The Cell Cycle and Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed.
Interphase <ul><li>Most of the cell cycle is spent in interphase. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G 1  - Cell doubles its organelles...
Mitotic Stage <ul><li>Cell division stage that includes mitosis (nuclear division or karyokinesis) and cytokinesis (cytopl...
Cell Cycle Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed. G O
Cell Cycle Control <ul><li>Regulated by external signals (e.g., growth factors) and internal signals </li></ul><ul><li>Res...
Cell Cycle Control <ul><li>Cyclins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be present for the cell to proceed from the G 2  stage to th...
Cell Cycle Control Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed. Signaling protein p53;  stop to repair damage OR apoptosis
Apoptosis <ul><li>Programmed cell death (or cell suicide) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal part of development </li></ul></ul>...
Apoptosis <ul><ul><li>Cells have enzymes (caspases) necessary for apoptosis to occur. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordin...
Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed. Apoptosis
Chromosomes <ul><li>When a eukaryotic cell is  </li></ul><ul><li>not undergoing division,  </li></ul><ul><li>the DNA withi...
Chromosomes <ul><li>Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diploid (2n) - Two of e...
Mitosis <ul><li>During mitosis, a diploid nucleus divides to produce diploid daughter nuclei. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two id...
Duplicated Chromosomes Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed. Each chromosome as it passes through cell cycle… G1 phase  S phase End of ...
Mitosis in Animal Cells <ul><li>Each centrosome in an animal cell contains a pair of barrel-shaped organelles (centrioles)...
Mitosis in Animal Cells <ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatin has condensed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleol...
Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed.
Mitosis in Animal Cells <ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes, attached to kinetochore fibers, are in alignm...
Mitosis in Animal Cells <ul><li>Telophase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle disappears as new nuclear envelopes form around th...
Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed.
Cytokinesis <ul><li>Cytokinesis accompanies mitosis in most cells, but not all. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitosis without cyto...
Cytokinesis <ul><li>Animal Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage furrow, membrane indentation between daughter nuclei, begi...
Cytokinesis in Animal Cells Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed.
Plant Cell Division <ul><li>Meristematic plant tissue retains the ability to divide throughout the plant’s life. </li></ul...
Phases of Mitosis in Plant Cells Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed.
Cytokinesis <ul><li>Plant Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid cell wall of plant cells does not permit cytokinesis by furrow...
The Cell Cycle and Cancer <ul><li>Cancer  is a growth disorder that results from the mutation of genes regulating the cell...
Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed.
Characteristics of Cancer Cells <ul><li>Lack differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Have abnormal nuclei. </li></ul><ul><li>Fo...
Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed.
Origin of Cancer <ul><li>Mutations in DNA repair mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations to proto-oncogenes. </li></ul><ul...
Prokaryotic Cell Division <ul><li>Asexual Reproduction - offspring are genetically identical to the parent. </li></ul><ul>...
Binary Fission Mader: Biology 8 th  Ed.
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Chapter 9 new

  1. 1. The Cell Cycle and Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  2. 2. Interphase <ul><li>Most of the cell cycle is spent in interphase. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G 1 - Cell doubles its organelles and accumulates materials needed for DNA synthesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S - DNA replication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G 2 - Cell synthesizes proteins necessary for cell division. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  3. 3. Mitotic Stage <ul><li>Cell division stage that includes mitosis (nuclear division or karyokinesis) and cytokinesis (cytoplasm division). </li></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  4. 4. Cell Cycle Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. G O
  5. 5. Cell Cycle Control <ul><li>Regulated by external signals (e.g., growth factors) and internal signals </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have identified internal signal protein (cyclin) that increases and decreases as cell cycle continues. </li></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  6. 6. Cell Cycle Control <ul><li>Cyclins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be present for the cell to proceed from the G 2 stage to the M stage and from G 1 stage to S stage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows time for any damage to be repaired. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  7. 7. Cell Cycle Control Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Signaling protein p53; stop to repair damage OR apoptosis
  8. 8. Apoptosis <ul><li>Programmed cell death (or cell suicide) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal part of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects against cancer </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. 9 week embryo froglet
  9. 9. Apoptosis <ul><ul><li>Cells have enzymes (caspases) necessary for apoptosis to occur. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinarily held in check by inhibitors, but can be unleashed by internal or external signals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitosis increases and apoptosis decreases the number of somatic cells. </li></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  10. 10. Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Apoptosis
  11. 11. Chromosomes <ul><li>When a eukaryotic cell is </li></ul><ul><li>not undergoing division, </li></ul><ul><li>the DNA within the </li></ul><ul><li>nucleus is a tangled </li></ul><ul><li>mass of chromatin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA wraps around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>histones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condenses into chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(6 ft of DNA in each human cell) </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  12. 12. Chromosomes <ul><li>Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diploid (2n) - Two of each kind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haploid (1n) - One of each kind. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  13. 13. Mitosis <ul><li>During mitosis, a diploid nucleus divides to produce diploid daughter nuclei. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two identical chromatids are called sister chromatids . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to each other at centromere. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During nuclear division, sister chromatids separate at the centromeres, and each duplicated chromosome gives rise to two daughter chromosomes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  14. 14. Duplicated Chromosomes Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Each chromosome as it passes through cell cycle… G1 phase S phase End of mitosis one copy of info DNA replicated; Sister chromatids separate; 2 copies of info Each cell has 1 copy of info Centromere 1 sister chromatid
  15. 15. Mitosis in Animal Cells <ul><li>Each centrosome in an animal cell contains a pair of barrel-shaped organelles (centrioles) and an array of short microtubules (aster). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.biostudio.com/d_%20Mitosis.htm </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  16. 16. Mitosis in Animal Cells <ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatin has condensed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleolus disappears. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope disintegrates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle begins to assemble. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prometaphase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetochores develop on centromere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attach sister chromatids to spindle fibers. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  17. 17. Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  18. 18. Mitosis in Animal Cells <ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes, attached to kinetochore fibers, are in alignment at center of cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anaphase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sister chromatids split, producing daughter chromosomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daughter chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  19. 19. Mitosis in Animal Cells <ul><li>Telophase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spindle disappears as new nuclear envelopes form around the daughter chromosomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes become diffuse chromatin again. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleolus appears in each daughter nucleus. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  20. 20. Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  21. 21. Cytokinesis <ul><li>Cytokinesis accompanies mitosis in most cells, but not all. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitosis without cytokinesis results in a multinucleated cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins in anaphase, continues in telophase, but does not reach completion until the following interphase begins. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  22. 22. Cytokinesis <ul><li>Animal Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage furrow, membrane indentation between daughter nuclei, begins as anaphase nears completion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deepens when a band of actin filaments (contractile ring) forms a circular constriction between the two daughter cells. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  23. 23. Cytokinesis in Animal Cells Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  24. 24. Plant Cell Division <ul><li>Meristematic plant tissue retains the ability to divide throughout the plant’s life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found at root and shoot tips. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  25. 25. Phases of Mitosis in Plant Cells Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  26. 26. Cytokinesis <ul><li>Plant Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid cell wall of plant cells does not permit cytokinesis by furrowing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with formation of a cell plate which eventually becomes new plasma membrane between the daughter cells. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  27. 27. The Cell Cycle and Cancer <ul><li>Cancer is a growth disorder that results from the mutation of genes regulating the cell cycle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carcinogenesis , development of cancer, tends to be gradual. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  28. 28. Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  29. 29. Characteristics of Cancer Cells <ul><li>Lack differentiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Have abnormal nuclei. </li></ul><ul><li>Form tumors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of contact inhibition. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Undergo metastasis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New tumors distant from primary tumor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Undergo angiogenesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of new blood vessels. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  30. 30. Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  31. 31. Origin of Cancer <ul><li>Mutations in DNA repair mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutations to proto-oncogenes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proto-oncogenes become oncogenes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mutations to tumor-suppressor genes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes p53 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telomerase allows cancer cells to continually divide. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telomere = tip of chromosome that is shortened with each cell division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telomerase MAINTAINS telomeres </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  32. 32. Prokaryotic Cell Division <ul><li>Asexual Reproduction - offspring are genetically identical to the parent. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary fission produces two (binary) daughter cells that are identical to the original parent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotes contain a single chromosome with only a few proteins. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( E. coli has about 4,000 genes. Humans have about 25,000 genes.) </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  33. 33. Binary Fission Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.

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