EXAMINATION OF SOCIALMEDIA IN NCAA DIIINSTITUTIONSJJ Truman
OutlineReview of LiteratureMethodologyResults and Discussion
Review of Literature• Define Social Media• Businesses’ Use of Social Media• Social Media as an Integrated Marketing Commun...
Social Media Defined• “Encompassing a wide range of online, word-of-mouth forums including blogs, company sponsored discus...
3 Major Types of Social Media• Social Networking sites-• Social Bookmarking Sites-• Social Video Sharing sites-
Business Use of Social Media is on theRise• Hiring social media professionals• In April of 2011 Kronos, Phillips, Pitney B...
Business Use of Social Media as anIntegrated Marketing CommunicationsTool (IMC)“IMC is the concept and process of strategi...
IMC Activities Using Social Media• Product promotion• Communicating with consumers- Listen, Create a strategic plan, Send ...
Measurement of Social Media Activities byBusinesses• Traditional measurement tools fall short• Often times social media me...
Social Media Regulation• Organization regulating employee use• NFL and Chad Ochocinco • Tweets are prohibited 90 minutes b...
Using Social Media to Recruit Employees• Matt Alder of MetaShift       “Linkedin is a living database that allows recruite...
Higher Education’s use of Social Media• Social media is used by 100% of four year colleges and universities (Barnes & Lesc...
Higher Education using Social Media as aBranding Tool • UC Berkley and UC Irvine   • Created a Facebook campaign for curre...
Using Social Media to Recruit PotentialStudents• Institutions are using social media to spearhead recruiting efforts
Social Media as a Learning Tool• 80% of college professors are using social media in the classroom (Joly, 2010)• May be a ...
Social Media and Collegiate AthleticDepartments• Social media is being used in a variety of ways by college athletic depar...
Using Social Media to Communicate withFans and consumers• Use as an IMC Tool      - University of Washington used a social...
Measurement of Social Media• Traditional marketing metrics such as ROI can not be  used. (Kryder, 2011).• Metrics are crea...
Overview• Social media use is vast• Social Media has the ability to play multiple roles• Social media is being used as a m...
Research Questions• RQ1-What social media is being used by NCAA Division II athletic departments?• RQ2- How do NCAA Divisi...
Methodology• Instrument• Sample• Procedures• Analysis• Limitations
Instrument• Adapted from Grainger’s (2010) work titled “Social Media and the Fortune 500”• Each section coincides with a r...
Sample• 302 NCAA Division II institutions were contacted• Athletic Director and Sports Information Director received the i...
Procedures• Qualtrics was used to distribute instrument• Data was collected March 12, 2012 to April 8, 2012
Analysis• Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data• The survey garnered 82 responses
Limitations• Low response rate• Potential for one institution to be represented twice in the sample.
Results and Discussion• RQ1- What social media are NCAA Division II athletic departments using?                           ...
SOCIAL MEDIA USE BY NCAA DIVISION II ATHLETICDEPARTMENTSSocial Media            Number of Users   Number of Non Users   Pe...
RQ2- How do NCAA Division II athleticdepartments use social media?• 84% are “always” using social media to communicate wit...
RQ 2 ContinuedTable 2How are NCAA Division II athletic departments using social media?Use                                 ...
RQ3- How do NCAA Division II athleticdepartments perceive social media as amarketing tool• 54% “Strongly Agree” and 30% “A...
Question     Strongly   Some       Disagree   Neither    Agree Some    Strongly             Disagree   What               ...
Questions      Strongly   Some       Disagree   Neither    Agree Some Strongly               Disagree   What              ...
Question      Strongly   Some       Disagree   Neither    Agree Some Strongly              Disagree   What                ...
Discussion• Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube are the most used social media.• The primary functions of social media are:  • ...
Social Media as a Marketing Tool?• Social media is perceived as an effective marketing tool.• It will play many roles as i...
Future Exploration• Why is social media the chosen medium to communicate with current students?• What influences NCAA Divi...
More Exploration?• How do NCAA Division II athletic departments measure the effectiveness of social media ventures?• What ...
Recap• Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube are vastly used.• Social media is used to:  • communicate with current students  • d...
ReferencesBarnes, N., & Lescault, A. (2010). Social Media Adoption Soars as Higher-Ed Experiments and Reevaluates Its Use ...
References ContinuedCarraher, S., Parnell, J., & Spillan, J. (2009). Emerald Article: Customer service-orientation of smal...
References ContinuedHardesty, S. (2011). Agritourism operators embrace social media for marketing. [Article]. California A...
References ContinuedMarlow, C., Naaman, M., Boyd, D., & Davis, M. (2006). HT06, Tagging Paper, Taxonomy, Flickr,Academic A...
The Examination of Social Media in NCAA Division II Institutions
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The Examination of Social Media in NCAA Division II Institutions

  1. 1. EXAMINATION OF SOCIALMEDIA IN NCAA DIIINSTITUTIONSJJ Truman
  2. 2. OutlineReview of LiteratureMethodologyResults and Discussion
  3. 3. Review of Literature• Define Social Media• Businesses’ Use of Social Media• Social Media as an Integrated Marketing Communications tool• Measurement of social media• Higher Education’s use of social media• Social Media as a branding tool in collegiate athletics• Conclusion• Research Questions
  4. 4. Social Media Defined• “Encompassing a wide range of online, word-of-mouth forums including blogs, company sponsored discussion boards and chat rooms, consumer-to-consumer e-mail, consumer product or service ratings websites and forums, Internet discussion boards and forums, moblogs (sites containing digital audio, images, movies, or photographs), and social networking websites” (Mangold & Faulds, 2009)
  5. 5. 3 Major Types of Social Media• Social Networking sites-• Social Bookmarking Sites-• Social Video Sharing sites-
  6. 6. Business Use of Social Media is on theRise• Hiring social media professionals• In April of 2011 Kronos, Phillips, Pitney Bowes, Princeton Review, TD-Ameritrade, WM were all seeking social media managers (Montavlo, 2010).
  7. 7. Business Use of Social Media as anIntegrated Marketing CommunicationsTool (IMC)“IMC is the concept and process of strategically managingaudience-focused, channel-centered, and result-drivenbrand communication programs over time” (Klitachko,2010)
  8. 8. IMC Activities Using Social Media• Product promotion• Communicating with consumers- Listen, Create a strategic plan, Send and receive messages• Branding
  9. 9. Measurement of Social Media Activities byBusinesses• Traditional measurement tools fall short• Often times social media measurement metrics are created
  10. 10. Social Media Regulation• Organization regulating employee use• NFL and Chad Ochocinco • Tweets are prohibited 90 minutes before kickoff • Ochocinco Tweeted within that window • The NFL fined Ochocinco $25,000
  11. 11. Using Social Media to Recruit Employees• Matt Alder of MetaShift “Linkedin is a living database that allows recruitersto connect with the top talent…companies that do notemploy these strategies are at a real disadvantage”(Stevens, 2011, p. 10).
  12. 12. Higher Education’s use of Social Media• Social media is used by 100% of four year colleges and universities (Barnes & Lescault, 2010).
  13. 13. Higher Education using Social Media as aBranding Tool • UC Berkley and UC Irvine • Created a Facebook campaign for current students • Maryland’s Fear the Turtle Campaign • Used YouTube to distribute videos
  14. 14. Using Social Media to Recruit PotentialStudents• Institutions are using social media to spearhead recruiting efforts
  15. 15. Social Media as a Learning Tool• 80% of college professors are using social media in the classroom (Joly, 2010)• May be a response to a demand for college graduates to have social media skills upon graduation (Montavlo, 2010)
  16. 16. Social Media and Collegiate AthleticDepartments• Social media is being used in a variety of ways by college athletic departments (Miller, 2012).• Cooper’s (2010) research is the major work on social media• NCAA recommends using social media• Factors that influence use are: goals, perspective, budget, and division affiliation (Burden & Li, 2003).
  17. 17. Using Social Media to Communicate withFans and consumers• Use as an IMC Tool - University of Washington used a social media campaign to increase ticket sales.• Effectiveness
  18. 18. Measurement of Social Media• Traditional marketing metrics such as ROI can not be used. (Kryder, 2011).• Metrics are created in order to better explain the effectiveness of social media.
  19. 19. Overview• Social media use is vast• Social Media has the ability to play multiple roles• Social media is being used as a marketing tool but cannot be measured with traditional marketing metrics.
  20. 20. Research Questions• RQ1-What social media is being used by NCAA Division II athletic departments?• RQ2- How do NCAA Division II athletic departments use social media?• RQ3- How do NCAA Division II athletic departments perceive social media as a marketing tool?
  21. 21. Methodology• Instrument• Sample• Procedures• Analysis• Limitations
  22. 22. Instrument• Adapted from Grainger’s (2010) work titled “Social Media and the Fortune 500”• Each section coincides with a research question and has different types of questions • Section 2- “sometimes” “always” “never” • Section 3- 7 point Likert scale• 3 experts from the field were given the instrument and provided feedback
  23. 23. Sample• 302 NCAA Division II institutions were contacted• Athletic Director and Sports Information Director received the instrument• Schools were located through NCAA.org, and email addresses were obtained through the athletic department websites.
  24. 24. Procedures• Qualtrics was used to distribute instrument• Data was collected March 12, 2012 to April 8, 2012
  25. 25. Analysis• Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data• The survey garnered 82 responses
  26. 26. Limitations• Low response rate• Potential for one institution to be represented twice in the sample.
  27. 27. Results and Discussion• RQ1- What social media are NCAA Division II athletic departments using? 100% 93% 79%
  28. 28. SOCIAL MEDIA USE BY NCAA DIVISION II ATHLETICDEPARTMENTSSocial Media Number of Users Number of Non Users PercentFacebook 82 0 100%Twitter 77 5 93%YouTube 65 17 79%Google+ 7 75 8%Linkedin 4 78 5%MySpace 3 79 3%Linkedin 2 80 2%
  29. 29. RQ2- How do NCAA Division II athleticdepartments use social media?• 84% are “always” using social media to communicate with students• 74% are “always” using social media to direct people to the athletic department website.
  30. 30. RQ 2 ContinuedTable 2How are NCAA Division II athletic departments using social media?Use Sometimes Always NeverCommunicate with Current Students 14% 84% 1%Direct to Athletic Dept. Website 25% 74% 0%Increase WOM 39% 69% 0%Recruit Students 62% 14% 24%Communicate with Media 59% 24% 16%Promote Games, Contests or Events 38% 20% 41%Communicate with Others Inside Your Institution 54% 25% 20%Interact with Fans/Community 31% 67% 3%Communicate With Alumni 55% 39% 7%
  31. 31. RQ3- How do NCAA Division II athleticdepartments perceive social media as amarketing tool• 54% “Strongly Agree” and 30% “Agree” that social media is an important marketing tool• 34% “Somewhat Agree” and 45% “Strongly Agree” that social media is an effective way to reach consumers• 63% “Agree” and 23% “Strongly Agree” that social media are growing in significance as a marketing tool in their athletic department
  32. 32. Question Strongly Some Disagree Neither Agree Some Strongly Disagree What Agree / What Agree Disagree Disagree AgreeImportantmarketingtool 2% 0% 0% 1% 11% 30% 54%Effectiveways tointeractwithConsumer 2% 0% 0% 2% 15% 34% 45%Reach newconsumers 0% 1% 0% 2% 23% 35% 38%Central tomarketingefforts 1% 1% 0% 8% 35% 31% 21%
  33. 33. Questions Strongly Some Disagree Neither Agree Some Strongly Disagree What Disagree What Agree Disagree Agree AgreePeripheralTomarketingEfforts 5% 12% 5% 5% 22% 40% 7%Skeptical ofS.M. 16% 45% 21% 9% 5% 1% 0%S.M.Growing inSignificance 0% 0% 0% 1% 15% 63% 20%S.M. OverHypedAsmarketingTools 19% 36% 17% 16% 6% 2% 0%
  34. 34. Question Strongly Some Disagree Neither Agree Some Strongly Disagree What Agree What Agree Disagree Disagree AgreeConsideringNew waystoimplementS.M. As amarketingtool 0% 0% 1% 2% 22% 47% 19%S.M arealwaysconsideredwhendesigning aMarketingplan 0% 1% 8% 18% 22% 40% 8%
  35. 35. Discussion• Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube are the most used social media.• The primary functions of social media are: • to communicate with students • drive people to the athletic department website • increase Word of Mouth Marketing
  36. 36. Social Media as a Marketing Tool?• Social media is perceived as an effective marketing tool.• It will play many roles as it uses continue to evolve.
  37. 37. Future Exploration• Why is social media the chosen medium to communicate with current students?• What influences NCAA Division II athletic departments to use social media as a marketing tool?
  38. 38. More Exploration?• How do NCAA Division II athletic departments measure the effectiveness of social media ventures?• What social media do NCAA Division II athletic departments perceive as effective?
  39. 39. Recap• Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube are vastly used.• Social media is used to: • communicate with current students • drive people to the athletic department website • increase WOM• Social media is perceived as and effective marketing tool.• Future exploration is necessary
  40. 40. ReferencesBarnes, N., & Lescault, A. (2010). Social Media Adoption Soars as Higher-Ed Experiments and Reevaluates Its Use ofNew Communications Tools (U. Dartmouth, Trans.). In U. Dartmouth (Ed.).http://www.umassd.edu/cmr/studiesandresearch/socialmediaadoptionsoars/.Beargie, M. (2009). Social Media Burst Onto The College Scene Athletics Administration, 44(4), 42.Benjamin, K. (2008). A can of worms. [Article]. Revolution (14605953), 45-47.Blankenship, M. (2011). How Social Media Can and Should Impact Higher Education. The Education Digest, 76(7), 39-42.Boone, L. E., & Kurtz, D. L. (2007). Contemporary Marketing (Vol. 13). Mason, OH: Thompson/ South WesternBoyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.xBrady, D. (2011). Why Your Social Media Strategy May Be Falling Behind Retrieved from http://doteduguru.com/id6586-why-your-social-media-strategy-may-be-falling-behind.htmlBroitman, R. (2011). Social Media Tools 101 (From Blogs to Wikis) Retrieved fromhttp://www.interactiveinsightsgroup.com/blog1/socialmediabeginnersguide/social-media-tools-101/#VideoBurden, W., & Li, M. (2003). Differentiation of NCAA Division I athletic departments in outsourcing of sport marketingoperations: A discriminant analysis of financial-related institutional variables. International Sports Journal, 7(2), 74-81.Burrus, D. (2010). Create Social Media Guidelines to Reach Your Customer. [Article]. American Salesman, 55(1), 21-25.
  41. 41. References ContinuedCarraher, S., Parnell, J., & Spillan, J. (2009). Emerald Article: Customer service-orientation of small retail businessowners in Austria, The Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Slovakia, andSlovenia. Baltic Journal of Management 4(3 ), 251-268.Cooper, C. G. (2010). New Media Marketing: The Innovative Use of Technology in NCAA Athletic Department E-BrandingInitiatives. [Article]. Journal of Marketing Development & Competitiveness, 5(1), 23-32.Darragh, R. (2012). Recruiting Risk: Hiring Via Social Media Channels. Compliance Week, 9(97), 49-49,57.Division II Model Strategic Communications Document. (2011) ncaa.orgDubose, C. (2011). The Social Media Revolution. Radiologic Technology, 83(2), 112-119.Edosomwan, S., Prakasan, S. K., Kouame, D., Watson, J., & Seymour, T. (2011). The History of Social Media and its Impact onBusiness. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 16(3), 79-91.Fabiano, K. (2011). Social Media & The Workplace. E-gear, 32-32.Farrington, E. L. (2011). Social Media: Here to Stay, So Get Into It. Women in Higher Education, 20, 17-17-18.Farwell, T., & Waters, R. (2010). Exploring the Use of Social Bookmarking Technology in Education:An Analysis of Students’ Experiences using a Course-specific Delicious.com Account. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching,6(2).Fisher, E. (2008). Social Perspective Sports Business Journal 11, 15-23.Gregory, C. (2011). Social media speaks to students, Daily Herald, p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/905176263?accountid=3783
  42. 42. References ContinuedHardesty, S. (2011). Agritourism operators embrace social media for marketing. [Article]. California Agriculture, 65(2),56-56.Herbert, G. (2011). Syracuse University tweet about Dajuan Coleman violates NCAA guidelines. Syracuse.com.Retrieved from Syracuse.com website:http://blog.syracuse.com/sports/2011/10/dajaun_coleman_syracuse_university_tweet_ncaa_violation.htmlHoffman, D., & Fodor, M. (2010). Can You Measure the ROI of Your Social Media Marketing? MIT Sloan ManagementReview, 52(1), 41-49.Ivy, J. (2012). Social media essential for recruiting. Benefits Selling. Breaking News, n/a.Joly, K. (2010). The State of Online Analytics in Higher Ed. [Article]. University Business, 13(8), 30-32.Kryder, C. L. (2011). Measuring Social Media ROI: Quality versus Quantity. [Article]. AMWA Journal: American MedicalWriters Association Journal, 26(1), 36-36.Leclerc, P. (2010). Social Media Policy 101. Municipal World, 120(11), 21-23.Lenhart, A., Purcell, K., Smith, A., & Zickhur, K. (2010). Social Media and Internet Use Among Teens and Young AdultsWashington, DC Pew Internet & American Life Project.Lini, S. K. (2012). Employers Eyeing Twitter, Social Media. Privacy Journal, 38(5), 1-7.Mangold, G. W., & Faulds, D. J. (2009). Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix. BusinessHorizons, 52(4), 357-365. doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2009.03.002
  43. 43. References ContinuedMarlow, C., Naaman, M., Boyd, D., & Davis, M. (2006). HT06, Tagging Paper, Taxonomy, Flickr,Academic Article, To Read Paper presented at the Seventeenth conference on Hypertext andHypermedia, New York, NYMiller, T. (2012). Social media has benefits and dangers for UND student-athletes, McClatchy - TribuneBusiness News, p. n/a. Retrieved fromhttp://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1024127997?accountid=3783http://pn8vx3lh2h.search.serialssolution.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/ProQ%3Anewsstand&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=McClatchy+-+Tribune+Business+News&rft.atitle=Social+media+has+benefits+and+dangers+for+UND+student-athletes&rft.au=Miller%2C+Tom&rft.aulast=Miller&rft.aufirst=Tom&rft.date=2012-07-08&rft.volume=&rft.issue=&rft.spage=&rft.isbn=&rft.btitle=&rft.title=McClatchy+-+Tribune+Business+News&rft.issn=Montalvo, R. (2011). Social Media Management International Journal of Management and InformationSystems, 15(3), 91-96.Morrisette, K. (2011). If You Value It, Invest in It Retrieved from http://doteduguru.com/id7508-if-you-value-it-invest-in-it.htmlNew Mzinga survey reveals 86 percent of organizations use social technologies for businesspurposes. (2009) Retrieved September 8, 2011, 2011, fromhttp://www.mzinga.com/company/newsdetail.asp?lang=en&newsID=252&strSection=company&strPage=news

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