The Examination of Social Media in NCAA Division II Institutions
EXAMINATION OF SOCIALMEDIA IN NCAA DIIINSTITUTIONSJJ Truman
OutlineReview of LiteratureMethodologyResults and Discussion
Review of Literature• Define Social Media• Businesses’ Use of Social Media• Social Media as an Integrated Marketing Communications tool• Measurement of social media• Higher Education’s use of social media• Social Media as a branding tool in collegiate athletics• Conclusion• Research Questions
Social Media Defined• “Encompassing a wide range of online, word-of-mouth forums including blogs, company sponsored discussion boards and chat rooms, consumer-to-consumer e-mail, consumer product or service ratings websites and forums, Internet discussion boards and forums, moblogs (sites containing digital audio, images, movies, or photographs), and social networking websites” (Mangold & Faulds, 2009)
3 Major Types of Social Media• Social Networking sites-• Social Bookmarking Sites-• Social Video Sharing sites-
Business Use of Social Media is on theRise• Hiring social media professionals• In April of 2011 Kronos, Phillips, Pitney Bowes, Princeton Review, TD-Ameritrade, WM were all seeking social media managers (Montavlo, 2010).
Business Use of Social Media as anIntegrated Marketing CommunicationsTool (IMC)“IMC is the concept and process of strategically managingaudience-focused, channel-centered, and result-drivenbrand communication programs over time” (Klitachko,2010)
IMC Activities Using Social Media• Product promotion• Communicating with consumers- Listen, Create a strategic plan, Send and receive messages• Branding
Measurement of Social Media Activities byBusinesses• Traditional measurement tools fall short• Often times social media measurement metrics are created
Social Media Regulation• Organization regulating employee use• NFL and Chad Ochocinco • Tweets are prohibited 90 minutes before kickoff • Ochocinco Tweeted within that window • The NFL fined Ochocinco $25,000
Using Social Media to Recruit Employees• Matt Alder of MetaShift “Linkedin is a living database that allows recruitersto connect with the top talent…companies that do notemploy these strategies are at a real disadvantage”(Stevens, 2011, p. 10).
Higher Education’s use of Social Media• Social media is used by 100% of four year colleges and universities (Barnes & Lescault, 2010).
Higher Education using Social Media as aBranding Tool • UC Berkley and UC Irvine • Created a Facebook campaign for current students • Maryland’s Fear the Turtle Campaign • Used YouTube to distribute videos
Using Social Media to Recruit PotentialStudents• Institutions are using social media to spearhead recruiting efforts
Social Media as a Learning Tool• 80% of college professors are using social media in the classroom (Joly, 2010)• May be a response to a demand for college graduates to have social media skills upon graduation (Montavlo, 2010)
Social Media and Collegiate AthleticDepartments• Social media is being used in a variety of ways by college athletic departments (Miller, 2012).• Cooper’s (2010) research is the major work on social media• NCAA recommends using social media• Factors that influence use are: goals, perspective, budget, and division affiliation (Burden & Li, 2003).
Using Social Media to Communicate withFans and consumers• Use as an IMC Tool - University of Washington used a social media campaign to increase ticket sales.• Effectiveness
Measurement of Social Media• Traditional marketing metrics such as ROI can not be used. (Kryder, 2011).• Metrics are created in order to better explain the effectiveness of social media.
Overview• Social media use is vast• Social Media has the ability to play multiple roles• Social media is being used as a marketing tool but cannot be measured with traditional marketing metrics.
Research Questions• RQ1-What social media is being used by NCAA Division II athletic departments?• RQ2- How do NCAA Division II athletic departments use social media?• RQ3- How do NCAA Division II athletic departments perceive social media as a marketing tool?
Instrument• Adapted from Grainger’s (2010) work titled “Social Media and the Fortune 500”• Each section coincides with a research question and has different types of questions • Section 2- “sometimes” “always” “never” • Section 3- 7 point Likert scale• 3 experts from the field were given the instrument and provided feedback
Sample• 302 NCAA Division II institutions were contacted• Athletic Director and Sports Information Director received the instrument• Schools were located through NCAA.org, and email addresses were obtained through the athletic department websites.
Procedures• Qualtrics was used to distribute instrument• Data was collected March 12, 2012 to April 8, 2012
Analysis• Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data• The survey garnered 82 responses
Limitations• Low response rate• Potential for one institution to be represented twice in the sample.
Results and Discussion• RQ1- What social media are NCAA Division II athletic departments using? 100% 93% 79%
SOCIAL MEDIA USE BY NCAA DIVISION II ATHLETICDEPARTMENTSSocial Media Number of Users Number of Non Users PercentFacebook 82 0 100%Twitter 77 5 93%YouTube 65 17 79%Google+ 7 75 8%Linkedin 4 78 5%MySpace 3 79 3%Linkedin 2 80 2%
RQ2- How do NCAA Division II athleticdepartments use social media?• 84% are “always” using social media to communicate with students• 74% are “always” using social media to direct people to the athletic department website.
RQ 2 ContinuedTable 2How are NCAA Division II athletic departments using social media?Use Sometimes Always NeverCommunicate with Current Students 14% 84% 1%Direct to Athletic Dept. Website 25% 74% 0%Increase WOM 39% 69% 0%Recruit Students 62% 14% 24%Communicate with Media 59% 24% 16%Promote Games, Contests or Events 38% 20% 41%Communicate with Others Inside Your Institution 54% 25% 20%Interact with Fans/Community 31% 67% 3%Communicate With Alumni 55% 39% 7%
RQ3- How do NCAA Division II athleticdepartments perceive social media as amarketing tool• 54% “Strongly Agree” and 30% “Agree” that social media is an important marketing tool• 34% “Somewhat Agree” and 45% “Strongly Agree” that social media is an effective way to reach consumers• 63% “Agree” and 23% “Strongly Agree” that social media are growing in significance as a marketing tool in their athletic department
Question Strongly Some Disagree Neither Agree Some Strongly Disagree What Agree What Agree Disagree Disagree AgreeConsideringNew waystoimplementS.M. As amarketingtool 0% 0% 1% 2% 22% 47% 19%S.M arealwaysconsideredwhendesigning aMarketingplan 0% 1% 8% 18% 22% 40% 8%
Discussion• Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube are the most used social media.• The primary functions of social media are: • to communicate with students • drive people to the athletic department website • increase Word of Mouth Marketing
Social Media as a Marketing Tool?• Social media is perceived as an effective marketing tool.• It will play many roles as it uses continue to evolve.
Future Exploration• Why is social media the chosen medium to communicate with current students?• What influences NCAA Division II athletic departments to use social media as a marketing tool?
More Exploration?• How do NCAA Division II athletic departments measure the effectiveness of social media ventures?• What social media do NCAA Division II athletic departments perceive as effective?
Recap• Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube are vastly used.• Social media is used to: • communicate with current students • drive people to the athletic department website • increase WOM• Social media is perceived as and effective marketing tool.• Future exploration is necessary
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