1
CONTENTS:
1. Map of Italy ...................................................................................................
MAP OF ITALY:
3
Rome (Colisseum).
Siena (Cathedral).
Venice (Cathedral).
Florence (Grand Canal).
PORTRAIT OF ITALY
Italy is situated to the South of Europe. To the North, Italy is delimited by France,
Switzerland, Austr...
ROME
5
Catacombs
Colisseum
Forum
Fontana
Di Trevi
Mausoleum
Spain
Square
Caracalla's
Roman baths
Capitol Square
Navona
squ...
CATACOMBS OF ROME
The catacombs of Rome are like a mausoleum (an external free-standing building where
there is a burial c...
like a normal human. The figures give a sensation of movement. They have a rigid posture
and they are harmonious and well-...
COLOSSEUM
The Colosseum is an eliptical amphitheatre in the central part of Rome (situated in the
Colosseo Square). Nowada...
THE ROMAN FORUM
The Roman Forum is situated in a valley between the Palatine Hill and the Capitol Hill. It
was built from ...
Titus Flavi: He was Vespasian's successor, Titus was the Roman Emperor from 79 to 81.
He was born on 30th December 39 and ...
TREVI FOUNTAIN
The fountain's title is Trevi Fountain. It is 26.3 metres high and 49.15 metres wide. It was
built in 1732 ...
PIAZZA NAVONA
Piazza Navona is a famous square in
Rome (it's located on the site of the
Stadium of Domitian). This square ...
PANTHEON
The Pantheon is a Roman temple in Rome (Piazza Della
Rotonda). It was built by Agrippa (he seemed to be
obsessed ...
VATICAN CITY
The Vatican is a small country inside Rome and it has only one city: The Vatican City. The
most important mon...
.FLORENCE
Florence is the capital city of the Tuscany's region and of the province of Florence. It has
370,000 inhabitants...
VENICE
Venice is a city in the North of Italy and one of the largest car free cities. Most people in
Venice live on the to...
17
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Italy

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS: 1. Map of Italy ..................................................................................................................... 3 2. View of Italy .................................................................................................................... 4 2.1. Rome ................................................................................................................. 5 2.1.1. Catacombs of Rome and Saint Sebastian's painting........................... 6 2.1.2. Colisseum............................................................................................ 8 2.1.3. The Roman Forum............................................................................... 9 2.1.4. The Trevi Fountain..............................................................................11 2.1.5. Piazza Navona and Piazza di Spagna............................................... 12 2.1.6. The Pantheon.....................................................................................13 2.2. The Vatican City ...............................................................................................14 2.3. Siena ................................................................................................................14 2.4. Florence ...........................................................................................................15 2.5. Venice ...............................................................................................................16 2
  3. 3. MAP OF ITALY: 3 Rome (Colisseum). Siena (Cathedral). Venice (Cathedral). Florence (Grand Canal).
  4. 4. PORTRAIT OF ITALY Italy is situated to the South of Europe. To the North, Italy is delimited by France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The Mediterranian islands resident to the South are, Sicily and Sardinia. The most important cities in this country are Venice, Milan, Turín, Rome, Siena, Florence, Pompeii and Pisa. Italy is a member of many international organizations, like the EU (1993), G8, OTAN, ONU, OCDE, OSCE and COE. Italy is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic. The president is Giorgio Napolitano and the Prime Minister is Enrico Letta. It has a population of 59,685,227 and a density of 197.7/km2. This country has a very diverse climate because it has a great extension and it's delimited by mountains. To the North and to the Central regions, the climate is humid subtropical, humid continental or oceanic. Generally, to the south and to the coastal areas there is a Mediterranean climate. We have to keep in mind that the inner places have a cold, wet and snowy weather. On the other hand, the coastal places have mild winters, and in the summer, they have a warm and dry weather. In Italy, they only speak their official language, Italian. They use the euro as their currency. Their flag has three vertical lines: the left one is green, the medium one is white and the other one is red. The badge of this country has a white star at the forefront surrounded by a crown made of green bay. At the back, there is a grey wheel and, below the crown, there is a slogan (Repubblica Italiana). They have an anthem called “The Song of the Italians”, made by Goffredo Mameli. Italy is a country that attracts people because it has good food, beautiful places, beaches, and, above all, a good climate (generally, warm weather). I think that Italy is famous because it has a good gastronomy (pasta, ice creams...) and it has a lot of beautiful monuments, for example: • In Rome: Fontana Di Trevi, Colisseum, Spain Square, catacombs, the mausoleum, Saint Peter's Vatican... • In Milan: Arco della Pace, the Sforza Castle, the archeological museum... • In Venice: Saint Mark's Square, the Saint Mark's basilica, the Ducal Palace... • In Florence: the Old Bridge, Palazzo Pitti, Florence Cathedral, • In Pisa: the Tower of Pisa.. 4 The flag of Italy. The country with the dark green colour is Italy.
  5. 5. ROME 5 Catacombs Colisseum Forum Fontana Di Trevi Mausoleum Spain Square Caracalla's Roman baths Capitol Square Navona square
  6. 6. CATACOMBS OF ROME The catacombs of Rome are like a mausoleum (an external free-standing building where there is a burial chamber of a deceased person or people). These catacombs are in Appia Antica Street, in the central part of Rome. The catacombs of Rome are burial places originated in the 2nd century, when there wasn't enough land to bury the persecuted dead Chrisitans. Under the ground,there are many kilometres with storeys and tunnels. The tuff rock helped to make the tunnels. Catacombs contain frescoes and sculptures because there are many saints buried there. In the 1st century, Rome was built upon the catacombs, and in the 2nd century they built three mausoleums with some graffitis dedicated to differert saints. The catacombs of Saint Sebastian is one os the smallest ones (11 kilometres long) and one of the least preserved. There are four floors, the first is gone. They built upon it a basilica in the 13th century. We can see a cryp of Saint Sebastian sculpted by Bernini (the bust). From there, we can find mausoleums and catacombs with paintings of funeral banquets and inhumation burials. This sculpture belonged to the Renaissance period. SAINT SEBASTIAN'S PAINTING This painting is called Saint Sebastian and it's painted by Giovanni Bazzi. Its dimensions are 145 centimetres (wide) and 204 centimetres (high). The work was made in 1576 and, presently, is in the Galleria degli Uffizzi (Florence). It's made of oil and canvas. In this pincture we can see Saint Sebastian in the foreground. He's tied to a tree with his hands and he can't move. We can see the arrows (one in the thigh, another in the neck an the other one in the abdomen). He only wears a piece of clothe around his waist. He's tall and thin, and Saint Sebastian has long, brown and curly hair. The Saint in on a little hill. At the bottom, we can observe a landscape with some trees and mountains. There are some people (they seem a tribe) with a horse and some ruins too. At the top, we find an angel and behind it, a sun. The angel is flying and he's short and it has curly and blond hair. He wears a fine piece of clothe. The picture isn't realistic, because I think that people can't fly and angels don't exist. People are realistic, so they are 6 A gallery of the Catacombs of Rome. Saint Sebastian's painting.
  7. 7. like a normal human. The figures give a sensation of movement. They have a rigid posture and they are harmonious and well-proportioned, because at that time, they considered that humans were perfect. Clothes aren't realistically painted, because people always wear more pieces. There aren't strong contrasts, because all the picture is dark. It's harmonious. It was made in the high Renaissance, because it's quite realistic and it shows us the beauty of nature. This painting represents Saint Sebastian's death. I think that it's a hard-working painting. I don't like it very much, because I find that it's a tragic moment and I don't like this image of death. I like the colour of the picture because it isn't a bright colour. TIMETABLES AND PRICES OPENING HOURS: From Monday to Saturday they open at 10:00 am – 17:00. The last entrance is at 16:30. CLOSING DAYS: They close on Sundays and on the following days: 25th December and 1st January. They make holidays from 17 November to 15 December. PRICES: Standard ticket (adults) = 8€. Reduced ticket (children from 6-12 years old, military personnel and armed forces) = 5€. School reduction= 5€ with certificate. Children under 6 years old and carers for disabled people= Free. BOOKING: Bookings in advance are only taken for school groups and groups of a minimum of 15 people. If you want a individual ticket you don't have to book in advance. The guided tours are in English, German, Italian, French and Spanish. 7 Paintings, monuments and sculptures that we can find in the Catacombs of Sant Sebastià.
  8. 8. COLOSSEUM The Colosseum is an eliptical amphitheatre in the central part of Rome (situated in the Colosseo Square). Nowadays it's the major tourist attraction in Rome, the largest amphitheatre of the world (like before, in the Roman Empire), and one of the best works of Roman architecture and engineering. It was built by Vespasian in 70 AD, and this building was finished by Titus (the Vespasian's successor) in 80 AD. The construction lasted 10 years. Many people thought that the blood- thirsty games were like entertainment and they had a good time watching them. The Colosseum was used for gladitorial contests and public shows (animal hunts, mock sea battles, executions, classical mythology's dramas...), in general, it was used for entertainment in the medieval era. Later, the amphitheatre was used fo housing, workshops, religion's quarters, fortress, quarry and Chrisitan shrine. In the 21st century, it is ruined because of the damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers. The Colosseum is 189 meters long, 48 high and 156 wide. This amphitheatre has a capacity of between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators. It was made of concrete and stone. It has 4 floors with arches of half a point about some thick pillars that also sustain semi- detached columns of decorative type. Into the building there is the terracing with many stairs (because it always had to endure the movement of many people). It had 80 entrances to be quick and the entrance was free. There were places to buy food. Spectators were protected from the sun by a huge linen shade. The arena's floor was made of movable wooden sections. Under this floor, there were passages, rooms, prison cells and cages. They used pulleys and trap doors to arrive to the arena. The priviliged people ( emperors, vestal virgins and senators ) had the better seats while the citizens had the place that was higher in the terracing. On the first floor there are 80 arcades of Doric order, in the second one there are some capitals of volutes and arcades of Jonic order. The third one has a varied order with achantus leaves on the capitals. Finally, the fourth floor is like an attic with lesenes of the Corinthian order. On the second and the third floor, there are some sculptures and the corridors contain overhangs of stucco and marble. 8 The Colosseum. Colosseum's terracing.
  9. 9. THE ROMAN FORUM The Roman Forum is situated in a valley between the Palatine Hill and the Capitol Hill. It was built from 8 BC to 312 AD, because into the Forum there are many buildings, and each one was built in a different year. The Roman Forum is a rectangular square surrounded by the ruins of many important buildings: 1- Curia. 2-Arch of Septimus Severus. 3-Rostra. 4-Temple of Vespasian. 5-Via Sacra. 6- Temple of Saturn. 7- Colonna du Foca. 8- Basilica Iulia. 9-Basilica Emilia. 10-Temple of Julius Caesar. 11-Temple of Vestals. 12- Temple of Castor. 13-Church of Santa Maria Antiqua. 14- Temple of Augustus. 15- Temple of Antoninus and Faustino. 16-Temple of Romulus. 17-Temple of Venus and Rome. 18-House of Vesta. 19-Basilica di Maxentius. 20-Coliseum. 21-Arch of Titus. 22-Palatina. They used this place for public speeches, triumphal processions and elections, criminal trials, gladiatorial matches and commercial affairs. After the sewer's construction, they used the Forum as a marketplace. 9
  10. 10. Titus Flavi: He was Vespasian's successor, Titus was the Roman Emperor from 79 to 81. He was born on 30th December 39 and he died on 13th September 39v(Titus lived for 41 years). The Emperor is famous because he finished the Colosseum and he ordered to build the Bath of Titus (new public bath-house). Julius Caesar: Julius was the son of Gaius Julius Caesar. He was a Roman general, statesman, consol and a Latin prose's author. Julius was born in July 100 BC and he died on 15th March 44 BC (he lived for 55 years). He was famous because he became a member of the First Triumvirate. Then Julius fought in a civil was. After that, he became the dictator of the Roman Republic. Romulus: He was Rhea Silvia and Mars' son. He had a twin. Romulus and his twin were the founders of Rome. They were born before Rome's foundation. Romulus killed Remus in a fight to get Rome's control. He was buried in the Amuliu's Palace. The Vestals: The Vestals were the priestesses of the goddess Vesta (the heart goddess). They are important for well-being, the continuance and the security of Rome. They can't marry to someone and have children. Venus: Venus id the goddess of love and beauty. She is the same as Aphrodite, but in the Roman mythology. Julius introduced Venus to the goddess of motherhood and domesticity. The fist temple dedicated to her was built in 293 BC. 10 The viev of the Roman Forum.
  11. 11. TREVI FOUNTAIN The fountain's title is Trevi Fountain. It is 26.3 metres high and 49.15 metres wide. It was built in 1732 and it was inaugurated in 1762. It's located in Rome. This fountain was built by Nicola Salvi and Pietro Bracci. The Trevi Fountain is based on three elements: a travertine's façade, statues of marble and a travertine's sea reef. In the center, there is a statue of Ocean: he's quite fat and he has a long beard. He seems gentleman and majestic. Ocean holds a wand (in his right hand) and a piece of cloth around his pelvis (in his left hand). Ocean's carried on his carriot by two horses (Tritons). One Triton is restless, strong and young, and the other's older and calm and it has a shell. He's standing in a tryumphal arch too. In the left part of the arch there's the statue of Abundance (above her, there's Agrippa, commanding to build the aqueduct). On the right there's Health (he has a laurel wreth, above her there is a Virgin indicating the water's source. There are 4 statues more and they symbolize the Abundance of fruits, Fertility of crops, Products of Autumn and Joy of Prairies and Gardens. It's the largest Baroque fountain in Rome. It dates back to the 18th century. Before that, it was used to provide water from the Aqua Virgo (an aqueduct) to the thermal baths. Nowadays, it's used as a tourist attraction. Some people throw a coin using the right hand over the left shoulder. They think that this act will give them good luck and their wish will be accomplished. This fountain is a touristic attraction, for this reason, it makes this city popular and a lot of money. It's one of the most beautiful fountains. I think that this fountain is one of the prettiest fountains of the world. The legend of the coin is very original, but it's very sad that some people steal them. 11 Trevi Fountain. Trevi Fountain.
  12. 12. PIAZZA NAVONA Piazza Navona is a famous square in Rome (it's located on the site of the Stadium of Domitian). This square was built in 1st century. It's an example of Baroque Roman architecture of art. In this square we can find some monuments, statues and fountains, like: Stabilimenti Spagnoli, Palazzo de Cupis, Palazzo Torres Massimo Lancellotti, Church of Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore, Palazzo Braschi (the Rome's museum), Sant'Agnese in Agone, Fontana dei Quattro Flumi, Fontain of Neptune and Fontana del Moro. Nowadays, they use this square to make a Christmas market and it's a public space too. PIAZZA SPAGNA Piazza di Spagna is one of the most famous squares in Rome (at the bottom of the Spanish Steps). It was built in the middle of the baroque age. It's an example of the Baroque architecture. In this square, we can see some different monuments, museums, schools and palaces: Palazzo di Spagna, Palazzo di Propaganda Fide, Trinità dei Mondi, Keats-Shelley Memorial House, Giorgio De Chirico House, Column of the Immaculate Conception, Fountain of the Babuino, Spanish Steps, Fontana della Barcacia, Collegio San Giuseppe and Babington's tea room. Nowadays, it's used like a museum dedicated to Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats. 12 Piazza Navona. Piazza Spagna.
  13. 13. PANTHEON The Pantheon is a Roman temple in Rome (Piazza Della Rotonda). It was built by Agrippa (he seemed to be obsessed with spheres, rectangles, circles and perfect geometrical shapes) in 27 A.D. This building was rebuilt under emperor Hadrian in 126 A.D., because a fire destroyed the temple in the year 80 A.D.and thirty years later too. The Pantheon was devoted to the Gods of Ancient Rome. In the 7th century it became a church devoted to St Mary and the martyrs. The most famous part of this monument is the inside. This temple is huge, a perfect sphere and it has a hole in the roof (Oculus). It rains both inside and outside. It's a radial building because it's got a central point and it accommodates a sphere. The Pantheon lets the light into the building and let out sacred smoke. There are also some statues representing Roman Gods, such as Saturn and Venus. The dome lays on concrete and brick. At the entrance, Hadrian preserved a text in honour of Marcus Agrippa. The columns of the entrance are an example of Corinthian art, they are built with marble (it came from Greece). The dominant colours of the marble are white, purple, orange and blue. The Pantheon is also a mausoleum because there the Royal Family and many Renaissance artists such as Raphael are buried. The word pantheon derives from the Greek and it means all gods. When you get inside you can rotate and you have a feeling of freedom because the space is vast. The Pantheon is still preserved. St Peter's Basilica in Rome and National Gallery of Washington are inspired in this building. 13 The outside of the Pantheon. The oculus of the Pantheon. The inside of the Pantheon.
  14. 14. VATICAN CITY The Vatican is a small country inside Rome and it has only one city: The Vatican City. The most important monuments are: St. Peter's Basilica, gardens, the Vatican museums, the Vatican guards and Saint Peter's Square. Saint Peter was crucified in the place of the obelisk at St. Peter's Square. Emperor Constatine was the important person who legalised Christianity in 338 A.D. When you enter Saint Peter's Basilica, the first impression you have is that it's big and glorious. “La Pieta” is one of the most important sculptures in the Basilica and it was built by Michael Angelo. The altar is attributted to Bernini in the baroque period. The inscription “Tu es Petrus” means: You are Peter. The Dome was designed by Michael Angelo too. If you want to climb to the cupola, you have to go up 300 steps. In the Vatican Museums you can find sculptures, paintings, frescoes, graffiti and tapestries. SIENA Siena is a city in Tuscany. It's the capital of the province of Siena. This town has been declared by UNESCO. It's popular for its cuisine, art, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio (horse race). The Piazza del Campo is the town square, it has the shape of a shell. In this square we can find the Palazzo Publico and the Torre del Mangia. The Palio di Siena is a horse race. They celebrate this race twice a year (on July 2 and August 16) in Piazza del Campo. It lasts maximum ninety seconds. They do this race in the town square because you have to surround the square's shape three times. In the land there is a thick layer of dirt. The region who won last 2013 July competition was Oca. It has had sixty-five victories. 14 View from the dome of Saint Peter's Basilica. The Vatican Obelisk. The Palio, the horse race.
  15. 15. .FLORENCE Florence is the capital city of the Tuscany's region and of the province of Florence. It has 370,000 inhabitants. This city is situated at the feet of the Apenine mountains. In venice there were some illustrious minds like Da Vinci, Dante and Michaelangelo. Buildings and monuments tell stories about art, war and life. The busiest building in the entire city is the Uffizzi Gallery. In “La Galleria de la Academia” we can find the Michelangelo's David. In Palazzo Vecchio, we can visit the secret part and rooms. The Duomo is a cathedral. The entrance is free, except for the bell tower. The dome was painted by Brunelleschi. It takes 10 or 15 minutes to reach it. In Florence, the museums are closed on Mondays. If you explore Florence's marvels, it will take you 1 or 2 days. The shuttle bus from the Pisa airport to Florence takes seventy minutes. In summer, the temperature of this city is about 40º. And in winter, the temperature is below 0º. 15 The Florence city. The Cathedral of Florence.
  16. 16. VENICE Venice is a city in the North of Italy and one of the largest car free cities. Most people in Venice live on the tourism. Every year 14 million of tourists visit this city. Venice has 150 canals and 409 bridges that connect 117 islands. The most famous bridge in Venice is the Ponte di Rialto, it was built in 1588 and it's made of marble. The Venice problem is that it's sinking and you'll always get lost. The best form to reach Venice is by plane (it has 2 airports: Marco Polo and Trevise). You can arrive to the center crossing the bridge (El Puenti de la Liberta). In this village, you can discover water streets, canals and narrow streets. The Canal Grande is the canal that goes through Venice. The most common mean of transportation is the Gondola. A ride for forty minutes without music costs eighty euros. There is another mean of transportation: the Vaporetti (water buses). In this city, you can buy some souvenirs, like masks, jewels and paintings. At the heart of Venice, there is the principal square: Saint Mark's Square. In this square you can have a coffee for six euros.The Palazzo Ducale was the residence of the Dukes. Next to this building, there are Saint Mark's Basilica and the relics of Saint Mark (inside). The tallest builiding in Venice is the Saint Mark's Campanili. Murano is an island located on the North of Venice, it's well known for glass-making. 16 A Venice's canal. Piazza San Marco with Saint Mark's Campanile. A gondola.
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