Italy is situated to the South of Europe. To the North, is delimited by France,Switzerland,
Austria and Slovenia.To the south, it consists of
the entirety of the Italian Peninsula and the two
biggest Mediterranean islands of Sicily and
Sardinia, in addition to many other smaller
islands. The most important cities in this country
are: Venice, Milan, Turín, Rome, Siena, Florence,
Pompeii and Pisa.
Italy is an unitary parliamentary constitutional
republic. The president is Giorgio Napolitano and the
prime minister is Matteo Renzi. It has a population of
60 million.This country has a very diverse climate. To
the North and to the Central regions, the climate is
humid subtropical, continental or oceanic. Generally,
to the South and to thecoastal areas have a
Its official language is Italian. Ethnologue has estimated that there are about 55 million
speakers of the language in Italy and a further 6.7 million outside of the country. However,
between 120 and 150 million people use Italian as a second or cultural language,
Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the country, although Catholicism is no
longer officially the state religion.
They use the euro for their currency. Their flag has three vertical lines: green, white and
red. Is a country that attract the people because it has: good gastronomy, beautiful places,
andabove all, this country has a good climate (generally, warm weather). It has a lot of
beautiful monuments: Fontana Di Trevi, Saint Peter's Vatican, the Ducal Palace, Palazzo
Pitti, Florence Cathedral, the Tower of Pisa.
MAP OF EUROPE
THE PRESIDENT GIORGIO NAPOLITANO
THE CATACOMBS IN ROME
A mausoleum is a building in which the bodies of dead people are buried.
The Catacombs of Rome are ancient burial places. They began
in the 2nd century AD to help persecuted Christians to bury their
dead. They are many kilometres deep in tunnels and storeys.
They are very important for the art history because they contain
examples of fresco and sculptures and because the relics of
many saints are buried there. Around the middle of the 2nd
century along the wall, many graffiti were painted dedicated to
THE CATACOMBS OF SAINT SEBASTIAN
The Catacombs of Saint Sebastian is one of the least preserved
cemeteries. A basilica was built on this catacombs in the 13th century.
There one can find the crypt of Saint Sebastian with a table altar and a
bust of Saint Sebastian attributed to Bernini.
SAINT SEBASTIAN BY GIOVANNI BAZZI
This painting is called Saint Sebastian. The painter is Giovanni Bazzi (1477-1549). The dimensions
of this painting are 145x204cm. The year it was painted is 1576. We
can find this painting in Galleria Degli Uffizi in Florence.
It was made of oil and it is made on canvas.
On this painting we can see Saint Sebastian. He's wearing a piece of
cloth. In the background we can see a war. Above him there is an
angel venerating him. Saint Sebastian has arrows stuch in his body.
It is a realistic painting. The artist painted the people in a realistic way.
The figures give the sensation that they are static. The posture of the
figures is rigid and not harmonious, but well-proportioned. The clothes
have been painted realistically. The composition is not harmonious
and there are strong contrasts between light and dark.
THE CATACOMBS OF SAINT
In this period, the painting was very religious and fantastic. The main character ias a
martyr (Saint Sebastian) and it is about religious facts. It represents a religious symbol
because we can see an angel.
I think that is a horrible painting because it is unreal. Angels don't exist. I don't like it al all.
TIMETABLES AND PRICES:
From Monday to Saturday they open at 10:00 am - 17:00. The last entrance is at 16:30.
They close on Sundays and on the following days: 25th
December and 1st
make holidays from 17 November to 15 December.
Standard ticket (adults) = 8€.
Reduced ticket (children from 6-12 years old, military personnel and armed forces) = 5€.
School reduction= 5€ with certificate.
Children under 6 years old and carers for disabled people= Free.
Booking in advance are only taken for school groups and groups of a minimum of 15
persons. If you want a individual ticket you don't have to book in advance.
The guided tours are in English, German, Italian, French and Spanish.
THE BASILICA AND SAINT SEBASTIAN
The Colosseum is an eliptical amphitheatre in the central part of Rome (situated in the
Colosseo Square). It was built by Vespasian in 70 AD, and this building was finished by
Titus in 80 AD. The construction lasted 10 years. Many people thought that the blood-
thirsty games were like and entertainment and they had a good time saw it.
Was used for gladitorial contests and public shows (animal hunts, mock sea battles,
executions, Classical mythology's dramas...), in general, it was used for entertainment in
the medieval era. Later, the amphitheatre was used such housing, workshops, religion's
quarters, fortress, quarry and Chrisitan shrine. In the 21st century, it stays ruined because
of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers.
It makes 189 meters of length, 48 of height and
156 of width. This amphitheatre has a capacity of
between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators. It was
made of concrete and stone. It has 4 floors with
arches of half a point about some thick pillars that
also sustain semi-detached columns of
decorative type. Into the building there is the
terracing with many stairs (because always it had
to endure the movement of many people). It had 80 entrances to be quick and the
entrance was free.
The arena's floor was made of movable wooden sections. Under this floor, there were
passages, rooms, prison cells and cages. The priviliged people had the better seats while
the citizens had the place that was more up of the terracing.
In the first floor there are 80 arcades of Doric order, in
the second one there are some capitals of volutes
and arcades. The third one has a varied order with
achantus leaves on the capitals and the fourth floor
is like an attic with lesenes of the Corinthian order.
In the second and the third floor, there are some
sculptures and the corridors contain overhangs of
stucco and marble.
INSIDE THE COLOSSEUM
THE ROMAN FORUM
The Roman Forum is situated in a valley between the Palatine Hill and the Capitol Hill. It
was built from 8 BC to 312 AD, because into the Forum there are many buildings, and
each one, was built in a different year. The Roman Forum is a rectangular square
surrounded by the ruins of many important buildings:
1- Curia. 2-Arch of Septimus Severus. 3-Rostra. 4-Temple of Vespasian. 5-Via Sacra. 6-
Temple of Saturn. 7- Colonna du Foca. 8- Basilica Iulia. 9-Basilica Emilia. 10-Temple of
Julius Caesar. 11-Temple of Vestals. 12- Temple of Castor. 13-Church of Santa Maria
Antiqua. 14- Temple of Augustus. 15- Temple of Antoninus and Faustino. 16-Temple of
Romulus. 17-Temple of Venus and Rome. 18-House of Vesta. 19-Basilica di Maxentius.
20-Coliseum. 21-Arch of Titus. 22-Palatina.
They used this place to: public speeches, triumphal processions and elections, criminal
trials, gladiatorial matches and commercial affairs. After the sewer's construction, they
used the Forum like a marketplace.
Titus Flavi: He was Vespasian's successor, Titus was the Roman Emperor from 79 to 81.
He was born on 30th December 39 and he died on 13th September 39v(Titus lived for 41
years). The Emperor is famous because he finished the Colosseum and he ordered to
build the Bath of Titus (new public bath-house).
Julius Caesar: Julius was the son of Gaius Julius Caesar. He was a Roman general,
statesman, consol and a Latin prose's author. Julius was borned in July 100 BC and he
died on 15th March 44 BC (he lived for 55 years). He was famous because he became a
member of the First Triumvirate. Then Julius fought in a civil was. After that, he became
the dictator of the Roman Republic.
Romulus: He was Rhea Silvia and Mars' son. He had a twin. Romulus and his twin were
the founders of Rome. They were born before Rome's foundation. Romulus killed Remus
in a fight to get Rome's control. He was buried in the Amuliu's Palace.
The Vestals: The Vestals were the priestesses of the goddess Vesta (the heart goddess).
They are important for well-being, the continuance and the security of Rome. They can't
marry to someone and have children.
Venus: Venus id the goddess of love and beauty. She is the same as Aphrodite, but in the
Roman mythology. Julius introduced Venus to the goddess of motherhood and domesticity.
The fist temple dedicated to her was built in 293 BC.
The fountain's title is Trevi Fountain. It has 26.3 metres high and 49.15 metres wide. It was
built in 1732 and it was inaugurated in 1762. It's located in Rome. This fountain was built
by Nicola Salvi and Pietro Bracci.
The Trevi Fountain is based on three elements: a travertine's facade, statues of marble
and a travertine's sea reef. In the center, there is a statue of Ocean: he's quite fat and he
has a long beard. He seems gentleman and majestic. Ocean hold a wand (in his right
hand) and a piece of cloth around his pelvis (in his left hand). Ocean's carried on his
carriot by two horses (Tritons). One Triton is restless, strong and young, a the other's older
and calm and it has a shell. He's standing in a tryimphal arch too. In the left part of the
arch there's the statue of Abundance (above her, there's Agrippa, commanding to build the
aqueduct). On the right there's Health (he has a laurel wreth, above her there is a Virgin
indicating the water's source. There are 4 statues more and they symbolize: Abundance of
fruits, Fertility of crops, Products of Autumn and Joy of Prairies and Gardens.
It's the largest Baroque fountain in Rome. It dates back to the 18th century.
Before that, it was used to provide water from the Aqua Virgo (an aqueduct) to the thermal
baths. Nowadays, it's used as a tourist attraction.
Some people throw a coin using the right hand over the left shoulder. They think that this
act will give them good luck and their wish will be accomplished.
This fountain is a touristic attraction, for this reason, it makes this city popular and a lot of
money. It's one of the most beautiful fountains.
I think that this fountain is amazing and wonderful.
Is a famous square situated in Rome (located on the site of the Stadium of Domitian). Was
built in 1st century. It's an example of Baroque Roman architecture or art.
In this square wa can find monuments, statues
and fountains, like Stabilimenti Spagnoli,
Palazzo de Cupis, Palazzo Torres Massimo
Lancellotti, Church of Nostra Signora del
Sacro Cuore, Palazzo Braschi (the Rome's
museum), Sant'Agnese in Agone, Fontana dei
Quattro Flumi, Fontain of Neptune and
Fontana del Moro.
Nowadays, they use this square to make a Christmas market and it's a public space too.
Is one of the most famous squares in Rome (at the bottom of the Spanish Steps). Was
built in the middle of the baroque age. It's an example of the Baroque architecture.
In this square, we can see some different
monuments, museums, schools and palaces:
Palazzo di Spagna, Palazzo di Propaganda Fide,
Trinità dei Mondi, Keats-Shelley Memorial House,
Giorgio De Chirico House, Column of the
Immaculate Conception, Fountain of the Babuino,
Spanish Steps, Fontana della Barcacia, Collegio
San Giuseppe and Babington's tea room.
Nowadays, it's used like a museum dedicated to Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats.
The Pantheon was devoted to the Gods of Ancient Rome. The word pantheon derive from
the Greek and it means all gods. The Pantheon is still preserved. It was built by Agripps in
27 AD. In the year 80 AD a fire destroyed it, rebuilt, another fire. At the entrance, Hadrian,
preserved a text in honour of Marcus Agrippa. In the 7th
century it became a church
devoted to St Mary and the martyrs. The Pantheon is most famous for the inside. Is huge,
perfect sphere, a hole in the roof (Oculus), to let the
light into the building and to let out sacred smoke, it
rains both inside and outside. The statues represent
Roman Gods, such as Saturn and Venus. The
Pantheon is also a mausoleum beacuse there are
buried the Royal Family and many Renaissance
artists such as Raphael. The Pantheon is located in
Piazza de la Rotonda.
The columns of the entrance, are an example of the Corinthian art, there are built with
marble (they came from Greece). It's got a central point. It accomodates a sphere. The
designers seemed to be obsessed with spheres, rectangles, circles and perfect geomtrical
shapes. When you get inside you could rotate and you have a feeling of freedom because
the space is vast. The dome lays on concrete and brick. The dominant colours of the
marble are white, purple, orange and blue. St Peter's Basilica in Rome and National
Gallery of Washington are inspires in this building.
INSIDE THE PANTHEON
THE VATICAN CITY
The most important attractions that you can't miss are: Saint Peter's Basilica, Gardens,
Vatican Museums, Vatican Guards and Saint Peter's Square.
Saint Peter was crucified in the place of the obelisk in St. Peter's Square. Emperor
Constatine legalised Christianity in 338 A.D.
The first impression you get when you enter Saint Peter's Basilica is that it's big and
glorious. You can find “La Pieta” by Michelangelo inside Saint Peter's Basilica. The altar is
attributed to Bernini in the baroque era. You can also find inscription “Tu es Petrus” means:
You are Peter. The Dome was designed by Michelangelo. If you want to climb to the
cupola, you have to climb 300 steps to the cupola.
In the Vatican Museums you can find sculptures, paintings, frescoes, graffitis and
THE VATICAN CITY
Siena is a city in Tuscany. It's the capital of the province of Siena.
The Piazza del Campo has the shape of a shell. In this square you can find: the Palazzo
Publico and the Torre del Mangia. The Palio di Siena is a horse race. It takes place twice a
year (on July 2 and August 16) in Piazza del Campo. It last maximum ninety seconds. It
takes place in Piazza del Campo because you have to surround the square's shape three
The region who won last 2013 July competition was Oca. It has had sixty-five victories.
PALIO DI SIENA
The best form to reach Venice is by plane. There are 2 airports: Marco Polo and Treviso.
You can reach the city centre crossing the bridge (El Puenti de la Liberta). Venice is
considered one of the largest car free cities. In this village, you can discover: water streets,
canals and narrow streets. The most common mean of transportation is the gondola. A ride
for forty minutes without music costs 80€. At the heart of Venice the principal square is
Saint Mark's Square. The Palazzo Ducale was the residence of the Dukes. Next to this
building, you can visit Saint Mark's Basilica and the relics of Saint Mark. The tallest
builiding in Venice is the Saint Mark's Campanili. In this square you can have a coffee for
6€. You can buy some souvenirs like: masks, jewels and paintings. Canal Grande is the
canal that goes through Venice. Vaporetti are water buses. Murano is an island located on
the North of Venice well known for glass-making.
Every year there are 14 million tourist. Venice has 150 canals and 409 bridges that they
connect 117 irelands. The Venice problem is that it's sinking and you'll always get lost.
Most people in Venice, live on the tourism. The most famous bridge in Venice is the Ponte
di Rialto, it was built in 1588 and it's made of marble. The most famous market is the fish
Florence sits at the feet of the Apenine mountains. It has 370,000 inhabitants.
Buildings and monuments tell stories about art, war and life. There were some illustrious
minds like Da Vinci, Dante and Michaelangelo.
The shuttle bus from the Pisa airport to Florence takes seventy minutes. In summer, the
temperature of this city is about 40º and in winter, the temperature is below 0º. If you
explore Florence's marvels, it will take 1 or 2 days. The museums are closed on Mondays.
The busiest building in the entire city is the Uffizzi Gallery. In “La Galleria de la Academia”
you can see the Michelangelo's David. In Palazzo Vechio, you can visit the secret part and
rooms. The Duomo is a cathedral. The entrance is free, except the bell tower. The dome
was painted by Brunelleschi. It takes 10 or 15 minutes to reach it.