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Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management (2011)


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Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management (2011)

  1. 1. By Juan D. Machin M. Tallinn University Institute of Information Studies March 2011 Part of the Information and Knowledge Management Course for DILL 4 students
  2. 2. <ul><li>Knowledge-Based Systems </li></ul>Background concepts Liao's Categories of KM Technologies Data Mining ICT KM Framework Expert Systems Database Technology Modeling Tyndale's Taxonomy of Knowledge Management Tools Intranets Web portals Content management Document management systems Information retrieval engines Relational and object databases Electronic publishing systems Groupware and workflow systems Push technologies Agents Help-desk applications Customer relationship management Data warehousing Data mining Business process re-engineering Knowledge creation applications IKM and Web 2.0 Introduction Some words on commercial tools
  3. 6. IMS: software that enables a range of practices involving information. KMS: an instance of IMS emphasizing an approach to build knowledge out of information (managed or contained). Companies “try” to build KMS to manage organizational learning and business know-how. Tseng (2008)
  4. 7. Early (mid 90s) KMS were just corporate yellow pages as indexes of professionals by expertise in an organization Then, semantic technologies for search & retrieval and the development of e-learning tools for communities of practice ( Capozzi 2007) . social networking tools allow unstructured, self-governing or ecosystem approaches to the transfer, capture and creation of knowledge, and with it, the development of communities and networks.
  5. 8. Main functions of KM aided by IT (Sher & Lee, 2004, pp. 3-4) : 1. knowledge creation (black box) a knowledge spiral framework (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995) has been proposed as having more descriptive value in explaining the process of socialization, articulation, combination, and internalization. 3. knowledge sharing: provides employees encountering similar decisions short-cuts to solutions and thus enhances learning, enabling employees to respond to environmental change at an increased pace with less cost.
  6. 9. <ul><li>Main functions of KM aided by IT (Sher & Lee, 2004, pp. 3-4) : </li></ul><ul><li>2. Accumulation of knowledge, often results in increased dependence on the infrastructure. Patterns of knowledge flow: </li></ul><ul><li>collecting new knowledge; intensifies vertical flow; </li></ul><ul><li>codifying knowledge requires horizontal and vertical flows </li></ul><ul><li>combining new and old knowledge, mainly affecting horizontal flows. </li></ul><ul><li>uncertainties about relevance are resolved via vertical flows, </li></ul>
  7. 10. Liao (2003) surveyed knowledge management development using a literature review and classification of articles from 1995 to 2002. He classified KM technologies using seven categories: 1. KM Framework 2. Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) 3. Data Mining (DM) 4. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 5. Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Expert Systems (ES) 6. Database Technology (DT) 7. Modeling
  8. 11. Defined by Liao as technological frameworks created from different KM theories such as: Knowledge creation (Nonaka et al, 1996), Knowledge assets (Wilkins et al, 1997), and (Wiig et al, 1997), Organizational learning (Heijst et al, 1997), Organizational innovation (Johannessen et al, 1999), Intellectual capital (Liebowitz and Wright, 1999), Strategy management (Drew, 1999) and (Hendriks and Vriens, 1999), Organizational impact (Hendriks and Vriens, 1999), Systems thinking (Rubenstein-Montano et al, 2001), Artificial intelligence/Expert systems (Liebowitz, 2001), Knowledge inertia (Liao, 2002).
  9. 12. <ul><li>Human centered </li></ul><ul><li>Roots on artificial intelligence research, they attempt to emulate human knowledge in computer systems (Wiig, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>Components: knowledge base, inference engine, knowledge engineering tool, user interface (Dhaliwal & Benbasat, 1996). </li></ul><ul><li>Alexip > supervision of refining and petrochemical processes FAILSAFE > product quality </li></ul><ul><li>AppBuilder > develops decision support systems </li></ul><ul><li>HACCP > change management. </li></ul>
  10. 13. “ The process of selecting, exploring, and modeling large amounts of data to uncover previously unknown patterns.” (Tyndale, 2002, p. 6) . Based on knowledge discovery on databases Amazon recommends the user similar products...
  11. 14. This category is broadly based on Information and Communication Technologies for exchanging and sharing data. Using applications or platforms that make use of the Internet, Intranets or Virtual Private Networks.
  12. 15. <ul><li>“… an artificial intelligence method for capturing knowledge, knowledge-intensive computer programs that capture the human expertise” (Laudon & Laudon, 2002) . </li></ul><ul><li>For computers to be able to make sense of this knowledge, it has to be modeled in a way that computers are able to process it. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>“… collection of data organized to efficiently serve many applications by centralizing data and minimizing redundant data” (McFadden, Hoffer, & Prescott, 2000) . </li></ul><ul><li>This type of system allows data centralization and provides access to this data to different applications. </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>intends to build relationships based on logical model design for different domains of knowledge or problems. </li></ul><ul><li>“ provide quantitative methods to analyze subjective data to represent or acquire human knowledge with inductive logic programming or algorithms so that artificial intelligence, cognitive science and others […] implement technologies for KM development.&quot; (Liao, 2003, p. 6) </li></ul>
  15. 18. 1. Intranets Distribution system that uses Internet tools and technology. Access company documents (policies, manuals procedures), software (!), scheduling, databases, newsletters, publishing. 2. Web portals Provides links to other sites to be accessed directly by clicking on a designated part of it, or by browsing through categories.
  16. 19. <ul><li>3. Content management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Intra/internet, databases, file servers, document management systems. Personalization usually set by users. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Document management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily used in the collection, storage, and distribution of “artifacts of knowledge” in an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced features of document management systems provide version control, authentication, and translation. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization without paper </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>5. Information retrieval engines </li></ul><ul><li>Used for indexing, searching, and recalling data, particularly text or other unstructured forms. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Relational and object databases </li></ul><ul><li>Data is stored in tables and categorized by fields. Each group of information is a record. </li></ul><ul><li>Are designed to build links or relationships between two or more different tables. </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>7. Electronic publishing systems </li></ul><ul><li>The distribution of information in digital format, sometimes including interactive software. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in the potential of the Internet, has turned electronic publishing into a mass-market industry after years of being limited to specialist information. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative means / If the Industry let us… </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>8. Groupware and workflow systems </li></ul><ul><li>Allow an organization to automate business processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver work items to appropriate users, and help the users by invoking appropriate applications and utilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow tracking the progress of the work item and generate statistics on how well the the processes are doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization without paper </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><ul><li>9. Push technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Internet-based communication where the request for a given transaction is initiated by the publisher or central server” Wikipedia (today) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced when PointCast Inc. transformed a PC's screen saver into a news feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Email, RSS? web applications for market data distribution, chat/messaging systems, auctions, gambling, gaming… </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>10. Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous, intelligent, collaborative, adaptive computational entity. </li></ul><ul><li>Their, intelligence is the ability to infer and execute needed actions, and seek and incorporate relevant information; adapting over time to their human users' information needs, given certain goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Airlines w/hotel/taxi support </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>11. Help-desk applications </li></ul><ul><li>Allow to manage client support, database for helpdesk issues, notifying support HR and tracking problem resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Use: call tracking, problem resolution, knowledge base, action log, progress notes, email support & auto-notification… </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>12. Customer relationship management </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy for delivering customer service to acquire, develop, and retain a company's customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Demands understanding of important things for customers and developing programs to consistently satisfy those needs. </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>13. Data warehousing </li></ul><ul><li>Central repository of information drawn from different sources of an enterprise, as well as external data. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers and specialists use it as a data source for decision support applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires greater attention to high-level business requirements/goals and metadata. </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>14. Data mining (again) </li></ul><ul><li>Process of selecting, exploring, and modeling large amounts of data to uncover previously unknown patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>companies can exploit data about customers' buying patterns/behavior for a greater understanding of their motivations to anticipate demand or increase acquisition. </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>15. Business process re-engineering </li></ul><ul><li>” analysis and design of workflows and process within and between organizations” Davenport and Short (1990) . </li></ul><ul><li>“ radical redesign of existing business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in performance measures.” Teng, Grover, Jeong, and Kettinger (1995) </li></ul>
  27. 30. 16. Knowledge creation applications Include: brainstorming applications, concepts mapping, mind mapping, decision support applications. From the earlier list KM framework...
  28. 31. Glorified content management systems? Too many or too few features? Difficult to adopt, utility vs. effort Major re-engineering/organization born that way Best open source KMS? MediaWiki?
  29. 32. <ul><li>Success in creation, distribution and sharing of information </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose/content is platform oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Some lessons to learn: </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of control, </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis have a good chance to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs: the organization finds an expert, with prestige among others, willing to write, having what to write and knowing how. </li></ul><ul><li>Social computing evolves from technology, people </li></ul><ul><li>and environment. (Levy, 2009, p. 13) </li></ul>
  30. 33. Google doesn’t have answers > sites like forums or Q&A sites Web 2.0 > user generated content > experts anyone? Wisdom of the crowd Using social networking tools in combination, you can create a platform for the distribution and sharing of knowledge. Starting a wiki can serve for the establishment of an online community of practice.
  31. 34. Corporate and web 2.0 are different environments, operate under different rules. What is acceptable in social or leisure time is not necessarily acceptable professional time. Why has the corporate world been so slow to adopt these technologies? Necessary paradigm shift related to how we process information, from hierarchical order and paper to higher levels of comfort with user contribution, less order, and a &quot;please, no paper&quot; attitude. (White, P., 2009, para. 5-6) Meaningfulness…
  32. 35. Folksonomy can succeed in a world where so many people tag, that there will be enough similar tagging to what is wanted by each person, no matter how he or she thinks. Organizational world is much smaller and therefore the rules are different. It has already experienced this difference, while trying to copy internet forums to organizational internal discussion groups, which yielded much smaller success. (Levy, 2009, pp. 13-14) In the Internet, it is enough that a minority share and we will feel like the whole world is sharing. (Levy, 2009, pp. 13-14)
  33. 36. Success will not be triggered by adopting tools. IKM world might not be mature enough to loose control and move to altruism without any organizational central guidance. It is too soon to let free, and enable people to share where and only when they wish. Organizations do not have the mass of people of the WEB, a critical factor of its success. The issue of the value of the intangible
  34. 37. <ul><li>Capozzi, M. M. (2007). Knowledge Management Architectures Beyond Technology. First Monday 12 (6). </li></ul><ul><li>Dhaliwal, J. S., & Benbasat, I. (1996). The use and effects of knowledgebased system explanations: theoretical foundations and a framework for empirical evaluation. Information Systems Research, 7(3), pp. 342–362. </li></ul><ul><li>Drew, S. (1999). Building knowledge management into strategy: making sense of a new perspective. Long Range Planning, 32(1), pp. 130–136. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonaka, I., Umemoto, K., & Senoo, D. (1996). From information processing to knowledge creation: a paradigm shift in business management. Technology in Society, 18(2), pp. 203–218. </li></ul><ul><li>Heijst, G., Spek, R., & Kruizinga, E. (1997). Corporate memories as a toolfor knowledge management. Expert Systems With Applications, 13(1), pp. 41–54. </li></ul><ul><li>Hendriks, P. H. J., & Vriens, D. J. (1999). Knowledge-based systems and knowledge management: friends or foes? Information and Management, 35, pp. 113–125. </li></ul><ul><li>Johannessen, J. A., Olsen, B., & Olaisen, (1999). Aspects of innovation theory based on knowledge-management. International Journal of Information Management, 19, pp. 121–139. </li></ul><ul><li>Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2002). Essential of management information systems (5th ed). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser, E. & Prusak, L. (2001) Preserving knowledge in an uncertain world. Sloan Management Review. pp. 101–102. </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>Levy, M. (2009). WEB 2.0 implications on knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 13, No. 1. (2009), pp. 120-134. </li></ul><ul><li>Liao, S. H. (2002). Problem solving and knowledge inertia. Expert Systems With Applications, 22, pp. 21–31. </li></ul><ul><li>Liao, S (2003). Knowledge management technologies and applications--literature review from 1995 to 2002. Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 25, No. 2. (August 2003), pp. 155-164. </li></ul><ul><li>Liebowitz, J. (2001). Knowledge management and its link to artificial intelligence. Expert Systems With Applications, 20, pp. 1–6. </li></ul><ul><li>Liebowitz, J., & Wright, K. (1999). Does measuring knowledge make cents? Expert Systems With Applications, 17, pp. 99–103. </li></ul><ul><li>McFadden, F. R., Hoffer, J. A., & Prescott, M. B. (2000). Modern database management (5th ed). New York: Prentice-Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Rubenstein-Montano, B., Liebowitz, J., Buchwalter, J., McCaw, D., Newman, B., & Rebeck, K. (2001). A systems thinking framework for knowledge management. Decision Support Systems, 31, pp. 5–16. </li></ul><ul><li>Sher, P. J. & Lee, V. C. (2004). Information technology as a facilitator for enhancing dynamic capabilities through knowledge management. Information & Management, 41(8). pp. 933-945. </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Tseng, S. (2008). The effects of information technology on knowledge management systems. Expert Syst. Appl. 35, 1-2 (July 2008), pp. 150-160. </li></ul><ul><li>Tyndale, P. (2002). A taxonomy of knowledge management software tools: origins and applications. Evaluation and Program Planning. 25(2), pp. 183-190. </li></ul><ul><li>White, P. (2009). Can Web 2.0 Really Help the Knowledge Management Cause?. In: KM Edge. Retrieved 4 December 2010 from: </li></ul><ul><li>Wiig, K. M. (1994). Knowledge management. The central management focus for intelligent-acting organization. Arlington: Schema Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Wiig, K. M., Hoog, R., & Spex, R. (1997). Supporting knowledge management: a selection of methods and techniques. Expert Systems With Applications, 13(1), pp. 15–27. </li></ul><ul><li>Wilkins, J., Wegen, B., & Hoog, R. (1997). Understanding and valuing knowledge assets: overview and method. Expert Systems With Applications, 13(1), pp. 55–72. </li></ul>