the Lady Who Calls which has come to be
known as the "Antipolo of the North" has never waned. The Virgin's in the outskirt of the town
is another well-visited spot for its curative springs.
BAUTISTA- In summer, watermelon abound in this town where Jose L. Palma wrote the lyrics of
the Philippine National Anthem. Julian Felipe, for his part, composed the patriotic hymn in a
house near the Bautista railroad station which stands up to this day.
ALCALA- Its long "Great Wall," actually that of the multi-million Agno River Control dike which
sometimes spares the town from the onslaught of floods, is a testament to man's efforts to
preserve himself and fend for himself from natural adversities.
STO TOMAS- With well-trimmed agoho trees, shrubs and bushes lining its streetsides, Sto. Tomas,
monickered the "cutest town" in Pangasinan. Looks like a dainty girl on her birthday.
VILLASIS- Hemmed in between two bustling areas, Urdaneta City and Carmen, Villasis is one of
the fastest developing town in the province. Considered as a "Vegetable Basket", it also thrives
on its rice, corn and tobacco plantations. Its hilly barangays situated along the Malasiqui
boundary is a perfect place for resort developers and agri-businessmen.
URDANETA CITY- Next to Dagupan City, it is most alive business-wise, what with its share of
banking institutions, multi-national firms, market complexes, entertainment row and cattle
trading center, the largest north of Manila.
58. LAOAC- The youngest town in Pangasinan has potentials to approximate the greatness of its
mother town, Manaoag, but it has yet to find what would make it unique.
BINALONAN- This town has to its name the titles "Model Urban Community" and "Cleanest
Municipality in the Philippines" garnered during the seventies.
POZORRUBIO- The Buccat Hill and the Sugcong Spring in this town are bywords in local
tourism. Its Dilan bamboocraft products are export fares.
SISON- Baguio-bound travellers make their entrances and exits and stopovers in this gateway to
the City of Pines. Its 'covenant' with cultural minorities, extensive barangay beautification
program and industrialization efforts are paving the way for its modernization. Residents of
this town get away from it all in Mountain bato, a compsite and Antong Creek, a picnickers'
SAN MANUEL- This hometown of Juan C. Laya, of Diwang Kayumanggi fame, is one of the
best rice producers of Pangasinan. It has a dam site which serves as a favorite picnic ground
for vacationists, the Butao Spring and a mountain boy scout campsite.
SAN NICOLAS- It this town lies the historic Red Arrow Movement, otherwise known as WWII
Villaverde Trail campsite, and the Agpay reforestation area with its crystal clear brooks.
ASINGAN- The hometown of first Pangasinense President, Fidel Valdez Ramos, is a "Vegetable
Country" for any which direction one looks, eggplants, ampalaya and tomatoes, in short,
"pinakbet," greet the eyes.
TAYUG- The premier town in the northeastern part of the province, it figured prominently in
Philippine history, having served as the site of the Colorum uprishing let by Pedro Calosa, an
incident immortalized by novelist Kerima Polotan-Tuvera.
NATIVIDAD- A farming town, Natividad has shed off its once sleepy profile, all because of Pila
resort, however underdeveloped, a hilly area frequented by picnickers.
60. STA MARIA- Grafted from the town of Tayug, Sta. Maria has quite a number of faith healers
flocked by those who seek to be eased off their discomforts. This town, with its pristine
beauty, provides a sofa for the senses.
SAN QUINTIN- Though its "Little Luneta" - its town plaza-has given way for other must-visit
places, its Dipalo Watershed is keeping them coming for its unique charm.
ROSALES- Pangasinan ends and begins in Rosales. Its Barangay Carmen in particular is the
take-off point to Dagupan City, Baguio City and Nueva Ecija. Its "tupig" is superb-reason
enough for a stopover.
BALUNGAO- Once visited for its hot springs, it is nevertheless an interesting tourist stopover for
an oddity, a Rizal monument built right in the middle of the road.
UMINGAN- A farming town, Umingan came into existence after its natives, harrassed no end by
bandits, fought back, putting an end to banditry ("inmingan") and started living a peaceful life.
61. 1572 – Juan de Salcedo, upon the orders of his grandfather Governor General Miguel Lopez de
Legazpi to explore and pacify northern Luzon, reaches
Pangasinan. A Spanish priest-historian, Fray Juan Ferrando, calls Salcedo the “first discoverer”
of Pangasinan. The province is now under the jurisdiction of Spain as an encomienda since April
1574-1575– The Chinese corsair Limahong, after being repulsed by the Spaniards in his bid to found
a colony in Manila, goes to Pangasinan and establishes his little kingdom within a fort in
Lingayen. His party is composed of men, women and children. He forces the natives to
cooperate with him by supplying him provisions and serving him and his people. Juan de
Salcedo pursues him and after months of blockade Limahong and his forces escape in August
1575 through a channel that they dug out into the China sea. Many of his men with their families
choose to stay behind in Lingayen.
1580 – Pangasinan is organized as an alcaldia mayor , a politico-civil administrative unit or province,
by Governor General Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa and receives its first alcalde mayor in the
person of Don Pedro Manrique.
1611 – The province of Pangasinan’s territorial limits are set by the superior government, thus
completing the requisites for a viable political subdivision: a defined territory, a set of
administrators, and law-abiding subjects. The province, as constituted, now include all the
coastal villages called “Pangasinan” and the inner areas called “Caboloan.”
62. 1762 – Palaris Revolt – Juan dela Cruz Palaris, also of Binalatongan, leads his people to complain to
the Spaniards about paying tributes. Encouraged by the defeat of the Spanish army and capture
of Manila by the British, they go on to make more demands and drive away all the Spaniards
from the capital town of Lingayen. For two years the rebels and their supporters in the province
taste freedom and power over the Spanish government but the capture of Palaris ends the
rebellion. To forget this sad episode the Spanish officials give the town “Binalatongan” its new
name “San Carlos” in honor of Spain’s reigning monarch Charles III.
1840 – The Casa Real (Royal House) is constructed in Lingayen. This 1,700 sqm building of stone
masonry and bricks is the provincial seat of government where the Alcalde Mayor resides and
holds office. It would be the venue of many historic events in Pangasinan and was used as the
“Juzgado” later on.
1855 – The Spanish government opens Sual as an official port of foreign trade. Rice is exported to
China and Macao from this port. It is also one of the country’s centers for shipbuilding, together
with Labrador, Lingayen and Dagupan.
December 27, 1897 – General Emilio Aguinaldo, accompanied by Spanish Governor General Primo
de Rivera and others, takes the train to the Dagupan terminal and travels on to Sual to board the
S.S. Uranus that is to bring him to exile in Hongkong to comply with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato.
Good afternoon I am your tour guide for this trip.
Sit back relax and fasten your seatbelt as we are about to start our fieldtrip to Ilocos Region
Air conditioned bus with Wifi connection
Region I referred to as Ilocos Region because it is home to a majority of Ilokanos and the seat of the Ilokano culture, heritage and language
There two distinct versions as to where the word “Ilocos” originated. In Isabelo de los Reyes “Historia de Ilocos” (1885), he said that it evolved from the word “ilog” (river).
Ilocos means “people in the river”, very much like the Tagalog’s “taga-ilog” which referred to the early settler’s living among riverbanks.
Located on the northwestern coast of Luzon island, it includes four (4) provinces: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union and Pangasinan