Elements of a short story 12


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Literary Terms

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Elements of a short story 12

  1. 1. Elements of a Short Story Terms
  2. 2. Plot • A series of related events that present and resolve a conflict
  3. 3. Plot Diagram
  4. 4. Exposition • The part of the story, usually near the beginning, in which – the characters are introduced, – the background is explained, and – The setting is described.
  5. 5. Rising Action • The central part of a story during which various problems arise after a conflict is introduced.
  6. 6. Climax, Falling Action and Resolution • Climax – The most exciting point in the story, when the conflict is decided • Falling Action •Resolution – The action and - The conflict is resolved dialogue following (positively or negatively) the climax that lead and the story is brought to a close the reader into the - Also known as story’s end. “Denouement”
  7. 7. Setting • The time and place in which the action of a narrative occurs
  8. 8. Conflict • The Primary struggle between the main character or characters and an adverse character, group or force • Internal Conflict – A struggle between a character and him/herself • External Conflict – A struggle between a character and an outside force. • • • • Man vs. Man Man vs. Nature Man vs. Supernatural Man vs. Society
  9. 9. Complications • Small problems in addition to the conflict that add interest to the story
  10. 10. Suspense • The uncertainty or anxiety that a reader feels about what will happen in a story – – – – Foreshadowing Dilemma Mystery Reversal
  11. 11. Foreshadowing • Clues (real or false) that hint at a story’s outcome
  12. 12. Dilemma • A character that we care about is in peril or must choose between two dangerous courses of action
  13. 13. Mystery • The creation of suspense by withholding information or by presenting unusual circumstances
  14. 14. Reversal • A sudden change in a character’s situation from good to bad or vice versa
  15. 15. Point of View • The relationship between the narrator of a story and the characters in it • Narrator is NOT the same as author • Types of POV: – First Person – Third Person, Omniscient – Third Person, Limited Omniscient – Third Person, Objective
  16. 16. P.O.V. continued • First Person – The narrator offers a personal account of their own experiences or describes what happens to other characters as the narrator sees it • Third Person – The narrator stands outside the action (nonparticipatory) and presents • Omniscient – (all-knowing) point of view – Can see the thoughts & emotions of all (or numerous) characters • Limited Omniscient – focuses on one character’s thoughts and viewpoints • Objective – Describes only what can be seen – “Reporter style”
  17. 17. Main characters • Protagonist – MAIN CHARACTER of the story – Often, hero or character the audience is supposed to feel most sympathetic for • Not always…for example, the main character could be a serial killer. • Antagonist – primary adversary of the protagonist – Sometimes the villain
  18. 18. Types of Characters • Flat Character – shows only one trait • Round Character – Shows many different traits, good and bad • Static Character – character does not change through the course of the story • Dynamic Character – character develops and grows during the course of the story
  19. 19. Characterization • The technique used by a writer to create and reveal the personalities of the characters in a written work. This may be done by: • Direct Characterization – The author directly states aspects of the character’s personality • i.e. He was a grumpy and unfriendly old man, known for his hatred of young children and puppies. • Indirect Characterization – More common method for most characters, especially major characters – We must infer personality traits from the story
  20. 20. Indirect Characterization • Indirect Characterization may be accomplished by – describing the character’s physical appearance and situation, – revealing a characters thoughts, – The character’s words or actions, – showing the reaction of other characters.
  21. 21. Theme • The underlying meaning of a literary work. • This differs from the subject in that it involves a statement of opinion about that subject. • The theme may be stated or implied. • Not every literary work has a theme, and some have more than one
  22. 22. Irony • Irony: differences in appearance and reality, or expectations and results, or meaning and intention – Dramatic Irony: • a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader or audience knows to be true – Situational Irony: • an event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, readers, or audience – Verbal Irony: • words are used to suggest the opposite of what is meant (i.e. sarcasm, double-entendre, etc.)