Gumucio Cfsc En


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Gumucio Cfsc En

  1. 1. Communication for Social Change A key to participatory development 01/03/2007 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  2. 2. It is easy to write recipes, but it´s difficult to communicate with people Franz Kafka 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  3. 3. Purpose of this presentation ♦ Position our understanding of communication for social change ♦ Describe historic evolution of various concepts around communication and development ♦ Schematic, for the purpose of establishing differences between trends and models 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  4. 4. A look back in history… 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  5. 5. After World War II … ♦ Major powers compete to gain control of regions in the developing world ♦ Liberation struggles & decolonisation process in Africa, Asia and Latin America ♦ The chessboard: domination by the force of weapons or through co-operation and debt? ♦ New development paradigms are born – the Marshall Plan ♦ Independences negotiated in Africa ♦ Rationalisation of war industry 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  6. 6. Development context ♦ Patronising vision: to level the differences between rich and poor countries ♦ Rise the income of poor rural families ♦ Expand consumer markets towards the south ♦ Technologies seen as the panacea ♦ Development understood as increased productivity & trade ♦ Cold War: information & manipulation 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  7. 7. Fifty years later… 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  8. 8. The cemetery of development Half century of missed opportunities: ♦ Water pumps without water ♦ Roads that lead nowhere ♦ Hospitals without health staff ♦ Schools without teachers & books ♦ Dusty video & radio equipment in state media ♦ Backyards full of rusty donated vehicles ♦ Immunisation rates down, HIV/AIDS up ♦ White elephants in Africa, Asia and Latin America 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  9. 9. Who’s fault? Planners Community ♦ Government ♦ Weak community corruption organization ♦ Vertical planning from ♦ Illegitimate local development agencies leadership ♦ No dialogue with ♦ Submissive relations beneficiaries with power structures ♦ Communication absent ♦ No sense of ownership in the process ♦ No capacity to voice ♦ Knowledge arrogance community views 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  10. 10. The story of a community dream What the donor How it was described in thought the community theWhat thedocument… project consultant wanted... recommended… How programme The way it was designed implementers installed it… in the community… What the community really wanted but was not able to communicate… 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  11. 11. Paradigms (1950-2000) ♦ Based on Modernisation Theories (diffusion): • Diffusion of innovations • Social marketing • Health promotion • Edutainment (education & entertainment) ♦ Based on Dependency Theories (participation): • Development communication • Alternative, horizontal, dialogic • Participatory communication • Communication for social change 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  12. 12. I. Modernisation theories ♦ “Deficit of information” causes poverty ♦ Traditional cultures, a barrier for modernisation & development ♦ One model of development: copy industrialised nations ♦ Selling the image of international co- operation to developing countries ♦ Use the growth & expansion of communications technologies: radio, TV 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  13. 13. Diffusion of innovations ♦ “Poor lack of knowledge” - Knowledge viewed as a exclusive privilege of the North ♦ Transfer of knowledge to change behaviour ♦ Adoption of western innovations & transfer of media technology and models ♦ Western culture communication rationale: awareness, interest, decision, trial, adoption + boxes, arrows, flows charts ♦ Decision-making made elsewhere by donors & funding agencies ♦ Intensive involvement of government media (private media yet to arrive) 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  14. 14. Social marketing ♦ Propaganda-based techniques from WWII & commercial advertising models ♦ Advertising jargon: “clients”, “consumers”, “Reduce distance between consumer & product” ♦ Military jargon: “targets”, “campaign”, “tactics” ♦ Influence of behavioural theories (Skinner) ♦ Intensive use of mass media & add agencies ♦ Superficial understanding of local context ♦ Lack of analysis of structural causes ♦ Biased self-promoting quantitative evaluations 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  15. 15. Health promotion ♦ Established from health services perspective: “the doctor knows better” ♦ Prescriptive approach: “must do this” ♦ Believes individual behaviour responsible for health problems - blames the victim ♦ Promotes official public health policies ♦ Ignores political, cultural & social conditions ♦ Often lacks of communication expertise ♦ Doctors & nurses improvise tehmselves as communicators 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  16. 16. Education & entertainment ♦ “Edutainment”, an improved version ♦ More emphasis on educational process ♦ Mix of mass media & interpersonal communication: “media is not the silver bullet” (Garth Japhet) ♦ Creativity: TV & radio dramas, songs, etc ♦ Direct link with health services ♦ Promote women & youth local organisations ♦ Criticism: How much education and how much entertainment? – Long-term impact? 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  17. 17. II. Dependency theories ♦ Growth of social & political movements in Asia, Latin America, Africa (independence) ♦ Analysis of structural causes (political, economic, social) of underdevelopment ♦ Oppose to neo-colonial strategies ♦ Builds alliances between workers, peasants, intellectuals from North & South ♦ Social participation & organisation is key ♦ Criticism of media dependency & diffusion 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  18. 18. Development communication ♦ Works with community & involves people ♦ Communication to promote rural participation ♦ Promoted by FAO in the 70’s ♦ Rural development & food security ♦ Specific analysis of local problems ♦ Attention to indigenous culture & identity ♦ Related to local organisations & co-operatives ♦ Training of change agents – “extension workers” ♦ Specificity vs. massive use of media ♦ Remained institutional & programme-linked model 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  19. 19. Alternative, dialogic, horizontal ♦ Born from struggle against dictatorships ♦ Rejection of hegemonic mass media (MacBride) ♦ Interpersonal, horizontal & dialogic (Freire 60’s) ♦ Use of appropriate low-cost media tools ♦ Mushrooming of grassroots' experiences - radio ♦ Demystification of technology tools ♦ Appropriation of media tools & contents ♦ Development of critical sense towards media ♦ Criticism: isolated, small, no impact, no evaluation 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  20. 20. Participatory communication ♦ Increased involvement of social & community organisations ♦ Media & contents decided democratically within the community ♦ Social empowerment, networking & organisational objectives ♦ The communication process is more important than the end products ♦ Ownership of media tools & processes 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  21. 21. Communication for Social Change ♦ Concept articulated at RF seminar, April 1997 ♦ Recovers lessons learned & participatory experiences from developing countries ♦ Process of dialogue and debate, based on tolerance, respect, equity, social justice & active participation of all stakeholders ♦ Rejects hierarchic & mass media intensive models of communication ♦ Aims community empowerment & local decision- making process ♦ Strategic approach to development 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  22. 22. Main differences Hierarchic model Participatory model ♦ Behavioural causes ♦ Structural causes ♦ Vertical ♦ Horizontal ♦ Persuasion ♦ “Concientisation” ♦ Individual change ♦ Social change ♦ Passive & “banking” ♦ Active & critical ♦ Objects of change ♦ Agents of change ♦ Massive diffusion ♦ Dialogue & debate ♦ General assumptions ♦ Specific , diverse ♦ Short-term / messages ♦ Long-term / process 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  23. 23. Diffusion model A. Problem: lack of information & knowledge B. Solution: knowledge - attitudes - practice C. Conceptual framework: modernization through diffusion of innovations D. Definition of communication: information transfer – vertical E. Methods of communication: information dissemination – mass media F. Goal: outcome oriented – behaviour change G. Types of interventions: Social Marketing, Edutainment (entertainment-education) 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  24. 24. Participatory model A. Problem: structural inequalities B. Solution: participation - community empowerment C. Conceptual Framework: dependency, social mobilisation D. Definition of communication: information exchange – horizontal dialogue – respect knowledge & culture E. Methods of development communication: grassroots participation – community interaction F. Goal: process oriented – social change G. Types of interventions: Participatory Action Research (PAR), Rapid Participatory Appraisal (RPA), development, alternative, participatory, dialogic communication 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  25. 25. Horizontal Vs. Vertical ♦ People as dynamic ♦ People perceived as communicators receivers of participating in information and social change, with instructions, a critical approach decisions made by to information others 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  26. 26. Process Vs. Campaign ♦ People taking in ♦ Expensive and hand their own unsustainable future through campaigns which democratic mobilise but do not participation in build capacity at communication the community process level 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  27. 27. Long-Term Vs. Short-Term ♦ Communication ♦ ‘Annual report’ and development, donor driven as long-term projects that do not processes that need acknowledge the time to be assumed cultural realities and appropriated by and often oversize people results & outputs 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  28. 28. Collective Vs. Individual ♦ Communities that ♦ People targeted act & make individually, decisions detached from their collectively in the community and interest of the majority, avoiding from their the risk of lending communal forms of power to a few decision-making 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  29. 29. With… Vs. For… ♦ Researching, ♦ Deciding, designing, researching, exchanging designing, pre- messages with & by testing, disseminating, the community, in a evaluating messages process of dialogue to or for…the and debate community 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  30. 30. Specific Vs. Massive ♦ Communication ♦ Using the same process & messages umbrella media, specifically adapted messages & to each social group strategies in diverse in terms of content, cultural contexts, language & media and for different social sectors 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  31. 31. People needs Vs. Donor musts ♦ Community based ♦ Communication research to identify, projects built on define & donor needs: differentiate the felt privatisation, birth needs and the real control (family needs planning), extensive farming 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  32. 32. Ownership Vs. Access ♦ Ownership of ♦ Access to media and information communication channels is a step tools provides voice forward, though and opportunity often controlled and with no restriction regulated by others 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  33. 33. Consciousness Vs. Persuasion ♦ A process of bring ♦ Persuasion to up consciousness change behaviour and deep and perform acts on understanding of specific issues is only sustainable social reality, with permanent problems, and stimulus & funds solutions 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  34. 34. CFSC – main principles [1] Sustainability of social changes is certain when individuals & communities affected become owners of the communicational process & contents [2] CFSC, horizontal & participatory, aims to strengthen community links and amplify the voices of the poorest; based on the notion of the appropriation of the communicational process and the development of local contents 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  35. 35. CFSC – main principles … [3] Communities should be the agents of their own social change and master the communication process [4] Emphasis on promoting dialogue, debate & negotiation, building alliances; rather than persuasion, pure transfer of information & external knowledge 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  36. 36. CFSC – main principles … [5] The CFSC process should go beyond individual behaviours and take into consideration social norms, current policies, local culture & tradition, and the general context of development [6] Dialogue & participation are key to strengthen cultural identity, trust, commitment, ownership of ideas & expressions, and community organisation 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  37. 37. CFSC – main principles … [7] CFSC rejects the linear model of transmission of information from a central sender towards a individual receiver, and promotes a process of interactions where knowledge is shared and collective action is taken 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  38. 38. Communication resources D $ 1,000.000.000 media $ 1,000.000 organisations $ 1,000 $1 community The up-side down pyramid 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  39. 39. Communication resources D media organisations community The pyramid 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  40. 40. If community media is the answer, what is the question? Alfred E. Opubor 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  41. 41. A question of power ♦ Communication for Social Change contributes to put the decision-making about development in the hands of the people ♦ It consolidates the capability of communities to confront their own ideas about development with planners ♦ Within the community itself it favours the strengthening of democratic process 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  42. 42. A question of identity ♦ Participatory communication contributes to install cultural pride and self-esteem ♦ It reinforces the social tissue through the strengthening of indigenous & local forms of organisation ♦ It protects traditions and cultural values, while being able to incorporate new elements 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  43. 43. It is through the evolution of our own genuine culture that our identity can be fully discovered. Steve Biko 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  44. 44. Essential conditions for CFSC At the community level… [1] Community participation & appropriation [2] Language & cultural pertinence [3] Development of local contents [4] Use of appropriate technology [5] Networking & convergence 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  45. 45. New discourse of development ♦ Acknowledging failures ♦ Rejecting top-down approaches ♦ Promoting participatory planning & monitoring ♦ Community involvement & ownership ♦ Sustainable development ♦ Acknowledging role of communication for social change & development 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  46. 46. Demand & Supply ♦ Development organisations slowly moving towards new paradigm ♦ Gap between demand & supply ♦ No qualified communication strategists to deal with planners & experts ♦ Lack of comprehensive long-term vision ♦ Improvising short term training for staff at project level – many “doers”, few thinkers ♦ Universities not providing the needed human resources: changing names but same curricula 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  47. 47. Anybody out there? ♦ Many professionals claim to subscribe to communication for social change, even social marketing defenders ♦ Communication Initiative lists hundreds specialists from Europe & North America ♦ However, at programme & project level, difficult to find development & social change communication strategists, only journalists ♦ Development agencies improvising communicators from any other discipline & field of experience 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  48. 48. The ivory tower ♦ Academic world has often turn its back to development issues ♦ Journalists are trained by thousands, not communicators – media bias ♦ Training based on alien models & theories ♦ Satisfying demands of artificial markets ♦ Ignorance about our own thinking ♦ New curricula are needed 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  49. 49. The New Communicator ♦ Theoretical & practical balance ♦ Direct experience in development ♦ Knowledge of communication practices ♦ Strategic, long term thinking ♦ Understanding technology is just a tool ♦ Flexibility in the alternative use of media ♦ Role of amplifying the voices of voiceless ♦ Work rooted in cultural identity & dialogue 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  50. 50. Thank you 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  51. 51. Communication for Social Change Consortium …….. Making Waves: Participatory Communication for Social Change 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron
  52. 52. The Communication Initiative 1-Mar-07 Alfonso Gumucio Dagron