are used to express
something to happen:
• If you read you will
• IF: SI
• UNLESS: A MENOS
QUE. You dog will die
unless you feed him
• WHETHER: si (BUT
ONLY FOR TWO
OPTIONS): I don’t care
whether you stay or go
• If you study
• If+ tensed verb
• You will pass
They act like two separate boxes, you
can change their order, but never mix
them: You will pass, if you study.Never
say: *if you will ….
WHAT ARE THEY FOR…?
• THEY EXPRESS CONDITION, THAT IS, THE
PROBABILITY FOR SOMETHING TO HAPPEN.
• HOW? BY USING LINKERS, AND MODAL VERBS (will
would) WHICH EXPRESS PROBABILITY.
• THERE ARE 3 TYPES: first, second and third
• The structure is the same, but second and third
conditionals imply a past tense because, as you know, in
English, using a past/more remote tense, expresses less
• IF (PRESENT SIMPLE) + WILL/won’t+INFINITIVE
• If you study, you will pass
• You will feel good if you eat well
• You won’t like the film if you read the book first
• The dog will die unless you feed him
TRANSLATED BY SPANISH
HIGH POSSIBILITY TO HAPPEN
IF(PA ST SIM PL E + WOUL D +INFINITIVE
If you st udied, you would pass
-Form of simple past . In Spanish: si est udiaras aprobarías.
-L ess possibilit y
Simple past is more tentative, less
possible. Would is the past form of
will . Then, it is less possible.
IF (PA ST PERFECT)+ WOUL D +PERFECT INFINITIVE
If you had st udied, you would have passed
-IMPOSSIBLE CONDITIONAL (it
is more in the past).
-TRANSLATED AS (si hubieras
estudiado, habrías aprobado)
IF ONLY I HAD A HEART,
IF ONLY+ SUBJECT+
I WISH I HAD A HEART
I WHISH+SUBJ+ SIMPLE
Both structures are
used to express
wishes and regrets
THE PAST SCALE FOR TENSES