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Guía gramatical.


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Guía gramatical.

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION Welcome to my Grammar Lab. This course has been designed for students from complete beginner to high-intermediate level, however the teacher has to guide to the students in each topic of this book. I hope you enjoy using these materials. There are as many methods and approaches to grammar teaching as there are teachers. Here are some simple guidelines that may be instructive and useful. Students need to be able to recognize and produce the written form of the new target structure. Writing models of the target language aids memorization and gives students a record of the language that they can refer back to. It is very important to read the related topics. Encourage students to use a new structure to produce sentences about real events, real people, real feelings, real opinions, etc. in their own lives. As annex, I am attaching a grammar guide written in Spanish about the most important topics in the English learning. You have to learn grammar reading examples, identifying patterns, making rules and doing practices activities. MADRID VIVANCO, JOEL PIERRE2008 ENGLISH TEACHER FROM PERU
  2. 2. Nouns In other cases, the word "male" or "female" is added, if it is considered necessary to be specific: • Gender • a female cat • Plural • a male giraffe • Related topics Note: If the gender of the person or animal is known, one will generally use the pronoun "he" or "she"Gender to refer to it, as appropriate. When the gender is left unstated, the pronoun "he" is generally used when speaking of people, or "it" when speaking of animals. Some objects are also considered to beIn English nouns rarely change form, even to indicate gender. As a general rule, only nouns referring gendered in certain usages: some people may refer to a boat or a car as "she."to people and some animals reflect gender in their form. By the same token, unlike many otherlanguages, the adjectives modifying nouns will remain unchanged.Example: Certain nouns (especially the names of professions) are traditionally associated with men or women, in which case one signals exceptions to the tradition by adding "woman" (or "lady") or "man" to the • My poor little dog died. term:However, certain nouns -- especially those referring to people -- may have different forms to indicate • They are in a group of male dancers.masculin or feminine usage: • My wife prefers to see a woman doctor. • man -- woman Plurals • gentleman -- lady • actor -- actress As a general rule, the plural is formed by adding "-s" to the singular form of nouns. • uncle -- aunt • father -- mother • shoe --> shoes • book --> booksThe same can be said of certain male and female animals: • river --> rivers • a buck, a doe Nouns ending in "s" or "s" will generally take the ending "-es" : • a ram, a ewe • a bull, a cow • bus --> buses • a stallion, a mare • kiss --> kisses
  3. 3. Words ending in "y" will generally take the ending "-ies" in place of the "y": Words of Greek or Latin origin which have retained their original endings will generally take the plural form associated with the language they are drawn from: • party --> parties • supply --> supplies • one alumnus --> two alumni • one syllabus --> two syllabiCertain words have very irregular forms in the plural: • one alumna --> two alumnae • one alga --> many algae • one man --> two men • one criterion --> many criteria • one woman --> two women • one forum --> many fora (or : forums) • one person --> two people • one thesis --> two theses • one foot --> two feet • one hypothesis --> two hypotheses • one mouse --> two mice • one phenomenon --> two phenomena • one goose --> two geese • one cactus --> two cacti (or : cactuses) • one tooth --> two teeth • one diagnosis --> two diagnoses • one wife --> two wives • one oasis --> two oases • one child --> two children • one analysis --> two analyses • one knife --> two knives • one thief --> two thieves A few nouns are invariable or collective, always indicating a plural meaning: • one dwarf --> two dwarves (ou: dwarfs) • one potato --> two potatoes • She gave me some information. • one leaf --> two leaves • Michelle has a lot of clothes. • one life --> two lives Capital letters • one loaf --> two loaves • one half --> two halves Certain nouns are generally capitalized, including: days of the week and months; names of holidays,A small set of words do not change form in the plural: cities (or states, etc.) and religions; nouns of nationality: • one moose --> two moose • Minneapolis • one sheep --> two sheep • Jewish • one aircraft --> two aircraft • Monday • April
  4. 4. Related topics Countable and Uncountable Nouns • Adjectives Countable nouns are used to name things we can count. • Definite articles One apple, two apples, three carrots, four fingers, etc. • Indefinite articles Uncountable nouns are used to name things we cannot count. • Partitive articles Bread, water, air, sand, etc. Countable nouns have a singular as well as a plural form. a chair two chairs some chairs a banana the bananas many bananas Remember! Use an in front of a word that begins with a vowel sound. An apple an orange an hour Uncountable nouns do not usually take the indefinite article a or an. They are often used without any article at all, and they do not usually have a plural form. (some) bread (some) coffee (some) fruit
  5. 5. Personal pronouns Use of predicate pronouns: • Forms Predicate pronouns will always have the same form whether they are used as direct, indirect, or • Subject pronouns prepositional objects. The forms are: "me", "you", "it", "him", "her", "us", "them." • Predicate pronouns Whatever the form of the sentence (affirmative, negative, interrogative), direct objects -- or the • Order of pronouns pronouns replacing them -- will follow the verb: • Related topicsHere are the different forms for personal pronouns in English: • Did you buy it? • You didnt buy it. • You bought it. Prepositional objects will come after their preposition: • Will you come to the store with me? • He left without her. Indirect objects will generally come after the proposition "to," except if the pronoun precedes the direct object, in which cas the proposition "to" disappears:Use of the subject pronoun • I have spoken to her.Subject pronouns reflect the nouns they replace. Since English nouns rarely show gender, the • I gave this present to them.pronouns "he" and "she" are generally used only for people or animals; in the case of objects or • Mais : I gave them this present.impersonal expressions, the pronoun "it" will be used. Order of pronounsExamples: When a verb is followed by two or more pronouns, the following sequence is observed: • She wants to eat. • You look tired. • It is hard to cook well.
  6. 6. Reciprocal pronouns To show that two people, represented by a single grammatical subject, are acting on each other, one uses the reciprocal pronouns: "each other" or "one another". • They hate each other. • They killed one another.Examples : • We talk to each other often. • Dont tell that to him. Reflexive pronouns • He couldnt sell the car to them. Reflexive pronouns are used to show that the actions described by a verb act upon the subject of theException: As noted above, one may omit the preposition "to" in front of an indirect object, in which verb: the subject and the object are thus the same. The forms of reflexive pronouns correspond to thecas the indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object: forms of the subject pronouns: • He gave me it for Christmas. • I --> myself • Dont tell him that. • you (singular) --> yourself • He couldnt sell them the car. • you (plural) --> yourselves • he --> himselfRelated topics • she --> herself • it --> itself • Relative pronouns • we --> ourselves • Reflexive pronouns • they --> themselves • Reciprocal pronouns • Demonstrative pronouns To use a verb reflexively, the reflexive pronoun must follow the verb (and, in the case of an intransitive • Possessive pronouns verb, it will follow any preposition used with the verb). If there are multiple verbs in the sentence, the reflexive pronoun follows the verb to which it applies: • I told myself it would never happen. • She talks to herself all the time. • Look at yourself in that mirror!
  7. 7. • I would like to give myself a raise. General informationAt the end of a sentence, one can add reflexive pronouns as a way of accentuating the subject in the Relative pronouns are used to join two sentences. For example, the following two sentences,sentence. In this case, the verb does not have reflexive power: • I found an apartment. This apartment has three rooms. • I would rather do that myself. may be joined using a relative pronoun: • Can you talk to him yourself?Related topics • I found an apartment which has three rooms. Relative pronouns have many different forms: who, whom, whose, that, which, that which, what. • Relative pronouns The pronoun is selected based on the following criteria: • Subject pronouns • Object pronouns 1) What is the grammatical function of the pronoun? Is it a subject, a direct object, or a prepositional • Reciprocal pronouns object? 2) Does the pronoun refer to a person or a thing (or a situation)?Relative pronouns 3) Does the pronoun have an antecedent, or does it represent an unknown entity? • General information 4) Does it represent a special case (possession, time, or space)? • Subject pronouns • Object pronouns • Possession ("whose") • As prepositional objects • Time • Space • Related topics
  8. 8. According to the role it plays, the pronoun will take one of the following forms: Objects The pronoun "whom" (in spoken language one often hears "who") expresses a grammatical object when this object is a person; "that" or "which" are used (indifferently by most speakers) to represent objects which are things, events, situations, etc. • She is a person whom I respect a great deal. • He ordered a beverage which he didnt drink. • She is talking about the trip that were going to take. Note: Use of the relative pronoun is optional (except in the case of "what" or "that which" when referring to specific antecedents); the same sentences as above may be written correctly without theSubjects pronoun:The pronoun "who" expresses a grammatical subject when this subject is a person; "that" or "which" • She is a person I respect a great deal.are used (indifferently by most speakers) to represent subjects which are things, events, situations, • He ordered a beverage he didnt drink.etc. • She is talking about the trip were going to take. • Theres the man who stole my wallet! When the antecedent is vague or absent, on uses "what" or (less often) "that which" : • I read a novel that entertained me a great deal. • He made a mistake which embarrassed him. • You can do what you want. • What they are doing seems useful.When the antecedent is vague or totally absent, one uses "what" or (less commonly) "that which" : • What interests me in this film is the music. • That which eludes us intrigues us the most. • I dont know what happened.
  9. 9. Possession: "whose" / "of which" TimeThe pronoun "whose" expresses possession when the subject is a person; it will often be replaced by The pronoun "when" is used with nouns indicating time. However, it is rarely necessary to include this"of which" if it refers to an object, an event, etc.: pronoun, and it is often omitted: • The tourist whose ticket had expired filed a complaint. • I remember the day when we met. • There is the man whose mother is our mayor. • I remember the day we met. • That was a good article, the point of which was to make us think. • He arrived at the moment when we were speaking of him. • He arrived at the moment we were speaking of him.Prepositional objects SpaceThe preposition generally precedes the appropriate pronoun: When more specific prepositions (such as "on," "under,", etc.) are not necessary, the general pronoun • Heres the pattern with which I made this shirt. "where" will suffice: • The woman for whom I work is quite strict. • Heres the tree next to which Newton was sitting. • Heres the house where my parents were born. • They went out for dinner, after which they went home. • She doesnt know where shes going. In spoken English, one often places the preposition at the end of the clause. Moreover, with Related topics: the pronoun "what" this structure is required, even in written English: • Subject pronouns • Heres the pattern which I made this shirt with. • Object pronouns • The woman whom I work for is quite strict. • Reflexive pronouns • Heres the tree which Newton was sitting next to. • Reciprocal pronouns • Tell me what youre thinking about. • Demonstrative pronouns • Possessive pronouns
  10. 10. There is / there are Definite articlesWe use there is and there are to talk about things that exist. • General principles • Omission of the articleThere is is used before singular subjects. • Use in negatives and interrogativesThere is a man standing outside. • Related topicsCan you see if there’s an apple in the bowl? General principlesThere are is used before plural subjects.There are twenty-four students in the class. The definite article "the" (invariable in form) designates a person, place, or event which has beenCarl says there are lots of new shops in the town center. specified or defined by the speaker: • Heres the book I bought. • The cat is on the roof. • He said he would bring the money. Omission of the definite article The definite article does not always precede nouns: sometimes indefinite articles or partitive articles will be used. Often, though, no article at all is necessary, as in the following cases: 1. As a general rule, the definite article is omitted before abstract nouns or nouns representing general categories. It is often omitted after verbs expressing opinions or preferences: • Truth is the highest good. • I dont like animals. • Cats are nicer than dogs. • Time flies. • She likes coffee, but she hates tea.
  11. 11. 2. Generally, the article is omitted before days of the week and dates: Indefinite articles • On Tuesdays the museums are closed. The indefinite article has two forms: before singular nouns one uses "a" (or "an" before most vowels); • On Saturdays I sleep in. before plural nouns one uses "some": • Friday night we are going dancing. • I was born on June 16, 1980. • a cat • an accident3. Generally, the article is omitted before names of countries, states, cities, and regions: • some dogs • France is seventeen times smaller than the United States. But: before vowels producing a "y" sound (as in "you"), "a" is used, rather than "an": • California is larger than Brittany. • a unit Exception: Some names actually include the definite article, such as The Hague. • not a one • a unicorn As a general rule, the indefinite article signals a person, thing or event that has not been clearly4. Generally, the article is omitted before titles or nouns indicating professions: defined by the speaker. It does not indicate a specific objection (which is the role of the definite article); rather, it indicates any one object out of many possible ones (in the singular), or any assortment or • President Mitterrand completed two terms. quantity from many possible assortments or quantities (in the plural). It is often used after verbs of • We saw Professor Miller at the restaurant. possession or consumption: • She met with Doctor Schmidt. • Give me a coffee, please.The use of the definite article does not change in interrogatives and negatives. • I have a book you might like. • She has some cherries for sale.Related topics In the negative, the plural indefinite article changes: "some" is generally replaced by "any" (this • Indefinite articles change also occurs in negative questions) : • Partitive articles • Dont you have any cookies ? • They dont have any books for sale. • I have never had an accident.
  12. 12. Related topics Partitive article:"some" • Definite articles When the article "some" appears before a plural noun it functions like an indefinite article: • Partitive articles • He has some tickets for the game. • Some students decided not to attend the class. However, when "some" appears before a singular noun, it is being used as a partitive. This is to say that a part of something is indicated, or a partial (or indeterminate) quantity is referred to. It is often used after verbs of possession or consumption: • Do you have some time? • Were going to buy some milk. • I heard some bad news. • She has some money to spend. • Would you like some help ? Note: After expressions of quantity, the partitive article is not used: • Students buy a lot of pastries. • Today people have more activities than before. In negative expressions, the partitive article "some" generally becomes "any" (this change will also occur in negative interrogatives): • She doesnt have any money. • They didnt have any milk. • Dont you have any money?
  13. 13. The word "any" is not strictly necessary in the negative,and it may often be omitted: Quantifiers • I never have accidents. Using Some, Any, and No • They didnt have milk. We use both some and any with plural countable nouns and with uncountable nouns.Related topics They tasted some delicious wines in Italy. Do you have any Seville oranges? • Definite articles I don’t have any tea, but I have some coffee. • Indefinite articles Did you get any brown bread? We use some in affirmative sentences and in questions when we think the answer will be “yes.” I bought some bread and some eggs today. Would you like some more wine? We use any in most general questions and in negative sentences, . Are there any dragons on Lombok? There aren’t any snakes in Ireland. Much, Many and a Lot of We use many and a lot of with countable nouns in the plural. They saw many stars in the sky. They grow a lot of bananas in Ecuador. We use much and a lot of with uncountable nouns. They eat a lot of rice in Malaysia. My family doesn’t eat much red meat. We prefer to use a lot of and lots of in affirmative sentences and much and many in negative sentences and questions.
  14. 14. A Little and a Few In Sweden they eat a lot of fish.A few means the same as “some, but not many.” A little means the same as “some, but not much.” They don’t have much sunshine in winter.I eat a few apples each week. There’s a little cheese left. If the noun is countable, we use many or a lot (for a big difference), and a few for a small difference,Much, many, a lot, a little, and a bit except when using fewer.Much or a lot can be used before the comparative form to show that there is a big difference betweentwo people or things. Many Saabs are driven in Sweden. There are a lot of university students in Boston.A little or a bit can be used to show a small difference. There are fewer hours of daylight in an Alaskan winter than in a Mexican winter.We can use these words with adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. You’ve gained a few pounds.With adjectives: Most/SomeAustrians are much more formal than Swedes, and they are much less direct. Austrian food is a lot Look at these sentences. They all contain the words most and some. Not all the sentences contain of.heavier than Swedish food. When you are talking more generally, don’t use of.Austria is a bit cheaper than Sweden. Most people would rather be young than old.Biology is a little easier than Chemistry. If we are referring to a specific time period or area, or if we are talking about part of a larger whole, weRemember that we cannot use a double comparative. would use of (the).(right) Austrian food is much heavier. During the flood of 1994, most of the rain fell within a two-day period.(wrong) Austrian food is much more heavier. Some of my friends don’t eat pizza.With adverbs:She speaks a little more quietly than I do.She speaks a bit more quietly than I do.He drives a lot more slowly than you do.With nouns:If the noun is uncountable, we use much or a lot (for a big difference), and a little or a bit (for a smalldifference).
  15. 15. AdjectivesA few and few • FormsA little and little • Usage • Related topicsLittle and few (without a) mean “not a lot.” They often have a negative meaning. FormsWe have little time before our guests arrive for dinner. We must hurry to finish the cooking.There are few vegetables that he likes. He almost never eats them. Adjectives are generally invariable in English and do not agree with nouns in number and gender; nor do they take case endings:Note: Use little with non-countable nouns like bread, rice, fruit, patience.Use few with countable plural nouns like bananas, pieces, and meals. • a blue car • the great outdoorsYou can use very with few as well as with little. • a group of young womenHe has very little patience with people who drink too much alcohol. However, a few adjectives have a connotation which is slightly masculine or feminine. Thus, one saysVery few bananas grow in Scotland. that a woman is beautiful while a man would be called handsome.A little and a few mean “some” or “a small amount.” They have a more positive meaning than little and Adjectives indicating religion or nationality (or a region, state or province) generally begin with a capitalfew. letter, whether they refer to people or objects:We have a little time for coffee before our flight. Let’s stop in at that cafe. • She is an American student.He makes a few dishes that everyone likes. For example, everyone loves his spaghetti. • They go to a Catholic school. • They enjoy Breton music.If you use only with a few or a little, the meaning can become more negative. Usage:She ate almost all the chocolates her boyfriend gave her. There are only a few left.Only a few meals at the university cafeteria were strictly vegetarian. Most of the time, meat was In a noun cluster an adjective will be placed, with very few exceptions, in front of the noun it modifies.served. When two adjectives precede a noun, they can be connected by a comma (,) or by the conjunction"and." In a series of three or more adjectives, one usually uses "and" before the last adjective in the list.
  16. 16. Examples: Adjective Order • I like short novels. When two or more adjectives are used to describe something they are put in a certain order. For • That fellow will be a competent worker. example, opinions come before facts. • She writes long and flowery letters. • He works long, hard hours. • Beautiful long black hair • She had a mean, old and overbearing step-mother. • A handsome young man • A nice new shirtAn adjective may follow the noun when it is in a predicate (after the verb) or in a relative clause. (Inrelative clauses the relative pronoun may be implicit.) Nice, beautiful and handsome are opinions. Young, new, long and black are facts. Opinions come first. Size comes before age. Age comes before color. The following chart show the basic order ofExamples: adjectives, but you should know that sometimes this order is not followed. • He was a man (who was) always happy to help others. • She is a woman (who is) true to herself. • They were entirely satisfied.Related topics • Possessive adjectives • Demonstrative adjectives • Comparisons • Superlatives
  17. 17. Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns Demonstrative adjectives Demonstrative adjectives have two singular forms (this, that) and two plural forms (these, those). These adjectives are used to designate proximity to an object, or to distinguish between an object that is close (in time or space) and one that is more remote. Usually "this" and "these" signal proximity, while "that" and "those" suggest distance: • These books are too expensive. • This car is responsive. • That man irritates me! • This hotel is more expensive than that one. Demonstrative pronouns: Demonstrative pronouns have the same form as the demonstrative adjectives, but are used without the nouns to which they refer. In the singular, when designating a specific object, the pronoun "one" is often added: • These tomatoes are fresher than those. • These are better than those. • Would you like a little of this? • That strikes me as really weird! • The book is more interesting than that one.[NOTE IN THE ABOVE CHART “shape” (round, square) should be put between “age” and “color”, and In front of a relative pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun becomes "the one" or "the the “noun” column should be separated from the other columns, with a + inserted.] ones" (when speaking of things), or "he / she who", "they who" (when speaking of people):Example: • This film is the one that you hated so much.We rented a nice little brown log cabin by a lake. • He who eats well works well. • This pen is the one with which the President signed the new law.Note: We usually limit the number of adjectives preceding a noun to three.
  18. 18. Related topics Possession • Relative pronouns • Possessive adjectives • Subject pronouns • Possessive pronouns • Reflexive pronouns • "To belong" • Object pronouns • The "s" of possession • Reciprocal pronouns • "Whose" • Possessive pronouns In English possession may be expressed in five different ways: Possessive adjectives Possessive adjectives agree with the person to whom they refer: • I --> my • you --> your • he, her, it --> his (masculine), her (feminine), its (impersonal) • we --> our • they --> their So, • I have lost my keys. • They are coming in their car. • I met your grandparents. • This car has lost its power. Note: In English the possessive adjective is used to refer to parts of the body: • She brushes her teeth twice a day. • He broke his arm playing soccer. • His stomach aches.
  19. 19. Possessive pronouns • The front doors lock is broken. • Many of the worlds countries are poor.Possessive pronouns, like the adjectives, agree with the person to whom they refer. Singular andplural share the same form: Note: Do not confuse the "s" of possession with the contraction of the verb "is": • I --> mine • Freds going to fetch it. (= Fred is going to fetch it.) • your --> yours • The trains late again. (=The train is late again.) • he, she, it --> his (masculine), hers (feminine), its (impersonal) "Whose" for indicating possession • we --> ours • they --> theirs "Whose" will be placed before the possession (the object possessed), and will refer ownership to the preceding noun: So, • The man whose dog bit me said he was sorry. (The dog belongs to the man.) • Here is the woman whose daughter I intend to marry.(The woman is the mother of the • I have my likes, and she has hers. daughter.) • If you give me one of yours, Ill give you one of mine. • I like our house, but frankly, I am jealous of theirs! • Thats mine!The verb "to belong to"The verb "to belong to" indicates ownership or possession: • That poodle belongs to Louise. • The world belongs to you.The "s" of possessionOne may add "--s" to any noun in order to indicate possession: • I just read Gustaves book.
  20. 20. Comparatives Adjectives • General principles Adjectival comparisons follow these models: • Adjectives • Adverbs • Jean is taller than Catherine. • Nouns • Philippe is less tall than Jean. • Verbs • Leïla is as tall as Jean. • Related topics Note: Monosyllabic adjectives, and several common two-syllable adjectives, take the ending "--er"General principles and do not include the adverb "more":Comparatives are used to compare two things and to highlight the superiority, inferiority, or equality • young --> youngerof one term compared to another. The comparative can apply to adjectives, adverbs, nouns, or even • tall --> tallerverbs. Whatever the part of speech concerned, the structure of the comparison remains the same: • old --> older If the adjective ends in "--y" the "y" becomes "i" : • heavy --> heavier • early --> earlier • busy --> busier • healthy --> healthier • chilly --> chillier If the adjective ends in "--e" only an "r" is needed:Examples for adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs follow: • wise --> wiser • large --> larger • simple --> simpler • late --> later
  21. 21. If the adjective ends with "single vowel + consonant" the consonant is doubled and one And some adverbs have irregular comparative forms : adds "--er" : • well --> better • red --> redder • badly --> worse • big --> bigger • far --> farther • thin --> thinner Nouns • hot --> hotter Some very common adjectives have irregular comparatives: Noun comparisons follow these patterns: • good --> better • I have more work than you. • bad --> worse • He has less homework than the rest of us. • far --> farther • If only I had as much talent as she!Adverbs The comparative can signal quantities of nouns:Adverbial comparisons follow these models: • I have less than five francs in my pocket. • She has more than five hours worth of work to do. • The students are working more diligently than the professor. However, in comparisons of inferiority, and when the quantity represents a "countable" noun, • This fellow speaks less eloquently than a schoolboy. one should use the term "fewer" rather than "less" : • They are all working as hard as possible!Note: In comparisons indicating superiority, adverbs ending in "--ly" do not take the adverb "more," • He works fewer than ten hours per week.but only the ending "--er". (However, these adverbs will function normally in comparisons using "less" • Sam has fewer students than I do.or "as.") Verbs • fast --> faster "More," "less," and "as" can be used as adverbs to modify verbs: • hard --> harder • He eats more than he used to. • That boy reads less than his friends. • You ought to listen as much as you talk.
  22. 22. Related topics Superlatives • Superlatives • General principles • Irregular forms o Adjectives o Adverbs • Related topics General principles When comparing two things one uses the comparative; however, for comparisons in larger groups, it is the superlative which must be used. The superlative designates extremes: the best, the first, the worst, the last, etc. The superlative operates like the comparative, with these exceptions: A. While the word "more" or the ending "--er" signals the comparative, it is the word "most" or the ending "--est" that designates the superlative. (See irregular forms, below): • He is the most efficient worker we have. • That is the poorest family in the neighborhood. B. The compared term (adjective or adverb) will be preceded by the definite article: • He works the fastest of any student I know. • She is the tallest woman in town. B. Unlike the comparative, the superlative is not followed by "than": instead, one uses "of," followed by the context of the comparison (although this context is sometimes implicit): • Its the best day of my life! • She works the best of the whole class.
  23. 23. Irregular forms • thin --> thinnest • hot --> hottestAdjectives Some very common superlatives have irregular forms:Monosyllabic adjectives (and several common two-syllable adjectives) take the ending "--est" insuperlatives of superiority, and thus will not use the adverb "most." However, these same adjectives • good --> bestwill use "less," like other adjectives, in superlatives of inferiority: • bad --> worst • far --> farthest • young --> youngest • tall --> tallest Some adjectives exist only in superlative form: • old --> oldest • first If the adjective ends in "--y" the "y" becomes "i": • last • heavy --> heaviest Adverbs • early --> earliest Adverbs not ending in "--ly" do not use the adverb "--most" in the formation of superlatives of • busy --> busiest superiority, but use instead the ending "--est." However, these same adverbs will use "less," like other • healthy --> healthiest adverbs, in superlatives of inferiority: • chilly --> chilliest If the adjective ends in "--e" one adds only "--st" : • fast --> fastest • hard --> hardest • wise --> wisest And some adverbs have irregular forms: • large --> largest • simple --> simplest • well --> best • late --> latest • badly --> worst If the adjective ends in "single vowel + consonant," the consonant is doubled and • far --> farthest one adds "--est": Related topics • red --> reddest • Comparatives • big --> biggest
  24. 24. Adverbs D. In general, adverbs of time and space have no corresponding adjective; the same can be said of adverbs of quantity: • Formation • Position • yesterday • Related topics • today • tomorrowFormation • early • soon1. Most adverbs are formed from the adjective. One adds the ending "--ly" to the adjectival form: • late • here • intelligent --> intelligently • there • slow --> slowly • less • precise --> precisely • moreSome adverbs are irregular: • as • veryA. If the adjective ends with "--le," simply replace the "e" with "y": • much • a lot of • simple --> simply • little of • subtle --> subtly PositionB. The adverb corresponding to the adjective "good" is irregular: When an adverb modifies a verb, it generally comes at the end of the clause (but before any • good --> well prepositional phrases or subordinated clauses):C. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective: • He writes poorly. • She pronounced that word well.. • high • Joseph worked diligently. • low • They worked hard before coming home. • hard • better • fast
  25. 25. Exceptions: certain adverbs signaling the speakers opinion, such as "probably," Prepositions "undoubtedly," "surely," "certainly," etc., come at the beginning of the sentence, or else between the modal verb (or auxiliary) and the principal verb: • Space • Geography o We are probably going to spend the summer in Corsica. • Means of transportation o Certainly we would never do that! • Time o We will undoubtedly see a dirty political campaign this year. • "To" with indirect objects • Related topicsAdverbs of time and space generally come at the end of the sentence; however, they may be placedat the beginning of the sentence if the predicate clause is long and complicated: Space • I saw her yesterday. In their simplest form, prepositions are used to indicate position (in time or space) of one thing with • Were going to the beach today. respect to another: • She went to bed very early. • Tomorrow we will try to get up early to prepare for our trip. • I put the book on the table. • She arrived before the others.Adverbs modifying adjectives or an other adverb are placed before the adjective or adverb they • He came toward me.modify: There are many prepositions. Here is a partial list, with examples: • She was really very happy to see you. • It was a brilliantly staged performance. • to -- He gave the book to his friend. • at -- They arrived at his house at 5 oclock.Related topics • of -- It was the third day of the month. • from -- That young women comes from Thailand. • Comparatives • on -- She put the plate on the table. • Superlatives • under -- The cat crawled under the bed. • over -- The boy threw the rock over the tree. • underneath -- The rabbit escaped underneath the fence. • before -- (time) She arrived before the movie started. • after -- He called his mother after he finished shopping. • in front of -- His mother parked her car in front of his apartment.
  26. 26. • behind -- The dog ran behind the house. Transportation • for -- He went to the store for more milk. As a general rule, the preposition "by" is used to describe how one has traveled. The prepositions "in" • toward -- The criminal walked toward him with a gun. and "on" describe ones presence inside a vehicle. In the case of small vehicles (a car, a helicopter...), • against -- Everyone was against that idea. the preposition "in" is required: • around -- The athletes ran around the track six times. • close to -- He placed the food close to the squirrel. • I came by bike. • far from -- He placed the food far from the lion. • Traveling by plane is my favorite. • next to -- He was hot, so he sat down next to the air conditioning. • I was already on (in) the train when he arrived. • facing -- She sat down on the other side of the table, facing him. • She is waiting for me in the car. • in the midst of -- I dont know where to find any free time in the midst of these emergencies. Time To designate an hour the preposition "at" is used:Usage of prepositions • Lets meet at six oclock.The use of prepositions is one of the most complex aspects of English, and it is impossible to cover all • They arrived at 4:45.cases. Some general guidelines, however, may be helpful. For dates and days of the week, one uses "on":Geography • His birthday is on Monday.Movement toward a town, country, state, or continent is generally expressed by the preposition "to"; • It happened on March 3, 1997.presence in a city, state, etc. is expressed by "in"; movement away from a city, state, etc., isexpressed by "from" (if the verb requires a pronoun): For months one uses "in": • When are you going to Canada. • My birthday is in September. • He went to Asia last year. • We will begin work in August. • I spent three years in London. • She was born in Normandy. • He comes from Mexico.
  27. 27. To express duration, the preposition "for" is used; "in" can be used to express the time it will take to Related topicscomplete a task: • Verbs with prepositions • I am going away for a few days. • Prepositional verbs • He worked with them for three years. Verbs with prepositions • I can read that book in a day. Certain verbs and verbal expressions are generally followed by a preposition before their object (and this preposition will generally be shown in the dictionary).Indirect objects However, the meaning of these verbs is not dramatically changed by the addition of the preposition.The preposition "to", which generally precedes an indirect object, will disappear before a noun (or The same cannot be said of the prepositional verbs, dealt with in another section.pronoun) when the indirect object precedes a direct object. ("To" will be retained when the indirectobject follows a direct object.) Examples:Examples : • to wait for • to look for • She gave John the ticket. • to look at • Mais : She gave the ticket to John. • to listen to • to pay foror: • to ask for • to be happy with something • He sent her a letter. • to be mad at (or: with) someone • Mais : He sent a letter to her. • to depend on • Ou : He sent it to her. • to be interested inThis can also be seen in certain phrases in which the direct object is implicit. • to thank fort • to be busy with • I already told it to him. • Mais : I already told him (the news).
  28. 28. Sample sentences: Notice that in the second example the verb in the present simple has a future meaning. • Shes the one who paid for our dinner! Not … until means the same as not … before. • Im not asking for anything! I didn’t leave home until I got married. • Im busy with my own stuff. After and before can be followed by a subject-verb clause or by a gerund. • That depends on you. After I had eaten five ice cream cones, I felt a little sick. Before coming back to Britain, I travelled all over Eastern Europe.See also While can be used to show two events happening at the same time. While you’re getting lunch ready, I’ll wash the car. • Prepositions I studied judo while I was in Japan. • Prepositional verbs While and During While and during are both used to show that two things happen at the same time. While is a conjunction and is used before a subject-verb clause. During is a preposition and is used before a noun phrase.Time Clauses / Conjunctions What should you do during an earthquake? Don’t run downstairs while the building is shaking.Conjunctions of TimeWe can join two sentences using a conjunction. A conjunction of time gives us information about when He arrived while I was eating breakfast.two events happen, relative to each other. He arrived during breakfast.Common conjunctions of time are when, while, as soon as, until, after and before.When can be used to show that one event is before, or at the same time as, another. When can beused to convey a past or a future meaning.I studied abroad for a year when I was at university.When she finishes this course, she’ll go abroad for a year.As soon as means that the second event happened, or will happen, immediately after the first.As soon as I finished lunch, I went out for a walk. I’ll go out for a walk as soon as I finish lunch.
  29. 29. Too, Very and Enough transitions are listed in the chart below.We use too and very to modify the meaning of adjectives and adverbs. Too and very come before theadjective and adverb. Enough usually comes after the adjective.Too means “more than necessary” or “more than you want.” Very intensifies an adjective or adverband means “to a large extent.” Enough means “what is adequate or necessary.”Mt. Everest is very high. It’s more than 8,000 meters high.Mt. Everest is too high to climb in one day.Magda is only two years old. She’s not old enough to climb Mt. Everest.TransitionA transition is a word or phrase that allows for fluid movement between ideas, sentences, orparagraphs. A transition expression helps the speaker or writer to construct coherent sentences. Inwriting, a transition expression is typically set off with punctuation. Transitions include but are notlimited to the following kinds: comparison, contrast, summary, and order of importance. Many common Examples: • We’re too tired to go jogging tonight. Besides, it’s very cold outside. • Brittany doesn’t dance very well. On the other hand, she sings beautifully. • Sally just got a job in San Francisco. Therefore, she won’t be moving to London.
  30. 30. So and neither with be and do Or Adverbial + be + subjectWe use so and neither (or not…either) when we want to agree that something that is true for someperson is true for us, too. Examples:We use so (or …too) with positive sentences and neither (or not…either) with negative sentences.If the main verb is be, use be in the response. If the main verb is other than be, use do in the response. • Never have I seen so many cats in one place! • Seldom do we feel sad while we are swimming in the ocean.Response form: • Rarely can one hear such beautiful music. So + verb + subject (agreement with positive sentence) • At no time was I late for class. Neither + verb + subject (agreement with negative sentence) • No sooner had I wished to see my lost dog than she appeared before me.Examples, if the same is true for the respondent : Note that, in this last example, the second part (than) of the two-part adverbial is positioned at the start of a new subject-verb clause. • I’m very sociable. So am I. (Or: I am, too.) • I’m not very tall. Neither am I. (Or: I’m not, either.) Verbs • We like parties. So do we. (Or: We do, too.) Verb conjugations reflect three elements: the subject, the tense, and the mood. The subject may be • She doesn’t like snakes. Neither does he. (Or: He doesn’t, either.) singular or plural and may be in the first person ("I" or "we"), in the second person ("you"), or in theWe use the verb be or the auxiliary verb do without so or neither when we want to say that what is true third person "he," she," "it," or "they"). Verb tenses include different forms of the past, present andfor some person is not true for us. Examples, if the same is not true for the respondent: future. The term "mood" refers, generally, to the attitude of the speaker toward his subject. The different moods include the indicative, the subjunctive (rare in English), the conditional, and the • They’re tired. We’re not. imperative. • I’m not sleepy. I am. • He likes mushrooms. She doesn’t. • Auxiliaries ("to be", "to have") • We don’t like art. We do. • Past conditional ("I would have worked...") • Present conditional ("I would work...")Split adverbials • Future perfect ("We will have finished...") • Near future ("We are going to finish...")hardly... when, barely...when, no sooner...than, not only...but also, so...that, such...that • Future progressive ("I will be calling you...")Form: • Simple future ("We will leave....")Adverbial + auxiliary or modal verb + subject + main verb • Imperative ("Lets go!")
  31. 31. • Irregular participles Gerunds and Infinitives• Past progressive ("I was working...") Gerunds as Subjects• Habitual past ("I used to work...") The gerund is the –ing form of the verb when it is used as a noun. We can use a gerund as a subject• Pluperfect ("I had worked...") or as an object.• Present perfect ("I have finished...") Walking is good for your health.• Present perfect progressive ("I have been finishing...") Too much dieting can be dangerous.• Present progressive (: "I am finishing...") Terry quit smoking.• Simple present (: "I finish...") We go dancing every Saturday night.• Preterit ("I worked...") He’s very good at listening to other people’s problems.• Subjunctive ("If I were you...") I am tired of worrying about money.• Modal verbs ("would", "should", etc.)• Prepositional verbs ("to put down, to put up with..." etc.) Verbs followed by gerunds Here are some verbs that can be followed by a gerund but not an infinitve. stop keep postpone dislike recommend avoiddetest feel like give up put off practice finish What would you recommend trying? I dislike watching violence on television.
  32. 32. Here are some verbs that can be followed directly by an infinitive but not a gerund. continuehope can’t standexpectintend I like eating in fancy restaurants.agree Annie likes to eat fast food.refuseappearmanage The imperativepromiseafford Imperatives are used to issue commands. They use the infinitive of verbs (dropping the word "to"); indecide the first person plural ("we"), the infinitive is preceded by "lets" (or: "let us"):choose • Speak!fail • Finish your homework!wait • Lets eat!volunteer • Close the door!Susan refuses to try new food. The negative imperative is formed by placing "dont" (or "do not") before the imperative form; in theWe intend to ask for a raise. first person plural one uses "lets not" (or "let us not") :Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive. Be careful! In some cases the meaning • Lets not forget who helped us.changes. • Dont leave me!try • Dont walk on the grass!remember • Please dont eat the daisies!likeforget The imperative has no effect on the word order of the rest of the sentence.lovepreferstartbegin