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  1. 1. Name three biogeochemical cycles. Explain WHY they are called biogeochemical cycles. List as many places as you can that a water molecule could go (in an ecosystem).
  2. 2. Ecosystems and Human Interferences Chapter 48
  3. 3. Nature of Ecosystems <ul><li>Biosphere is part of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere that contains living organisms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An ecosystem where organisms interact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystems characterized by: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One-Way flow of energy. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle of materials from abiotic environment through biotic community. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Biotic Components <ul><li>Autotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require only inorganic nutrients and an outside energy source to produce organic nutrients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photoautotrophs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemoautrophs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Heterotrophs <ul><li>Heterotrophs need a preformed source of organic nutrients. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivores - Feed on plants. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carnivores - Feed on other animals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Omnivores - Feed on plants and animals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detritivores - Feed on detritus. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers are heterotrophic bacteria and fungi that break down dead organic matter. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Energy Flows One Way! <ul><li>Energy flow occurs because as nutrients pass from one population to another, all the energy content is converted to heat, which dissipates into the environment </li></ul>
  7. 7. Energy Flow <ul><li>Food Web - Interconnecting paths of energy flow describing trophic relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrow shows direction of energy flow </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>Trophic level = all the organisms that feed at a particular link in a food chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= each step on the chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flower Caterpillar Mouse Owl </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ecological Pyramids <ul><li>Trophic level = all the organisms that feed at a particular link in a food chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>= each step on the chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flower Caterpillar Mouse Owl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer Primary consumer Secondary consumer Tertiary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, only about 10% of the energy of one trophic level is available to the next trophic level. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Ecological Pyramid Why are there rarely more than 4 or 5 trophic levels?
  11. 11. Chemical Cycling <ul><li>Matter keeps recycling! </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals cycle as organic nutrients are returned to the producers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular Respiration </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Hydrologic Cycle
  13. 13. Carbon Cycle <ul><li>Atmosphere = source of carbon (in CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Captured by photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated into organism tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Passed from organism to organism </li></ul><ul><li>Released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustion </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Carbon Cycle
  15. 15. Greenhouse Effect <ul><li>Greenhouse gases allow solar radiation to pass through atmosphere but trap heat (infrared radiation) from escaping. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If Earth’s temperature rises, more water will evaporate, forming more clouds and setting up a potential positive feedback loop. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Earth’s Radiation Balances
  17. 17. Nitrogen Cycle <ul><li>Atmosphere = source of nitrogen (in N 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Captured by nitrogen fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fixing bacteria (nodules on legumes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorporated into organism tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Passed from organism to organism </li></ul><ul><li>Released </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denitrification </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Nitrogen Cycle
  19. 19. Nitrogen and Air Pollution <ul><li>Acid Deposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide are converted to acids when they combine with water vapor. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Thermal Inversion
  21. 21. Phosphorus Cycle <ul><li>Phosphorus does not enter the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary cycle. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate taken up by producers incorporated into a variety of organic molecules. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can lead to water eutrophication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biomagnification </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Phosphorus Cycle
  23. 23. If limiting factor is not limited… <ul><li>Chemical fertilizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contaminate water and lead to algal blooms and fish kills </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Biomagnification or Bioamplification <ul><li>Concentration of pollutant increases as it is passed up the food chain </li></ul>Fish-Eating Birds Magnification of DDT Concentration 10,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000,000 1000 Large Fish Small Fish Zooplankton Producers Water
  25. 25. Sources of Water Pollution