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The History Of The Cinema


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The History Of The Cinema

  2. 2. PRESENTORS <ul><li>Marilyn Monroe Charles Chaplin </li></ul>
  3. 3. MARILYN MONROE <ul><li>Marilyn Monroe (Los Angeles, California, USA, June 1, 1926 - Ibid, 5 August 1962), born Norma Jeane Mortenson and baptized as Norma Jeane Baker, was a model and actress of American film. Over time, became one of the most famous Hollywood actresses and one of the leading sex symbols of all time. </li></ul><ul><li>He began his career as a photographic model since 1946 and began playing bit parts in low budget films. The first played prominent roles in the film The Asphalt Jungle (1950) and All About Eve (1950). </li></ul>
  4. 4. CHARLES CHAPLIN <ul><li>Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (London, England, UK, April 16, 1889 - Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland, December 25, 1977) was an actor, director, writer, producer and Oscar-winning British composer in Hollywood.With nearly 90 silent films and sound, has grown into the most representative figure of the silent movies, which gave him worldwide fame and consideration of one of the great geniuses of cinema history. The character around which built much of his film career, and that gave fame was that of a man wandering with refined manners and dignity of a gentleman dressed in a close jacket, trousers and shoes larger its size, a bowler hat, a cane and a distinctive moustache. </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE FIRST MACHINE OF THE CINEMA <ul><li>The camera obscura is an optical instrument for obtaining a flat projection of an image outside the area within his area. Was one of the ancient device that led to the development of photography. The current photographic apparatus inherited from the old word camera pinhole cameras. </li></ul><ul><li>Schematic of a pinhole camera XVIII. Originalment century, was in a locked room whose only light source was a small hole in one wall through which light rays entering reflecting objects outside one of its walls. The hole acts as a converging lens and projected on the wall opposite the exterior image both vertically and horizontally inverted. </li></ul><ul><li>It was formerly used as an aid to drawing. The image projected onto paper or another medium that could provide guidance to draw on it. Later, when photosensitive materials were discovered, the camera obscura became pinhole camera (which uses a single hole as target). These cameras were severely constrained by the commitment necessary to establish the diameter of the opening, small enough so that the image had an acceptable definition, large enough for the exposure time not too long. The use of lenses or objective games such as the camera obscura became final on camera and since then evolved at different times. </li></ul>
  7. 7. FIRST FILM <ul><li>Films really blossomed in the 1920s, expanding upon the foundations of film from earlier years. Most US film production at the start of the decade occurred in or near Hollywood on the West Coast, although some films were still being made in New Jersey and in Astoria on Long Island (Paramount). By the mid-20s, movies were big business (with a capital investment totaling over $2 billion) with some theatres offering double features. By the end of the decade, there were 20 Hollywood studios, and the demand for films was greater than ever. Most people are unaware that the greatest output of feature films in the US occurred in the 1920s and 1930s (averaging about 800 film releases in a year) - nowadays, it is remarkable when production exceeds 500 films in a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout most of the decade, silent films were the predominant product of the film industry, having evolved from vaudevillian roots. But the films were becoming bigger (or longer), costlier, and more polished. They were being manufactured, assembly-line style, in Hollywood's 'entertainment factories,' in which production was broken down and organized into its various components (writing, costuming, makeup, directing, etc.). </li></ul>
  9. 9. THE MAJOR FILM STUDIOS: THE BIG FIVE <ul><li>Warner Bros : Pictures, incorporated in 1923 by Polish brothers (Jack, Harry, Albert, and Sam); in 1925, Warner Brothers merged with First National, forming Warner Bros.-First National Pictures; the studio's first principal asset was Rin Tin Tin; became prominent by 1927 due to its introduction of talkies (The Jazz Singer 1927), and early 30s gangster films; it was known as the &quot;Depression studio&quot;; in the 40s, it specialized in Bugs Bunny animations and other cartoons. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Adolph Zukor's Famous Players (1912) and Jesse Lasky's Feature Play - merged in 1916 to form Famous Players- Lasky Corporation; it spent $1 million on United Studios' property (on Marathon Street) in 1926; the Famous Players- Lasky Corporation became Paramount: studios in 1927, and was officially named Paramount Pictures in 1935; its greatest silent era stars were Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks, and Rudolph Valentino; Golden Age stars included Mae West, W.C. Fields, Bing Crosby, Bob Hope, and director Cecil B. DeMille </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>RKO: (Radio-Keith-Orpheum) Pictures, evolved from the Mutual Film Corporation (1912), was established in 1928 as a subsidiary of RCA; it was formed by RCA, Keith-Orpheum Theatres, and the FBO Company (Film Booker's Organization) - which was owned by Joseph P. Kennedy (who had already purchased what remained of Mutual); this was the smallest studio of the majors; kept financially afloat with top-grossing Astaire-Rogers musicals in the 30s, King Kong (1933), and Citizen Kane(1941) at one time, RKO was acquired by eccentric millionaire Howard Hughes </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Marcus Loew of Loew's, Inc., was the parent firm of what eventually became Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer . Metro Pictures Corporation was a production company founded in 1916 by Richard A. Rowland and Louis B. Mayer. In 1918, Mayer left this partnership to start up his own production company in 1918, called Louis B. Mayer Pictures. In 1920, Metro Pictures Corporation (with its already-acquired Goldwyn Pictures Corporation) was purchased by early theatre exhibitor Marcus Loew of Loew's Inc. In another acquisition, Loew merged his 'Metro-Goldwyn production company with Louis B. Mayer Pictures. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Fox Film Corporation/Foundation: founded in 1912 by NY nickelodeon owner William Fox (originally a garment industry worker), was first known for Fox Movietone news and then B-westerns; its first film was Life's Shop Window (1914); it later became 20th-Century Fox, formed through the 1935 merger of 20th Century Pictures Company (founded in 1933 by Darryl F. Zanuck) and Fox; it became famous for Shirley Temple films in the mid-30s and Betty Grable musicals in the 40s </li></ul>
  14. 14. THE MINOR FILM STUDIOS: THE LITTLE THREE <ul><li>Three smaller, minor studios were dubbed The Little Three, because each of them lacked one of the three elements required in vertical integration - owning their own theaters </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Universal Pictures : </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Film Manufacturing, founded by Carl Laemmle in 1912; formed from a merger of Laemmle's own IMP - Independent Motion Picture Company (founded in 1909) with Bison 101, the U. S. production facilities of French studio Éclair, Nestor Film Co., and several other film companies; its first successes were W.C. Fields and Abbott and Costello comedies, the Flash Gordon serial, and Woody Woodpecker cartoons </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>United Artists: formed in 1919 by movie industry icons Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Sr., Charlie Chaplin, and director D.W. Griffith as an independent company to produce and distribute their films; United Artists utilized an 18-acre property owned by Pickford and Fairbanks, known as the Pickford-Fairbanks Studio, and later named United Artists Studio in the 1920s </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Columbia Pictures: originally the C.B.C. Film Sales Company in 1920 founded by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn, and Joseph Brandt, and officially named Columbia in 1924; their studios opened at the old location of Christie-Nestor Studios; established prominence with It happened one night (1934), Rita Hayworth films, Lost Horizon(1937) The Jolson Story (1946), and Batman serials. </li></ul>
  18. 18. FILM WITH 3D <ul><li>Digital media playback of hi-resolution 2K files has at least a twenty year history with early RAIDs feeding custom frame buffer systems with large memories. Content was usually restricted to several minutes of material. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of content between remote locations was slow and had limited capacity. It wasn't until the late 1990s that feature length projects could be sent over the 'wire‘. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital projectors capable of 2K resolution began deploying in 2005, and since 2006, the pace has accelerated. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital cinema refers to the use of digital technology to distribute and project motion pictures. A movie can be distributed via hard drives, optical disks (such as DVD's) or satellite and projected using a digital projector instead of a conventional film projector. Digital cinema is distinct from high-definition television and in particular, is not dependent on using television or HDTV standards, aspect ratios, or frame rates. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>ONE OF THE GREAT HALLS TO SEE MOVIES WITH 3D </li></ul>
  21. 21. TECHNICAL TEAM TO MAKE A FILM <ul><li>Production: The film producer is responsible for organizational and technical aspects of making a movie. She is responsible for staff recruitment, funding and contact work with distributors to disseminate the work. If your task is limited to some specific areas of technical or creative process, it is called &quot;co-producer.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Address: The film director is the professional who directs the making of a film, the head of the staging, provide guidance to the actors and technical crew, taking all the creative decisions, following their particular style or vision. Overseeing the scenery and costumes, and all other functions necessary to successfully carry out the shooting. Also included in the area, the assistant director and the script called or continuity. On the other hand, works in conjunction with the principal actors. </li></ul><ul><li>Sound: In running, the makers of the film are the soundman sound and microphones. Are added in postproduction sound editor, composer of incidental music and sound effects artists (Foley) and dubbing, to generate the original soundtrack . </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Writer: The writer is in charge of preparing the script, either an original story, adapted from a previous script or other literary work. Many writers have become writers of their own literary works. Within the screenplay distinguished literary or film script, which narrates the film in terms of image (descriptions) and sound (effects and dialogue), and is divided into acts and scenes, and the technical script, which adds to a series previous technical guidance (size of plane, camera, etc..) serving as the technical team in its work. They can also collaborate with other writers screenwriter (co-writers) or have dialogist who specialize in writing dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>Photo: The cinematographer is the person who determines how it is to see the film, ie, who determines, based on the requirements of the director and history, the visual aspects of the film: the framing, lighting , optics used, the camera moves, etc.. He is responsible for all the visuals of the film, also from a conceptual standpoint, determining the overall tone and atmosphere optical image of the film. The camera equipment is the largest and comprises, besides the director of photography, cameraman, first assistant cameraman or foci, the second assistant camera charger negative, the gaffer, or chief, electric power or operators lights, dolly grip or operators or dolly, camera stabilizers (steady cam) and other assistants or apprentices. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Assembly: The film montage technique is the successive assembly of shots recorded on photographic film to provide them in narrative form. It consists in choosing (once the movie was shot), sort and collate a selection of plans registered as an idea and a particular dynamics, from the script, the idea of the director and the contribution of the editor. </li></ul><ul><li>Art: The art area can have an art director or more, if necessary. In the case of more than one, they are coordinated by a production designer, who is in charge of the overall aesthetics of the film. These managers have assistants and specific charge, as set designers, costume makers, seamstresses, makeup artists, hairdressers / as, stagehand and other additional members as painters, carpenters or builders. They also rely on specialists in this area and optical visual effects are made in the shooting, and other effects achieved during the post-production. </li></ul><ul><li>Stunts: The stunt doubles action or are the people who replaced the actor in the stunts. Where the physical integrity of the actor or actress may be at risk. In some cases, demand action scene the actors some of whom lack skills in this case a specialist is hired to perform the scene. In other cases the same actor is competent to perform the action scene but replaces it with a double to avoid the risk of a crash to delay the entire shooting. </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboards: The storyboard is used to define the sequences and plane changes, movements and positions of actors in each of the scenes before you shoot it, in it we see as if it were a comic full movie.  </li></ul>