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Presentation for confirmation seminar 30 aug 13

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An attempt at a confirmation seminar.

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Presentation for confirmation seminar 30 aug 13

  1. 1. Can a Modified, Low-Risk Form Of Competitive Boxing Achieve Significant Community Uptake? Confirmation of Candidature Paul Perkins Research Student University of Canberra National Institute of Sport Studies (UCNISS) 30 August 2013
  2. 2. Background Information About The Candidate I consider it important to clarify the perspective that the candidate brings to the project.  I grew up around boxing and competed for a number of years  I have coached boxing at International level and hold the highest international coaching qualification (AIBA 3 Star)  I am a former National and AIS Boxing coach  I am currently employed by the Canberra PCYC as their research and development coach  I am fascinated with the Cuban sports system, particularly given its ability to achieve outstanding results with very limited resources  I have worked in several settings in which sport has acted as a positive force in disadvantaged communities  After lifelong involvement with conventional boxing, I have become disappointed and disillusioned with many aspects of the sport and am interested in possibilities for change
  3. 3. Outline of Presentation Part1: Research Interest, Problems & Questions Part 2: Literature Review Part 3: Research Significance Part 4: Research Components Part 5: Research Setting Part 6: Research Plan Part 7: Questions
  4. 4. Part 1: Research Interest, Problems and Questions
  5. 5. Box’Tag is a modified, low-risk form of traditional boxing. It emphasises high levels of fitness, skill and personal enjoyment. Part 1: Research Interest, Problems and Questions  Points are recorded by using minimal low-force strikes to the body and upper arms  Strikes to the opponent’s head are prohibited  There is a primary focus on safety Research Interest
  6. 6. The Scoring Technology  Is based on the use of an automated system initially developed by the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) in conjunction with the Cooperative Research Centre for Microtechnology  later improved through scientific and technical inputs from the AIS, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the small Melbourne research and development (R&D) company PWP Designs Part1: Research Interest, Questions and Problems Research Interest
  7. 7. The scoring system  Is built around sensors that have been placed on the scoring part of the gloves and specially constructed vests  The sensors transmit data via wireless mechanisms to a ringside computer, and dedicated software enables the detection of simultaneous impacts from a glove of one competitor and the vest of the other  A competitor is awarded a point when he/she successfully strikes the target area of the opponent’s vest, with scores being displayed in real time on a large screen Part 1: Research Interest, Problems and Questions Research Interest
  8. 8. Part 1: Research Interest, Questions and Problems Research Interest Key Points  There is strong medical opposition to conventional boxing  A number of medical authorities, including the American Medical Association, have called for boxing to be either banned or substantially modified  A commonly suggested modification is the prohibition of impacts to the head (and the American Medical Association also suggests the development of impact- absorbing gloves)  In Box’Tag, strikes to the head are prohibited, as are any impacts above a moderate level of force  Box’Tag is a practical exemplar of what the American Medical Association has recommended
  9. 9. Part 1: Research Interest, Problems and Questions Research Problems  Despite the fact that uptake to date has been encouraging, a question remains as to whether Box’Tag can be developed in a way that will lead to sustainable large-scale community participation  There are technological, scientific and cultural challenges
  10. 10. Part 1: Research Interest, Problems and Questions Research Questions  The proposed study aims to identify and address factors that could affect the uptake of this emerging sport  This question is the focus of the proposed research project
  11. 11. Part 2: Literature Review Establishing a theoretical framework
  12. 12. Part 2: Literature Review  An extensive literature review has been conducted to establish current knowledge in regard to the legal, medical, ethical and moral concerns of participating in boxing  The review also presents a case for boxing by highlighting the social and physical benefits associated with participation  It summarises, interprets, and critically evaluates the existing literature and introduces a safer alternative (Box’Tag)
  13. 13. Part 2: Literature Review The Legal Debate There is unanimous agreement that boxing consists of activities that in other circumstances would clearly constitute the criminal offence of ‘aggravated assault’ and, in some cases, assault occasioning grievous bodily harm Beran, R. and Beran, J., The law(s) of the rings: boxing and the law. Journal of Law and Medicine, 2009. 16 (4): p. 684-695 Brayne H, S.L., Brayne C., Could boxing be banned? A legal and epidemiological perspective. British Medical Journal, 1998. 316(7147): p. 1813-1815 Anderson, J., The Legality of Boxing: A Punch Drunk Love? 2007, New York USA: Routledge
  14. 14. Part 2: Literature Review The medical Concerns  There is unequivocal evidence that participation in boxing entails serious risk  It has been estimated that the condition popularly known as punch- drunkenness develops in about 20% of professional boxers, and there is evidence that amateur boxers can also incur neurological damage  Ongoing improvements in the regulation and medical supervision of professional and amateur boxing might reduce inherent injury risks associated with the sport but cannot eliminate them Sawauchi, S., Murakami, S., Tani, S., Ogawa, T., Suzuki, T., and Abe, T., Acute subdural hematoma caused by professional boxing. No Shinkei Geka, 1996. 24(10): p. 905-11 Jordan, B., Chronic traumatic brain injury associated with boxing. Seminars in Neurology 2000. 20(2): p. 179-185 Clausen, H., McCrory, P., and Anderson, V., The risk of chronic traumatic brain injury in professional boxing: change in exposure variables over the past century. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2005. 39: p. 661-664
  15. 15. Part 2: Literature Review Ethical considerations  The risk of death or injury  Intent to harm  Glamorising violence  Exploitation of participants Svinth, J., Death under the spotlight: analysing the data. Journal of Combative Sport, 2007. November: p. 1-19 Davis, P., Ethical issues in boxing. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 1993-94. XX-XXI: p. 48-63 Bandura, A., Influence of models' reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1965. 1(6): p. 589-595 Oates, J., On Boxing. 1987, Garden City New York: Dolphin/Doubleday Woodward, K., Globalizing Boxing. 2014, London UK: Bloomsbury Academic. 192
  16. 16. Part 2: Literature Review A Case For Boxing  Development of Physical Fitness  Character Building  Boxing provides a medium for reaching and influencing lower socio- economic sectors of the population Smith, M., Physiological profile of senior and junior England international amateur boxers Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2006. CSSI: p. 74-89 Townson, N., Sport and the Working Classes, in The British at Play – a social history of British sport from 1600 to the present. 1997, Cavallioti Publishers: Bucharest DiDomenico, T., Why Boxing? , in Family Times: The Parenting Guide of Central New York. 2012: New York USA
  17. 17. Part 2: Literature Review Introducing a new variant of boxing  A review of the current literature reveals that some very legitimate concerns surround boxing. However, the sport also has positive aspects. It therefore seems worth exploring whether it is conceivable that boxing could be modified to overcome the objections without loss of the benefits  Box’Tag, an Australian development that now has a 7-year history, is providing a useful test case Leclerc, S. and Herrera, C., Sport medicine and the ethics of boxing. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 1999. 33: p. 426-429 American Medical Association, 1999 Meeting of the American Medical Association: Reports of the Council on Scientific Affairs, in 1999 Meeting of the American Medical Association: Reports of the Council on Scientific Affairs; Boxing Injuries. 1999. p. 6-7.
  18. 18. Part 3: Research Significance
  19. 19. Part 3: Research Significance  The proposed project will play a primary role in guiding the development of a modified sport that could have transformational effects on a sport that is in need of positive change. It will be an enabler of genuine innovation, at first within Australia, but potentially on an international scale  It will entail the design of a new sport, specialised equipment, training programs and the development of general infrastructure including optimum training environments  A major focus of the research is the exploration of new, more socially inclusive models for training and competitions and the development of free online tools for coach and athlete education. The aim is to develop an entirely new dimension to boxing - a dimension in which the primary focus is on safety and enjoyment of the participants
  20. 20. Part 4: Research Components Enhancing safety  The proposed project aims to further enhance the safety of the emerging sport with the development of an impact-absorbing glove  An initial investigation into how this might be achieved is already underway
  21. 21. Part 4: Research Components Technology development  Modifications and refinement of the technology will be an integral component of the proposed project. Including:  The development of a bout-quality index to encourage and reward technical excellence  Improvements to the current vest design
  22. 22. Part 4: Research Components Coach education and athlete development This will include the exploration and development of online tools and resources with the aim of developing new approaches for connecting and sharing information and experiences.
  23. 23. Part 4: Research Components Documenting and interpreting the Erindale experience  A detailed journal will be kept to record my observations as well as comments and other feedback provided by participants in the Erindale Box’Tag program  The journal will be used as a basis for ‘teasing out’ factors that influence athlete involvement in the program, including their adherence  An attempt will be made to approach this matter in a very holistic way
  24. 24. Part 5: Research Setting A recent partnership between the Canberra PCYC and the University of Canberra’s Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (RISE) has enabled the establishment of a Field Research Centre at Erindale. The facility has an established Box’Tag program with approximately 100 participants of various ages and levels of experience. This will be the primary setting for the field study
  25. 25. Part 6 : Research Plan Roles and Responsibilities Paul Perkins: Field researcher/Research and Development Coach My role as Research and Development coach for the Canberra PCYC will provide the opportunity and means to investigate the concept of Box’Tag in ‘real –world’ training and competition settings Professor Allan Hahn: Primary Supervisor Allan will assist with the technological testing, while providing support and guidance with other project issues. He will be a source of inspiration throughout the project Professor Keith Lyons: Secondary Supervisor As well as providing support and advice at regular meetings Keith will be a mentor and guide through this journey. His support and advice will be an integral part of the project team
  26. 26. Part 6: Research Plan Research Perspective and Methodology A qualitative research approach from an interpretivist point-of-view is proposed for this project. As the coach of the Erindale program I will essentially become part of what is being researched, so this study will seek to provide subjective meanings to the Erindale experience and the reality behind it To gain a greater understanding of the situation the research will employ two types of methodological traditions: action research and phenomenology By following a phenomenological approach I hope to gain an understanding of the training environment through daily interactions with the athletes and provide meanings to these events through systematic observations. Using an inquiry-based approach that entails repeated cycles of reflect, plan, implement and evaluate will enable me to make changes, while still collecting and interpreting data
  27. 27. Part 6: Research Plan The diagram below represents the framework for the proposed project. It demonstrates how an action research model uses repeated cycles of reflect, plan, implement and evaluate to enable changes to be made to the situation being studied, while still collecting and interpreting the data Plan Act ObserveReflect Revised Plan Action research methodology will be employed not only in the technological aspects of the research, but also will be combined with phenomenology in the other aspects
  28. 28. Part 6: Research Plan This figure portrays the continual flow of an inquiry-based approach Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3
  29. 29. Part 6: Research Plan Data Collection It is proposed that secondary data be used for this project. This will be collected through my role as coach and facilitator of the Canberra PCYC/UC-RISE Box’Tag program. The information will be collected from a variety of sources including:  Term evaluations and reports  Online course comments and posts  Online surveys  Attendance sheets  Training footage  Trials of new equipment  Journal notes and diary entries Additional information will be available from semi-structured interviews and surveys, which are completed when preparing various reports and documents for my employer.
  30. 30. Part 6: Research Plan Data Analysis Qualitative content analysis will be carried out using a thematic method. This approach will be used to identify, analyse and report themes from the collected information and to ensure the data is credible, dependable and confirmable
  31. 31. Part 6: Research Plan Reporting of Research  It is intended that the research will be reported through publication of a series of papers in peer-reviewed journals  The collaborating experts will be consulted in regard to the target journals for the papers  It is envisaged that at least two papers will be submitted for publication by the end of 2014  This includes the completed literature review
  32. 32. References Anderson, J., The Legality of Boxing: A Punch Drunk Love? 2007, New York USA: Routledge American Medical Association, 1999 Meeting of the American Medical Association: Reports of the Council on Scientific Affairs, in 1999 Meeting of the American Medical Association: Reports of the Council on Scientific Affairs; Boxing Injuries. 1999. p. 6-7. Bandura, A., Influence of models' reinforcement contingencies on the acquisition of imitative responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1965. 1(6): p. 589-595 Beran, R. and Beran, J., The law(s) of the rings: boxing and the law. Journal of Law and Medicine, 2009. 16 (4): p. 684-695 Brayne H, S.L., Brayne C., Could boxing be banned? A legal and epidemiological perspective. British Medical Journal, 1998. 316(7147): p. 1813-1815 Clausen, H., McCrory, P., and Anderson, V., The risk of chronic traumatic brain injury in professional boxing: change in exposure variables over the past century. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2005. 39: p. 661-664 Davis, P., Ethical issues in boxing. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 1993-94. XX-XXI: p. 48-63 DiDomenico, T., Why Boxing? , in Family Times: The Parenting Guide of Central New York. 2012: New York USA Jordan, B., Chronic traumatic brain injury associated with boxing. Seminars in Neurology 2000. 20(2): p. 179-185 Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. (2005). Participatory action research: communicative action and the public sphere. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), The sage handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 559–603). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Mark Nesti (2011): Phenomenology and Sports Psychology: Back To The Things Themselves!, Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 5:3 Oates, J., On Boxing. 1987, Garden City New York: Dolphin/Doubleday Sawauchi, S., Murakami, S., Tani, S., Ogawa, T., Suzuki, T., and Abe, T., Acute subdural hematoma caused by professional boxing. No Shinkei Geka, 1996. 24(10): p. 905-11 Svinth, J., Death under the spotlight: analysing the data. Journal of Combative Sport, 2007. November: p. 1-19 Smith, M., Physiological profile of senior and junior England international amateur boxers Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2006. CSSI: p. 74-89 Woodward, K., Globalizing Boxing. 2014, London UK: Bloomsbury Academic. 192
  33. 33. Part 7 : Questions Thank you for attending

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