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Session 3 measuring democracy and technology


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Session 3 measuring democracy and technology

  1. 1. Measuring Democracy and Technology<br />Dr. Juan Luis Manfredi Sánchez<br />Correo-e:<br /><br />Twitter: @juanmanfredi<br /><br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />1. Measuring Democracy<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />1. Measuring Democracy<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />2. Measuring Technology<br />Information has gone from scarce to superabundant<br />That brings huge new benefits, but also big headaches<br />The capability of digital technology multiplies the information that was previously unavailable<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />2. Measuring Technology<br />It plays a central role both in macroeconomics and in economic development: it’s a key question in public policies<br />Again, we have dozens of index: there’s no good index and bad index<br />OECD: “The Guide is a compilation of concepts, definitions, classifications and methods for information society measurement and analysis” in three dimensions:<br />Information society<br />Economic dimension<br />Social dimension<br />Let’s see how<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />2. Measuring Technology<br />Convergence and Innovation – The Big Three<br />Moore's Law: the processing power of a microchip doubles every 18 months; corollary, computers become faster and the price of a given level of computing power halves every 18 months<br />Gilder's Law: the total bandwidth of communication systems triples every twelve months<br />Metcalfe's Law: the value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of nodes; so, as a network grows, the value of being connected to it grows exponentially, while the cost per user remains the same or even reduces.<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />3. Mixing Democracy and Technology<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />3. Mixing Democracy and Technology<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />3. Mixing Democracy and Technology<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />4. Public Policies<br />What to consider?<br /><ul><li>Infrastructure availability
  12. 12. Cost of ICT goods and services
  13. 13. The ICT policy environment
  14. 14. Trust that users have in the online environment.
  15. 15. The education and skills base of the population (specialised and general)
  16. 16. Labour market supply and costs.
  17. 17. Innovation and R&D base, entrepreneurship culture and support (private and public)
  18. 18. A momentum effect driven by penetration of ICT
  19. 19. Productivity impacts of ICT investment and use.
  20. 20. Changes in the structure of economies
  21. 21. The growth of the ICT and services sectors
  22. 22. Changes to employment and the nature of work
  23. 23. Impact on globalisation
  24. 24. Facilitation of learning (both formal and informal)
  25. 25. Positive and negative changes in society and social behaviour
  26. 26. Positive and negative influences on the natural environment</li></li></ul><li>12<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />5. The Digital Divide<br />Definition: the gap between ICT “haves” and “have-nots”<br />Issues of economic marginalisation and social exclusion associated with ICT<br />It includes ICT-induced benefits: business, governments, health, education and any other area. <br /> <br />The idea of ‘ICT for development’ has been the driving force behind much activity internationally, including the two World Summits on the Information Society in Geneva (2003) and Tunis (2005)<br />View: ICT as an historic opportunity for the evolution of our economies and societies; and has the potential to accentuate already existing and sizeable imbalances. <br />Different approaches:<br /><ul><li>Connectivity and infrastructure
  27. 27. E-readiness
  28. 28. E-strategies
  29. 29. ICT literacy
  30. 30. Skills and training</li></li></ul><li>13<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />5. The Digital Divide<br />Three issues to consider<br />The magnitude<br />The evolution<br />The speed<br /> <br />The three issues combined show us:<br />Absolute divide in absolute number: users vs non-users<br />Absolute divide in overall rates: proportion of users vs non-users<br />Relative divide: the difference in penetration rates between different groups<br />
  31. 31. 14<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />5. The Digital Divide<br />ICT Opportunity Index<br />
  32. 32. 15<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />
  33. 33. 16<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />
  34. 34. 17<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />
  35. 35. 18<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />
  36. 36. 19<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />
  37. 37. 20<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />
  38. 38. 21<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />
  39. 39. 22<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />
  40. 40. 23<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />
  41. 41. 24<br />Juan Luis Manfredi, Ph.D @juanmanfredi<br />