the process by which testable hypotheses are generated regarding the function or structure of gene or protein of interest by identifying similar sequences in better characterized organisms.
Comparative genomics is the study of the relationship of genome structure and function across different biological species or strains. Comparative genomics is an attempt to take advantage of the information provided by the signatures of selection to understand the function and evolutionary processes that act on genomes.*A strain is a genetic variant or subtype of a micro-organism (e.g. virus or bacterium or fungus).Comparative genomics also provides a powerful tool for studying evolutionary changes among organisms, helping to identify genes that are conserved among species, as well as genes that give each organism its unique characteristics.Implications: researchers will be able to pinpoint the signals that control gene function, which in turn should translate into innovative approaches for treating human disease and improving human health.Applications:in agriculture, biotechnology and zoology as a tool to tease apart the often-subtle differences among animal species. Such efforts might also possibly lead to the rearrangement of our understanding of some branches on the evolutionary tree, as well as point to new strategies for conserving rare and endangered species.
Comparative genomics exploits both similarities and differences in the proteins, RNA, and regulatory regions of different organisms to infer how selection has acted upon these elements. Those elements that are responsible for similarities between different species should be conserved through time (stabilizing selection), while those elements responsible for differences among species should be divergent (positive selection). Finally, those elements that are unimportant to the evolutionary success of the organism will be unconserved (selection is neutral).Researchers have found that two-thirds of human genes known to be involved in cancer have counterparts in the fruit fly. Even more surprisingly, when scientists inserted a human gene associated with early-onset Parkinson's disease into fruit flies, they displayed symptoms similar to those seen in humans with the disorder, raising the possibility the tiny insects could serve as a new model for testing therapies aimed at Parkinson's.
Proteomics encompasses the study of expressed proteins, including identification and elucidation of the structure-function interrelationships that define healthy and disease conditions.The proteome is the complete set of proteins (including modified ones) encoded in the genome that is present in an organism in all of its cells during its complete life cycle.
Proteomics has also helped in other type of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and ALS.
Bioinformatics, comparative genemics and proteomics
Bioinformatics, Comparati ve Genomics, and Proteomics Juan Carlos Torres Sánchez Osvaldo Vega Luz Marie Eduardo Rivera
Bioinformatics• Field of science in which biology, computer science, and information technology merge to form a single discipline.• It use computerized tools, like biological database, to analyze the unique structural and functional features of a genomic DNA sequence.
Bioinformatics• More global perspective in experimental design.• Ability to capitalize on the emerging technology of database-mining.
Comparative Genomics• Comparative Genomics is the study of the relationship of genome structure and function across different biological species or strains.• Comparative Genomics provides a powerful tool for studying evolutionary changes among organisms
Comparative Genomics• Comparative Genomics exploits similarities and differences in the proteins, RNA, and regulatory regions of different organisms to infer how selection has acted upon these elements.• Insights into the genetic diversity of the bacteriophage population and the evolutionary mechanisms that give rise to it can be obtained using comparative genomic analyses.• Comparative Genomics field has brought a lot of great results. a. Cancer b. Parkinson’s disease
Proteomics• The large-scale study of protein structure and function is known as Proteomics.• The word “proteome” is derived from proteins expressed by a genome, and it refers to all the proteins produced by an organism, much like the genome is the entire set of genes.
Proteomics• The Mycobacteriophage proteome consists of the complete set of proteins specified by their genome.• These proteins can also be compared to better understand the similarities and differences between phages.
Conclusion• Bioinformatics, Comparative Genomics and Proteomics have helped gather a lot of knowledge in the area of Mycobacteriophages.• All of these areas of science have helped greatly in the discovery and comparison of previously discovered mycobacteriophages.
Conclusion• Also, they have helped in many other diseases that improve our quality of life.• Bringing new techniques for the patient daily routine checkup.