Attitudes and perceptions of middle school students toward
ATTITUDES ANDPERCEPTIONS OF MIDDLE Máster en SCHOOL STUDENTS Formación del Profesorado TOWARD COMPETITIVE ACTIVITIES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Facilitate Participating Success Not Can Hinder Participation of a Having skill Skill
FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT PARTICIPATION AND SKILL LEVEL Time Help develop students’ skill Appropiate Practice and increase students’ success Skill-progression in an activity Task Presentation (Rickard, 1992; Rink, 1994; Silverman et al., 1995) (Meltzer, 1989; Silverman, 1985, 1990; Silverman, Tyson, & Morford, 1988) ATTITUDE THEORY (Ajzen, 2005) Suggests that affect and cognition or students’ knowledge Affect how students participate in an activity
Might not want Negative Positive Beliefs canto participate Experience in Experience in change positively PE PEThis may affect PE wants to promote a on LEARNING lifetime of physical activity
11 High Skilled24 Subjects 10 Boys 11 Moderate 3 different skill 14 Girls Skilled levels 2 Bad Skilled 11-13 Years Old 1 Public School 6 Different Urban Schools 5 Private Schools
Basic Information• Years, sex, adress…Introduction• Questions like/don’t like activities 6Perception of PE activities Dimensions• Kind of activities in PE classSkill level perceptionCompetence perceptionCompetence Perception in PE class
3/weeks DateObservation recopilation 3 sesions over terrain 1 per each school
(Hopple & Graham, 1995; Seidman, 2006). Notes were taken on “teachers responses” Teachers asked about lessons and participation Interviews before and after each class sessionThese informal interviews were used to gain an understanding of the teachers’ actions, thoughts, and feelings that cannot be observed
Using the constant Analyzed comparative over a method process fort N-VIVO 8 various (QRS themes International, Victoria,All Australia)documentstranscribed (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss, 1987).
High-Skilled Students and Fun: Not That Competitive•Relax confidence•Activity participated in competitite activities•Belive that PE class as a place to learn and have funModerate-Skilled Students and Fun: ChallengingActivities•Participating actively and concentrating on skill work in the activities presented•Enjoyed playing with their friends as well•Less competitive atmosphere of physical education classLow-Skilled Students and Fun: Cooperation•General excitement regarding an original game a teacher had created•Participated at some activities but not in other
Students Who Mocked When “Hogging the Winning or becameStructuring Team Leaders Ball.” Too Serious When Teams They Lost Teams Classmates Students Environment divided who had with skill created wasevenly were attained would also an crucial for skill would take over important successful assume game play factor in game play leadership by “hogging student roles, such the ball.” enjoyment as team (Passing of leaders Rules) competitive activities
Attitude can be af fected by the experiences in physical education class par ticipation ( S u b r a m a n i a m & S i l v e r m a n , 2 0 0 2 ) . According to skill level, students had different experiences in competitive activities and their perceptions were based on these experiences. Attitude theor y suggests that attitudes can be either negative or positive and these attitudes can af fect both perceptions and behavior ( Z i m b a r d o & L e i p p e , 1 9 91 ) . Attitude might have been affected in a negative manner, if students did not have the skill to participate in game -like situations. Students, who do not have the skill to par ticipate, might not be included in an activity, or they might stop par ticipating all together ( C a r l s o n , 1 9 9 5 ; C ot h r a n & E n n i s , 1 9 9 9 ; Po r t m a n , 1 9 9 5 ; Ro b e r t s , 2 0 01 ; S u b r a m a n i a m & Silverman, 2000 ) Tasks and the way they are structured might enhance or impede a student’s skill acquisition. If students are not presented with a positive environment their attitudes can be negatively af fected ( Subramaniam & Silverman, 2002, 2007) Students perceived that their enjoyment is augmented when activities are presented in a positive environment. Beneficial for teachers to examine the way competition is structured in physical education class and if it is appropriate before all students obtaining skill.