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MODEL OF GAME
=
STYLE OF PLAY
(INDIVIDUAL & TEAM TACTICAL BEHAVIOR)
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
• At the professional level the players must adapt to the model of game
used by the coach, where performance is assessed by winning/losing
(team-centered approach).
• In youth level the model of the game should be just a tool to allow the
prospective players to reach all their potential, where performance is
evaluated by the realization of training aims (player-centered
approach).
• As a sportsmen we want to win the games, but when we are
developing young players games is just a part of the training process.
“The best way to predict the future is to create it”
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
• As such, a given model of the game employed by any Academy team
should be evaluated as to whether it maximizes individual players key
performance factors (identified in the L.T.A.D.).
• If we analyze the evolution of the players and the game during the last
ten years, we can realize that everything is faster. It means that we
should prepare our players to think and act much faster.
• In conclusion: A model of the future player should be identified and
agreed before a model of game is chosen.
“The best way to predict the future is to create it”
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
What is a Model of Game?
“ The model of game, a collection of principles, to organize team and
individual tactical behaviors. This is where I focus my idea from the first
training session”. (Mourinho, 2002).
MODEL
OF
GAME
Tactical
Principles
(Moments
and Phases)
Playing
Systems
(L.T.A.D.)
Training
Model
(Team Work)
Individual
Tactical
Functions
(Not Early
Specialization)
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Principles of Game
Principles of the game (generals & specifics) are the behaviors
and patterns that the we want to see reflected by our players
and teams during the different moments and phases of the
game.
These behaviors and patterns articulated together are going
to make our identity signs or “Functional Organization”
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Moments of the Game
The “Moments” are all the different stages that can be
observe during the game depending on which team has the
ball:
•Attacking Moment (on the ball)
•Defensive Moment (off the ball)
•Transition from Attack to Defense (losing the ball)
•Transition from Defense to Attack (regaining the ball)
•Set Plays (Attacking and Defending)
MOMENTS
OF THE
GAME
Transition
(losing the
ball)
DEFENSE
(off the ball)
Transition
(regaining
the ball)
ATTACK
(on the ball)
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Attacking Moment
(General Tactical Principles)
1. When we have the ball the most important target is to score by
creating many chances.
2. Using the space and time depending of team mates and opponents
positions.
3. Having a good positioning, and good first touch to be a team with high
pace on the ball in order to disrupt and to unbalance the opponent's
defensive structure.
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Attacking Moment
(General Tactical Principles)To develop an “attacking plan” with 3 stages: Building up, Penetration in the last
third, and Finishing.
1. Building up (from goalkeeper, back 4 or after transition): Using different paces of the ball
(variation between long and short passes and ball’s speed, circulation instead of running
with the ball, playing from side to side/wide and depth , positional mobility/changing
positions constantly).
2. Penetration: Creating spaces (spread out) width and depth, with an effective positional
shape (triangles and diagonals). Using the spaces: finding out the “disorganization
moment” to pass the ball through the space created.
3. Finnishing: "timing” (choosing the right time); zones (reaching “finishing positions”).
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Defending Moment
(General Tactical Principles)
1. Off the ball our aim is to avoid the opponent to score by:
• Creating pressure zone To determine, directing and pressuring the opponent in
order to make them do mistakes to win the ball back.
• Collective Positional Organization, closing spaces and lines (width and depth); using
space near and far away from the ball (covering each other near and far away from
the ball).
• Taking the opponent to play where we want (side or central areas).
2. Using the space and time depending of mates and opponents
positioning and characteristics.
3. Developing an “defending plan” with 3 stages: High pressure,
Defending as a unit, and Defending our own goal.
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Transition from Attack to Defense
(General Tactical Principles)
1. When we lose the possession, we will try to regain it by pressing the
opponent on the ball and his nearest space, taking advantage of the
opponent's offensive disruption.
2. If we have not chance to regain the ball we will try to win time to
organize yourself. (wide and depth)
3. Avoiding the opponent playing forward and do not allow them to play
“inside” our team.
4. We can do “fault as a tactical tool” to stop the opponent’s
counterattack.
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Transition from Defense to Attack
(General Tactical Principles)
1. When we get the ball back, we should to take advantage of
opponent’s lack of organization, to try score as soon as possible.
2. Changing attitude quickly (from defensive to offensive), “opening the
field” in width and depth and “passing forward” if is possible.
3. If is not possible to play forward, we should pass the ball outside of
“pressure zone” in order to ensure ball possession.
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
(General Tactical Principles) (Exercises Structure)
Space
(Large Side Groups)
Groups of 8, 9 or 10 players with or without
(GK)
Unopposed Low OP. High OP.
Moments of Game
(General Tactical Principles)
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Phases of Game
The “Phases” are all the stages that we can observe during the
moments of game, they are dependent on ball situation (area
of the field):
•First Third (Building up & Defending own Goal)
•Second third (Penetration & Defending as a Unit)
•Last Third (Finishing Situations & High Pressure)
•All together they make up our “Attack and Defense Plan”
PHASES
OF
GAME
Transition
Building
up/Ball
possession
Penetration
Finishing
Situations
Transition
Pressing
Defending
as a Unit
Defending
own goal
Defending Attacking
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Phases of Game
(Specific Tactical Principles)
(Offensive Principles)
Phase Principles
Building up Wide & Deep Support
Penetration Creating Spaces Getting through the spaces
Finishing Situations Timing of finishing Getting the Zones
(Transition Principles)
Phase Principles
from Defense to Attack Passing the ball out of the pressure zone Counterattacking
from Attack
to Defense
Pressing to win the ball Pressing to win time
(Defensive Principles)
Phase Principles
Defending Own Goal Closing vital spaces Avoiding to pass behind our
defenders
Marking and closing down
the opponents
Defending as a Unit Being compact Covering each other Squeezing
Pressing Taking the opponent where
we want to regain
Identifying the pressure moment Collective Decision
(Moving together)
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
(Specific Tactical Principles) (Exercise Structure)
Space
(Medium Side Groups)
Groups of 4, 5, 6 or 7 players with or without
(GK)
Unopposed Low OP. High OP.
Phases of Game
(Specific Tactical Principles)
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Playing Systems
(Structural Organization )
1. Structural organization is the initial positioning that we are going to
use, it’s our playing system(1-4-3-3, 1-4-4-2, 1-3-4-3, …).
2. It has to foster with the L.T.A.D., Principles of game (generals and
specifics) and Individual characteristics and capacities.
3. We should “teach” our players to know how to play in at least 3
different positions for every playing system, “avoiding an early
specialization”. It will ensure our players are expose to different game
situations (variability of motor patterns), providing them the
opportunity to improve their “Technical ”, “Physical” and “Tactical”
skills.
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Playing Systems
(Structural Organization )
1. To develop all player’s potential the Academy L.T.A.D. should integrate
all the possible scenarios regarding team shapes/formations of play.
2. Previously to design a playing system of play we should answer some
questions such:
• Which is the best shape or formation for our players (player centered)?
• How many players do we want to be involved in the different moments and
phases ?
• Where we want to regain the ball?
• Which possible variations we should take in case of special factors (weather and
field conditions, temporary result, player sending off…)?
3. The answer to these questions will depend on several things (age, skill
level, individual needs…).
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Tactical Functions
(Individual Tactical Behavior)
1. Each player should carry out defensive and offensive functions. It will
be just a “guide” to help him in making better decisions. We must
encourage them to be creative and to fell free and self-responsible
inside the field.
2. In the same way we should provide them “positional references”
depending where ball is located.
3. As a coaches, during the game, we will focus our feedback on these
“tactical behaviors”, to assess decision making processes instead on
technical executions.
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Training Model
(Tactical Periodization)
1. Our aim is to improve our “players skills” and their “knowledge” about the
game, then we have to design exercises to achieve these standards. Each
“Tactical Exercise” should be created in order to train a certain tactical
principle.
2. Tactical and Technical Periodization must be “fitted” and “integrated” within
Physiological Periodization. Such approach will allow us to improve our
players performance in a general and specific manner (game related).
3. To organize training exercises and sessions in this way we must take into
consideration which physiological mechanisms are being trained while we
doing any tactical or technical exercise.
“Technical Staff, as a responsible of all the training process have to
know the aims, loads and effects of all their exercises, then they are
able to choose the proper one in the proper moment”
(Van Gaal, 1997).
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
Training Model
(Tactical Periodization)4. Physiologists and S&C should “guide” Coaches to learn how Physiological and
Tactical-Technical aspects have to be interrelated. It is possible by managing
factors such:
• Volume
• Intensity
• Distance
• Density (space/number of players)
• Recovery (series, exercises, sessions)
5. Team work between Coaches, S&C and Performance Enhancement staff is vital
to design and apply an “Optimal Periodization” in order to help our players to
reach their full potential. Each expert has to be decision maker in his area of
expertise.
MSc Juan Luis Delgado
THANKS A LOT
juanluisdelgado@hotmail.com
The ultimate measure of a man is not where he
stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but
where he stands at times of challenge and
controversy.
Martin Luther King Jr.

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Model of Game (Juan Delgado)

  • 1. MODEL OF GAME = STYLE OF PLAY (INDIVIDUAL & TEAM TACTICAL BEHAVIOR) MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 2. • At the professional level the players must adapt to the model of game used by the coach, where performance is assessed by winning/losing (team-centered approach). • In youth level the model of the game should be just a tool to allow the prospective players to reach all their potential, where performance is evaluated by the realization of training aims (player-centered approach). • As a sportsmen we want to win the games, but when we are developing young players games is just a part of the training process. “The best way to predict the future is to create it” MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 3. • As such, a given model of the game employed by any Academy team should be evaluated as to whether it maximizes individual players key performance factors (identified in the L.T.A.D.). • If we analyze the evolution of the players and the game during the last ten years, we can realize that everything is faster. It means that we should prepare our players to think and act much faster. • In conclusion: A model of the future player should be identified and agreed before a model of game is chosen. “The best way to predict the future is to create it” MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 4. What is a Model of Game? “ The model of game, a collection of principles, to organize team and individual tactical behaviors. This is where I focus my idea from the first training session”. (Mourinho, 2002). MODEL OF GAME Tactical Principles (Moments and Phases) Playing Systems (L.T.A.D.) Training Model (Team Work) Individual Tactical Functions (Not Early Specialization) MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 5. Principles of Game Principles of the game (generals & specifics) are the behaviors and patterns that the we want to see reflected by our players and teams during the different moments and phases of the game. These behaviors and patterns articulated together are going to make our identity signs or “Functional Organization” MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 6. Moments of the Game The “Moments” are all the different stages that can be observe during the game depending on which team has the ball: •Attacking Moment (on the ball) •Defensive Moment (off the ball) •Transition from Attack to Defense (losing the ball) •Transition from Defense to Attack (regaining the ball) •Set Plays (Attacking and Defending) MOMENTS OF THE GAME Transition (losing the ball) DEFENSE (off the ball) Transition (regaining the ball) ATTACK (on the ball) MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 7. Attacking Moment (General Tactical Principles) 1. When we have the ball the most important target is to score by creating many chances. 2. Using the space and time depending of team mates and opponents positions. 3. Having a good positioning, and good first touch to be a team with high pace on the ball in order to disrupt and to unbalance the opponent's defensive structure. MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 8. Attacking Moment (General Tactical Principles)To develop an “attacking plan” with 3 stages: Building up, Penetration in the last third, and Finishing. 1. Building up (from goalkeeper, back 4 or after transition): Using different paces of the ball (variation between long and short passes and ball’s speed, circulation instead of running with the ball, playing from side to side/wide and depth , positional mobility/changing positions constantly). 2. Penetration: Creating spaces (spread out) width and depth, with an effective positional shape (triangles and diagonals). Using the spaces: finding out the “disorganization moment” to pass the ball through the space created. 3. Finnishing: "timing” (choosing the right time); zones (reaching “finishing positions”). MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 9. Defending Moment (General Tactical Principles) 1. Off the ball our aim is to avoid the opponent to score by: • Creating pressure zone To determine, directing and pressuring the opponent in order to make them do mistakes to win the ball back. • Collective Positional Organization, closing spaces and lines (width and depth); using space near and far away from the ball (covering each other near and far away from the ball). • Taking the opponent to play where we want (side or central areas). 2. Using the space and time depending of mates and opponents positioning and characteristics. 3. Developing an “defending plan” with 3 stages: High pressure, Defending as a unit, and Defending our own goal. MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 10. Transition from Attack to Defense (General Tactical Principles) 1. When we lose the possession, we will try to regain it by pressing the opponent on the ball and his nearest space, taking advantage of the opponent's offensive disruption. 2. If we have not chance to regain the ball we will try to win time to organize yourself. (wide and depth) 3. Avoiding the opponent playing forward and do not allow them to play “inside” our team. 4. We can do “fault as a tactical tool” to stop the opponent’s counterattack. MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 11. Transition from Defense to Attack (General Tactical Principles) 1. When we get the ball back, we should to take advantage of opponent’s lack of organization, to try score as soon as possible. 2. Changing attitude quickly (from defensive to offensive), “opening the field” in width and depth and “passing forward” if is possible. 3. If is not possible to play forward, we should pass the ball outside of “pressure zone” in order to ensure ball possession. MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 12. (General Tactical Principles) (Exercises Structure) Space (Large Side Groups) Groups of 8, 9 or 10 players with or without (GK) Unopposed Low OP. High OP. Moments of Game (General Tactical Principles) MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 13. Phases of Game The “Phases” are all the stages that we can observe during the moments of game, they are dependent on ball situation (area of the field): •First Third (Building up & Defending own Goal) •Second third (Penetration & Defending as a Unit) •Last Third (Finishing Situations & High Pressure) •All together they make up our “Attack and Defense Plan” PHASES OF GAME Transition Building up/Ball possession Penetration Finishing Situations Transition Pressing Defending as a Unit Defending own goal Defending Attacking MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 14. Phases of Game (Specific Tactical Principles) (Offensive Principles) Phase Principles Building up Wide & Deep Support Penetration Creating Spaces Getting through the spaces Finishing Situations Timing of finishing Getting the Zones (Transition Principles) Phase Principles from Defense to Attack Passing the ball out of the pressure zone Counterattacking from Attack to Defense Pressing to win the ball Pressing to win time (Defensive Principles) Phase Principles Defending Own Goal Closing vital spaces Avoiding to pass behind our defenders Marking and closing down the opponents Defending as a Unit Being compact Covering each other Squeezing Pressing Taking the opponent where we want to regain Identifying the pressure moment Collective Decision (Moving together) MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 15. (Specific Tactical Principles) (Exercise Structure) Space (Medium Side Groups) Groups of 4, 5, 6 or 7 players with or without (GK) Unopposed Low OP. High OP. Phases of Game (Specific Tactical Principles) MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 16. Playing Systems (Structural Organization ) 1. Structural organization is the initial positioning that we are going to use, it’s our playing system(1-4-3-3, 1-4-4-2, 1-3-4-3, …). 2. It has to foster with the L.T.A.D., Principles of game (generals and specifics) and Individual characteristics and capacities. 3. We should “teach” our players to know how to play in at least 3 different positions for every playing system, “avoiding an early specialization”. It will ensure our players are expose to different game situations (variability of motor patterns), providing them the opportunity to improve their “Technical ”, “Physical” and “Tactical” skills. MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 17. Playing Systems (Structural Organization ) 1. To develop all player’s potential the Academy L.T.A.D. should integrate all the possible scenarios regarding team shapes/formations of play. 2. Previously to design a playing system of play we should answer some questions such: • Which is the best shape or formation for our players (player centered)? • How many players do we want to be involved in the different moments and phases ? • Where we want to regain the ball? • Which possible variations we should take in case of special factors (weather and field conditions, temporary result, player sending off…)? 3. The answer to these questions will depend on several things (age, skill level, individual needs…). MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 18. Tactical Functions (Individual Tactical Behavior) 1. Each player should carry out defensive and offensive functions. It will be just a “guide” to help him in making better decisions. We must encourage them to be creative and to fell free and self-responsible inside the field. 2. In the same way we should provide them “positional references” depending where ball is located. 3. As a coaches, during the game, we will focus our feedback on these “tactical behaviors”, to assess decision making processes instead on technical executions. MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 19. Training Model (Tactical Periodization) 1. Our aim is to improve our “players skills” and their “knowledge” about the game, then we have to design exercises to achieve these standards. Each “Tactical Exercise” should be created in order to train a certain tactical principle. 2. Tactical and Technical Periodization must be “fitted” and “integrated” within Physiological Periodization. Such approach will allow us to improve our players performance in a general and specific manner (game related). 3. To organize training exercises and sessions in this way we must take into consideration which physiological mechanisms are being trained while we doing any tactical or technical exercise. “Technical Staff, as a responsible of all the training process have to know the aims, loads and effects of all their exercises, then they are able to choose the proper one in the proper moment” (Van Gaal, 1997). MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 20. Training Model (Tactical Periodization)4. Physiologists and S&C should “guide” Coaches to learn how Physiological and Tactical-Technical aspects have to be interrelated. It is possible by managing factors such: • Volume • Intensity • Distance • Density (space/number of players) • Recovery (series, exercises, sessions) 5. Team work between Coaches, S&C and Performance Enhancement staff is vital to design and apply an “Optimal Periodization” in order to help our players to reach their full potential. Each expert has to be decision maker in his area of expertise. MSc Juan Luis Delgado
  • 21. THANKS A LOT juanluisdelgado@hotmail.com The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy. Martin Luther King Jr.