35 Insp, Ndt, Stat Reqmts Fope


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35 Insp, Ndt, Stat Reqmts Fope

  2. 2. <ul><li>What is Inspection? </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection involves the scrutiny of an item and its classification into </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; conforming&quot; or &quot;non-conforming&quot; (or &quot;defective&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>There are two common routes to this: </li></ul><ul><li>Measure some physical parameter and compare with a standard specification limit </li></ul><ul><li>Scrutinize the item and subjectively compare it against a standard. </li></ul><ul><li>The standard can be in the form of a description with or without visual aid (VA). </li></ul><ul><li>There are two critical questions to ask about any inspection process : </li></ul><ul><li>Are we measuring/ scrutinizing the right characteristic? </li></ul><ul><li>Have we set the boundary between conforming and non-conforming in the right place? </li></ul>INSPECTION
  3. 3. INSPECTION <ul><li>WHY INSPECT? </li></ul><ul><li>Static equipment in 99% of the cases are single line equipment and any leak, corrosion, damage needing immediate repairs will require stopping of operation of the unit, in turn affecting the business of the unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Static equipment inspection ensures that the Company’s assets remain in a satisfactory condition i.e. fit for purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic reasons for inspection are to determine the physical condition of the vessel and to determine the type, rate, and causes of deterioration. </li></ul><ul><li>This information is carefully documented after each inspection. With this data, safety can be maintained , the period of operation without a shutdown can be extended , the rate of deterioration can sometimes be reduced , and future repair and replacement requirements can be estimated . </li></ul>
  4. 4. FAILURE AVOIDANCE MODEL Design Materials Fabrication Inspection Product
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive inspection programmes based on statutory requirements, Company policies </li></ul><ul><li>Effective inspection history and inspection record system </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor the equipment; report deviations to management, advise on consequences of the duration and on possible remedial action. </li></ul><ul><li>Advise on new equipment design; repairs and modifications on existing equipment as per statutory and company requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Advise on correct selection and application of materials and design cases to ensure safety and integrity of existing and new assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain professional working relationships with the statutory authorities </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>To achieve these objectives, following system is adopted: </li></ul><ul><li>Step1: Recording information about physical condition of the process unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Step2: Analysis of the recorded information and recommending actions </li></ul><ul><li>Step3: Verification that adequate action is being/has been taken consistent with recommended actions and according to relevant standards, codes and quality control requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Step4: Updating of plant records following inspection repairs/renewal to re-establish current condition and recommend next inspection date. </li></ul>
  7. 7. TYPES OF INSPECTION <ul><li>SHOP INSPECTION (Vendor works) </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensional tolerances </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Material Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Review of MTCs, Heat treatment charts, WPS etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Witnessing hydrotest. </li></ul><ul><li>FIELD INSPECTION (On/Off stream inspections) </li></ul><ul><li>Ladder, platforms, foundations, supports, Anchor bolts, </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation and protective coatings </li></ul><ul><li>Nozzles </li></ul><ul><li>External surface, Bulges or distortions </li></ul><ul><li>Weld seams </li></ul><ul><li>Lined and/or unlined areas </li></ul>
  8. 8. INSPECTION TECHNIQUES <ul><li>1. VISUAL </li></ul><ul><li> - Direct Visual Inspection </li></ul><ul><li> - Remote Visual Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>2. NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DPT (Dye Penetrant Test) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MPT (Magnetic Particle Test) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RT (Radiography Test) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UT (Ultrasonic Test) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Eddy current Testing (ET Test) </li></ul><ul><li>3. PRESSURE TESTING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumatic testing </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. VISUAL TEST <ul><li>“ Mother” of inspection; used to detect and examine surface flaws. </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Anything which needs to be inspected viz. Corrosion, deposits, cracks, surface finish, dead legs, piping supports, piping hangers, insulation, bolting, leaks, injection points etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual inspection can be aided by magnifications and/or light viz. Magnifying lens, Rotating mirrors, Borescopes, Fibroscope etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In-situ metallography vide replica method provides information of metallurgical structure and also the topography of the examining surface. </li></ul>
  10. 10. DYE PENETRANT TEST <ul><li>Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Surface tension, capillary action of the penetrant (dye) </li></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning, Dye/penetrant application, Dwell time (5-8 mins), Cleaning, Developing, Dwell time (5-8 mins), Inspect </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>To detect surface discontinuities viz. cracks, open porosities etc. for both ferrous and non-ferrous materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Normal and Fluorescent (for detecting tight cracks) </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>ASME Sec V </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>ASME Sec VIII Div I </li></ul>
  11. 11. DYE PENETRANT TEST Cleaning Dye application Crack plane Cleaning and Developing Inspection of indication
  12. 12. MAGNETIC PARTICLE TEST <ul><li>Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic flux leakage due to discontinuities </li></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning, Induce magnetism vide prods, sprinkle Fe powder, Inspect </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>To detect surface/sub-surface discontinuities viz. cracks, porosities etc. for magnetic materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Normal: Wet/Dry; Fluorescent: Wet/Dry </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>As per ASME Sec V </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>ASME Sec VIII Div I </li></ul>
  13. 13. MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION Magnetic field lines Defect Flux leakage (Fe powder accumulation) Magnetic field Job Magnetizing current Magnetic field
  14. 14. ULTRASONIC TEST <ul><li>Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection of sound waves at interfaces of different media. 1-10 MHz frequency generated by piezo-electric effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning, Couplant application, Inspect using UT probe </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Thk measurement, corrosion, laminations, cracks etc discontinuities. </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Normal beam, Angle beam </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>As per ASME Sec V </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>ASME Sec VIII Div I </li></ul>
  15. 15. ULTRASONIC TESTING (Normal beam) Thickness = Velocity of sound in steel x time/2
  16. 16. ULTRASONIC TESTING (Angle beam)
  17. 17. RADIOGRAPHY TEST <ul><li>Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Differential absorption of radiation due difference in densities </li></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Place radiographic film, Expose to radiation (exposure time), Develop the film (developing time). Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Voluminous defects viz. porosities, slag, lack of fusion/penetration etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Single wall single image, Double wall single image, Double wall double image </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>As per ASME Sec V </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>ASME Sec VIII Div I </li></ul>
  19. 19. EDDY CURRENT TESTING <ul><li>Principle </li></ul><ul><li>An electromagnetic nondestructive testing method in which eddy current flow is induced in the object. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils where they are detected and measured by suitable instrumentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning, Surface finish, Inspect using ET probe </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Thk measurement, corrosion, cracks etc discontinuities. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>As per ASME Sec V </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>ASME Sec VIII Div I </li></ul>
  21. 21. THERMAL TEST <ul><li>Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature differences detected by IR detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><li>IR detection systems viz. Thermography camera/IR gun </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Hot spots, leak detection </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Normal temperature, High temperature (using filters) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Other Inspection Instruments used </li></ul><ul><li>Infra Red Thermography </li></ul><ul><li>Video scopy </li></ul><ul><li>Automated Ultrasonic Scanning of reformer tubes (H-Scan) </li></ul><ul><li>Laser beam inspection of Coke drums </li></ul><ul><li>Acoustic Emission (AE) Testing. </li></ul><ul><li>Low frequency electromagnetic Technique (LFET) for tank bottom inspection. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternating current field measurement technique (ACFM) for Marine structures. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>HYDROTEST </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrotest is done for two reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check integrity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check for leaks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrity check is at </li></ul><ul><li>(1.5 x design pressure x temperature correction) </li></ul><ul><li>New equipment : 30 mins to 1 hour. Old equipment : 5 to 20 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Leak test is at 2/3 hydrotest pressure. No time limit. </li></ul><ul><li>BEWARE OF DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TEST IN </li></ul><ul><li>EXCHANGERS </li></ul>PRESSURE TESTING
  24. 24. HYDROTEST PRECAUTIONS Know the correct pressure. Lock expansion bellows Vent properly. Use calibrated pressure gages. Gage range shall be 1.5 to 4 times the pressure to be maintained. Use two pressure gages. Pressurize in steps especially if hydrotest pressure is more than 40 barg. If in delay of arrival of inspector, reduce pressure to less than design pressure. Do not leave pressurized equipment unattended especially in summer. Open vent to depressurize. Drain only with vent in open condition.
  25. 25. PNEUMATIC TESTING Pneumatic test is dangerous because of the high amount of energy stored in a compressed gas. Other precautions indicated for hydrotest is applicable for pneumatic test also.
  26. 26. STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>Indian Boiler Regulations (IBR) </li></ul><ul><li>Gujarat Factories Act (GFA) </li></ul><ul><li>Static and Mobile Pressure Vessels (SMPV) </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>IBR (INDIAN BOILER REGULATION) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Boiler” means any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 liters in capacity used expressly for generating steam under pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Steam pipe” any pipe through which steam passes at pressures greater than 3 bars or having dia. greater than 10”. </li></ul><ul><li>All steam generators shall be inspected by the competent persons appointed by IBR once in 12 months. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of process unfired boilers (waster heat boilers) exemption may be granted for inspection of the boilers by the competent persons once in 24 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual inspection and Hydrotest </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>SMPV (STATIC AND MOBILE PRESSURE VESSELS) </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable in our case to Spheres, Nitrogen storage vessels and the relief devices installed on the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection of spheres and Nitrogen vessels : Frequency 05 years </li></ul><ul><li>Visual inspection, Magnetic Particle examination of all welds, Ultrasonic examination of TEE joints, Hydrotest. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection of Relief devices : Frequency 01 year </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>GUJARAT FACTORIES ACT </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect equipment externally once in 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out internal examination every year </li></ul><ul><li>If this is not possible then carry out hydrotest once every 2 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to continuous nature of operation or unit carry out detailed ultrasonic test once every 4 years </li></ul><ul><li>OISD (OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE) </li></ul><ul><li>There is no statutory code that specifies an inspection frequency for storage tanks. OISD guidelines are used for fixing inspection frequency. Range 5 - 10 years </li></ul>
  30. 30. Inspection Management Guidelines
  31. 31. Factors affecting Inspection Frequency
  32. 32. <ul><li>DESIGN/INSPECTION – CODES & STANDARDS </li></ul><ul><li>Few important codes and standards used in Refinery: </li></ul><ul><li>ASME Sec VIII Div 1 & 2 - for pressure vessels </li></ul><ul><li>ASME Sec IX- Welding & Brazing Qualifications. </li></ul><ul><li>IBR - for boilers </li></ul><ul><li>TEMA - for shell & tube heat exchangers </li></ul><ul><li>API 661 - for air fin coolers </li></ul><ul><li>API 650 - for storage tanks </li></ul><ul><li>API 572 - inspection of Pressure Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>API 560 - for fired heaters </li></ul><ul><li>API 520 I/ II - for Relief valves </li></ul><ul><li>API 598 - for Valve inspection and testing </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI B 31.3 - for process piping </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI B 16.5 - for Pipe flanges and flanged fittings </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>