Punctuation marks.

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Punctuation marks.

  1. 1. PUNCTUATION MARKS<br />By Juan Pablo Vanegas<br />
  2. 2. Punctuation depends on sentence structure and the logical order of ideas.<br />The first thing is to know what makes a sentence and how that determines the punctuation to be used.<br />
  3. 3. What Makes  a Sentence?<br />MY PARENTS AND ME<br />GO<br />FOR A WALK.<br />SUBJECT<br />COMPLEMENT<br />VERB<br />
  4. 4. PHRASES ARE DIFFERENT FROM SENTENCES BECAUSE THEY DON’T HAVE A<br />SUBJECT AND A VERB.<br />FOR EXAMPLE:<br />WHEN THESE PHRASES COME AT THE BEGINNING OF A SENTENCE, THEY END WITH A COMMA, AND THEN COMES THE SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE.<br />EVERY MORNING,<br />AFTER SOME TIME,<br />DURING THE WAR,<br />PHRASES GIVE YOU THE CONTEXT FOR <br />WHAT YOU WILL TELL OF THE SUBJECT AND<br />THE VERB OF YOUR SENTENCE.<br />AT THE GYM,<br />WITH HIS HELP,<br />
  5. 5. WHAT IS THE SUBJECT, VERB AND COMPLEMENT OF THESE SENTENCES?<br />EVERY MORNING,<br />MY PARENTS AND ME<br />GO<br />FOR A WALK.<br />MOST OF THE TIMES,<br />MY STUDENTS<br />DON’T THINK<br />GRAMMAR<br />IS<br />VERY EASY<br />
  6. 6. A SENTENCE CAN BE COMPOSED OF MORE THAN ONE SUBJECT AND ONE VERB.<br />THAT NIGHT, <br />THE MAN<br />BECAUSE<br />HE<br />MADE<br />A DECISION<br />DISCOVERED<br />THE TRUTH,<br />BUT<br />SHE<br />NEVER<br />KNEW<br />WHAT HAPPENED.<br />WRITING THE LETTER,<br />AFTER<br />SHE<br />FINISHED <br />THE MAN<br />TOOK<br />IT<br />TO THE POST OFFICE<br />NEVER USE A COMMA BEFORE OR AFTER BECAUSE<br />
  7. 7. BE CAREFUL WHEN YOU HAVE TWO CLAUSES. You use punctuation depending on the order of the clauses<br />NOTICE THE COMMA<br />WHEN SHE CAME INTO THE OFFICE,<br />THE MAN OPENED HIS EYES WIDE.<br />THE MAN OPENED HIS EYES WIDE<br />WHEN SHE CAME INTO THE OFFICE.<br />
  8. 8. Other examples with clauses<br />If Carlos comes to the party, <br />Lisa will be very happy.<br />CLAUSE 1<br />CLAUSE 2<br />NOTICE THE COMMA IN THE FIRST CLAUSE<br />BUT IF WE INVERT THE ORDER OF THE CLAUSES…<br />Lisa will be very happy if Carlos comes to the party.<br />NO COMMA THIS TIME<br />
  9. 9. Most complex sentences have an independentand a dependent clause.<br />1.Independent: A clause that can stand by itself and still make sense. An independent clause could be its own sentence, but is often part of a larger structure, combined with other independent clauses and with dependent clauses. Independent clauses are sometimes called essential or restrictive clauses.<br />2.Dependent: A clause that cannot stand by itself. It depends on something else, an independent clause, for its meaning. A dependent clause trying to stand by itself would be a sentence fragment. Dependent clauses are sometimes called subordinate, nonessential, or nonrestrictive clauses. We will review the different kinds of dependent clauses.<br />
  10. 10. EXAMPLES.<br />When JP arrived, all the girls got ready.<br />IF YOU SAY THE FIRST CLAUSE, IT SOUNDS INCOMPLETE: WHEN JP ARRIVED…. WHAT??<br />THIS IS WHY IT IS CALLED DEPENDENT.<br />IF A DEPENDENT CLAUSE BEGINS THE SENTENCE, THERE MUST BE A COMMA<br />BEFORE THE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.<br />WHEN<br />IF<br />DEPENDENT CLAUSES ARE INTRODUCED BY<br />WHILE<br />AFTER<br />BEFORE<br />
  11. 11. BEFORE<br />ALWAYS USE A COMMA<br />THE FOLLOWING IF THERE IS A SUBJECT AND A VERB AFTER THE CONNECTOR.<br />AND<br />BUT<br />OR<br />YET<br />SO<br />JP EXPLAINED THIS TOPIC,<br />HE GAVE US MANY EXAMPLES.<br />MOST OF US UNDERSTOOD,<br />USING THEM IS GOING TO BE DIFFICULT.<br />WE WILL NEED TO PRACTICE,<br />JP WILL NEED TO EXPLAIN THIS AGAIN.<br />HE IS WILLING TO,<br />HE MAY LOSE HIS PATIENCE.<br />PUNCTUATION IS A PROBLEM FOR US,<br />WE’D BETTER PAY ATTENTION.<br />NOTICE THE SUBJECTS ARE CIRCLED IN RED<br />OTHER CONNECTORS ARE: FOR AND NOR<br />
  12. 12. YOU CAN REMEMBER THEM EASILY WITH THIS ABBREVIATION<br />F<br />O<br />R<br />A<br />N<br />D<br />N<br />O<br />R<br />B<br />U<br />T<br />O<br />R<br />Y<br />E<br />T<br />S<br />O<br />BE CAREFUL!<br />DO NOT USE A COMMA IF “SO” IS PART OF AN ADDITION. IN SUCH CASE IT’S NOT A CONNECTOR.<br />She loves music;so do I.<br />She loves music.So does she.<br />Use a semi colon or a period.<br />
  13. 13. FINALLY<br />USE A COMMA AFTER HOWEVER. IT ALWAYS BEGINS A SENTENCE OR A CLAUSE PRECEDED BY A SEMI COLON.<br />THIS IS TOO MUCH GRAMMAR.HOWEVER, IT IS QUITE USEFUL<br />THIS IS TOO MUCH GRAMMAR;HOWEVER, IT IS QUITE USEFUL<br />

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