Past clauses

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Past clauses

  1. 1. SIMPLE PAST <br />AND <br />PAST PROGRESSIVE CLAUSES<br />
  2. 2. We can use Simple Past and Past Progressive in ONE SENTENCE.<br />My sister was cooking<br />when she heard about the accident in the news.<br />PAST PROGRESSIVE<br />SIMPLE PAST<br />As you see, the first part of the sentence is an INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.<br />My sister was cooking<br />And the second part of the sentence is a DEPENDENT CLAUSE.<br />when she heard about the accident in the news.<br />
  3. 3. The position of the CLAUSES can be swapped. Look:<br />My sister was cooking<br /> when she heard about the accident in the news.<br />OR<br /> she was cooking.<br />When my sister heard about the accident in the news,<br />
  4. 4. When and while introduce the dependent clause.<br />Liz fell on the ground whileshe was exercising.<br />OR<br />DEPENDENT CLAUSE<br />WhileLiz was exercising, she fell on the ground.<br />
  5. 5. Another example<br />When the alarm went off, she was making breakfast.<br />OR<br />DEPENDENT CLAUSE<br />She was making breakfast when the alarm went off. <br />
  6. 6. When the dependent clause begins the sentence, a comma(,) is added at the end of this clause.<br />While I was walking home, I found a ten dollar note.<br />NOTICE THE COMMA.<br />DEPENDENT CLAUSE<br />I found a ten dollar note while I was walking home.<br />NO COMMA THIS TIME.<br />DEPENDENT CLAUSE<br />
  7. 7. Often, while goes with PAST PROGRESSIVE and when with SIMPLE PAST.<br />Liz fell on the ground whileshe was exercising.<br />PAST PROGRESSIVE<br />When the alarm went off, she was making breakfast.<br />SIMPLE PAST<br />
  8. 8. What event occurs first?<br />My sister was cooking<br />when she heard about the accident in the news.<br />NOW<br />PAST<br />x<br />x<br />My sister <br />started <br />cooking.<br />She heard <br />the news.<br />And if I change the order of the clauses, does it change the order of the events?<br />she was cooking.<br />When my sister heard about the accident in the news,<br />NO, IT DOESN’T.<br />
  9. 9. In a sentence with two clauses, one of them in SIMPLE PAST and the other in PAST PROGRESSIVE, <br />the clause in PAST PROGRESSIVE expresses the first event.<br />I found a ten dollar note while I was walking home.<br />NOW<br />PAST PROGRESSIVE<br />PAST<br />x<br />x<br />I found the ten dollar note<br />I was walkinghome<br />
  10. 10. Another example<br />When the alarm went off, she was making breakfast.<br />NOW<br />PAST PROGRESSIVE<br />PAST<br />x<br />x<br />The alarm went off.<br />She was making<br />Breakfast.<br />
  11. 11. In a sentence with two clauses, both of them in SIMPLE PAST, the DEPENDENT CLAUSE <br />expresses the first event.<br />When the mailman arrived, I opened the door.<br />NOW<br />DEPENDENT CLAUSE<br />PAST<br />x<br />x<br />The mailman arrived.<br />I opened the door.<br />
  12. 12. Another example<br />It started to rain when we went inside.<br />DEPENDENT CLAUSE<br />NOW<br />PAST<br />x<br />x<br />We went inside.<br />It started to rain.<br />
  13. 13. In a sentence with two clauses, both of them in PAST PROGRESSIVE, both events occurred<br />at the same time.<br />Robert was driving the car while his wife was answering the call.<br />NOW<br />PAST<br />Robert was driving the car.<br />His wife was answering the phone.<br />
  14. 14. Even though Focus on Grammar 4 states that when goes with simple past and while with past progressive, native speakers often use when with both simple past and past progressive. They don't normally use while with simple past. I assume the writers of the book present the use of when and while this way to facilitate students' comprehension. <br />

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