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  2. 2. l. THE WEST AND THE WORLD<br />Introduction:<br />Europe wanted to control and change the traditions of America because they wanted to make a<br />General globalization of the world using a form of colonization by stealing from cultures their <br />Own values and traditions.<br />Concepts - terms: <br />International Exchange: It’s considered as a concept because it has a deep sence, the word<br />International Exchange could be used to define many words that explain the significance of a <br />Paragraph; for example it could be a cultural, economical, or political International Exchange.<br />Civilization: It’s considered a term because it doesn’t have a deep sence like other words, <br />Civilization is considered as a cultural and religious growth of a society in one era.<br />
  3. 3. II. THE WEST'S FIRST OUTREACH: MARITIME POWER <br />ll. Introduction:<br />European attempts in the global trading system were not successful at first because<br /> they didn't have trading routes to Asia, but with the fear that the Ottoman Empire <br />appeared, and the decline of the gold in the west, gave more capacity or courage to <br />find new routes to Asia. The colonization of the islands of Africa's Atlantic offered a<br />great encouragement, but the mistake was that the technology didn’t allow more <br />aggressive attempts to cross the open sea.<br />Concepts - terms:<br />Middle Ages: It is considered a term because Middle Ages was a period of European history <br />Covering roughly a millennium from the 5th century to the 16th century, and it doesn’t have a <br />Deep sence.<br />
  4. 4. World Trade System: It is a term because it doesn’t have a deep sence , we could talk about <br />The world trade system in a political, economical, or cultural way.<br />Technology: It is considered as a term because it only have one definition; technology is<br />theadvance of tools and crafts and dealsonhowitaffect a speciesability.<br />B. New Technology: A Key to Power<br />Technology advance, because the developments made ocean passage possible, new ships <br />Were designed for ocean traffic and also to carry heavier weapons, the compass improved <br />Mapmaking allowed more proficient navigation for long voyages. All the technology for the <br />Trade improve in a numerous way. And also they were more sophisticated civilizations.<br />
  5. 5. C. Portugal and Spain Lead the Pack <br />Many expedition were developed this century Henry the Navigator, initiated the first voyages <br />of discovery along the Atlantic coast; also Vasco da Gama was the first Portuguese captain to <br />successfully reach India in 1498. <br />By 1514,the Portuguese had reached as far as the islands of Indonesia and China. <br />Another expedition reached Japan in 1542.Spanish colonial ventures began with the <br />voyage of the Genoese captain Christopher Columbus in 1492. <br />His early explorations of a direct western route to Asia led to the discovery of the<br /> Americas. <br />
  6. 6. Concepts and terms: <br />Commercial Interest: It is a term because it is considered as a benefit in the social, and economic way in some especific area.<br />D. NorthernEuropeanExpeditions<br />European nations became more active in sponsoring voyages of discovery; also they concentrated on lands in the Americas north of the Spanish and Portuguese claims; explorers first reached Canada in 1534 and pressed inland along the system of waterways to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River valley. England, in search of a northwest passage to Asia, instead established colonies along the Atlantic coast of North America.<br />The Dutch rivaled the Portuguese in the Asian trade network, the merchants succeeded; they also establish a small way station on the southern tip of Africa. The Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company received monopolies from their respective governments, but financed their activities from privately raised capital.<br />
  7. 7. Concepts - terms:<br />Colonies: This is considered a term because this word is means just one thing it <br />Has just one definition. Colonies are territories under the immediate political control<br />Of a sate.<br />
  8. 8. III.TOWARD A WORLD ECONOMY<br />Introduction:<br />Europe created an international exchange of goods, and create a new world-wide <br />economy including the Americas, and paved the way for the establishment of colonies<br /> into the Atlantic and Pacific.<br />Concepts and Terms:<br />World- Wide Economy: It is considered as a term because it the economic analysis, <br />economic indicators, and forecasts for the global economy. <br />The "Colombian Exchange" of Disease and Food<br />Diseases took place in America such as the smallpox and others. <br />The indigenous suffered massive population loss over a period of a century and half <br />On a more positive basis, New World crops particularly corn and potatoes supported<br /> population growth in areas as diverse as China and Europe, European and Asian <br />animals were introduced into the Americas which increased the animal population.<br />
  9. 9. C.TheWest'sCommercialOutreach<br /> Internal or regional trade remained in the hands of Asian or Muslim merchants, <br />but transoceanic voyages were the monopoly of Europeans. Dominance at sea was the <br />result of military and technological advances that made European navies more powerful.<br />Europeans did not seize much territory as part of their trading initiative, but limited their<br /> incursions to fortified trading posts. European merchants entered local trade networks <br /> through the establishment of enclaves in cities. This pattern was evident in the <br />Ottoman Empire.<br />Concepts and terms:<br />Trading Initiative: It is considered as a concept because it is the idea of progress referring to <br />Trade, the way to progress or start a “business”.<br />
  10. 10. D. Imbalances in WorldTrade<br />Spain and Portugal, declined in the face of later competition from England, France, <br />and Holland. These nations exported manufactured goods in return for raw materials to <br />expand their profit margins. Outside of the core region of Europe lay areas that were <br />economically dependent on the world trade system. These regions produced commercial <br />things. The construction of core and dependent areas was critical the formation of <br />the world trade system.<br />
  11. 11. E. A System of International Inequality<br />Some of the areas of the Americas and Africa managed to remain outside the global trading system for centuries. In the Americas, the economy of Latin America, the Caribbean and the southern British colonies was based on the importation of African slaves. Also in Latin America, many indigenous people were taken to a farm system that was able to extract work.<br />Concepts and terms:<br />Coercive Labor Systems: itis a concept becauseitis understood as the illegal work of a person meaning s forced to work.<br />
  12. 12. Concepts and terms:<br />Coercive Labor Systems: itis a concept becauseitis understood as the illegal work of a person meaning s forced to work.<br />F. How Much World in the World Economy? <br />East Asia largely remained outside the world trade system. China simply ignored European trade in favor of continuation of its traditional reliance on an internal system of exchange. Japan initially showed some interest in trade with Europe, but quickly reversed course. The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires within the Islamic world similarly limited European merchants to enclaves within their cities. Russia's trade was oriented toward central Asia. Much of Africa, remained outside the orbit of European trade.<br />
  13. 13. G. TheExpansionistTrend<br />The world trade system expanded, some areas of South Africa and India were <br />brought into the system on a more complete basis in the eighteenth century. <br />Both the British and French East India Companies regarded India as suitable for<br /> incorporation as a dependent region and a producer of cotton. In this fashion India <br />was slowly introduced to the world trade system as a supplier of raw materials for<br /> the looms. In return, Western manufactured goods began to infiltrate Eastern <br />Europe.<br />
  14. 14. IV.COLONIAL EXPANSION<br />Introduction:<br />The Control of the seas permitted Europeans to achieve dominance over a variety of cultures, <br />some colonies were immediately reduced to dependent status within the world trade system.<br /> Western leaders fostered colonialism as a means of creating controlled markets.<br />Concepts and terms:<br />Dependent Status: Thisis considered as a termbecauseitrefersthatTheStatestartto<br />Dependfromanotherstateorcolonybecausetheyhad a political, cultural <br />Or in more cases economicalproblems.<br />
  15. 15. D. North America and Western Civilization <br />North America reproduced most of the patterns of Western culture but as the frontiers moved westward, household formation and family patterns more closely approximated the European norms. Even in rebellion, colonists after 1776 couched their resistance in European political theories. Canada was originally founded as a French but the region was ceded to the British. The Thirteen American developed representative institutions; Economic equality was greater in the colonies than in Europe, and there was no formal aristocracy. <br />
  16. 16. E. Africa and Asia: Coastal Trading Stations <br />Dutch settlers fanning out from the trade station created the Cape Colony. Their expansion brought them into conflict with indigenous peoples such as the Bantus. The Spanish colonized the Philippines and the Dutch controlled the islands of Indonesia. <br />France began to contest control of the potentially valuable trade with India. Following the decline of the Mughal rulers, the French and British East India Companies were able to construct trade forts along the coasts of the subcontinent. <br />Economically, India was drawn into the world trade system. Latin America drew more settlers from Spain and Portugal, who often intermarried with the local population, but Europeans remained a small minority of the total population.<br />
  17. 17. THE END<br />