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  1. 1. Archetypes Universal Patterns in Literature and Myth
  2. 2. Archetypes - Jung <ul><li>Carl Jung </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal patterns in all stories and mythologies, regardless of culture or historical period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method of sorting the world into patterns or “archetypes” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ hard-wired” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Archetypes - Campbell <ul><li>Joseph Campbell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hero With a Thousand Faces (1949) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed that myths from all over the world seem to be built from the same “elementary ideas” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero’s Journey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AKA: the “monomyth” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The closer a work is to fantasy (less realistic), the more clearly you will see the underlying mythic structure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Familiar with “What Happens Next” <ul><li>What's going to happen? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Heroic Archetypes <ul><li>Hero as Warrior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A near god-like hero faces physical challenges and external enemies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Beowulf, Odysseus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transcendent Hero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hero of tragedy whose fatal flaw (hamartia) brings about his downfall, but not without achieving some kind of transforming realization of wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Greek and Shakespearean tragedies – Oedipus, Hamlet, Macbeth, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Heroic Archetypes, cont. <ul><li>Hero as Lover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A pure love motivates the hero to complete his quest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Prince Charming, Romeo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Romantic/Gothic Hero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero/lover with a decidedly dark side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Mr. Rochester in Jane Eyre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Apocalyptic Hero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero who faces the possible destruction of society </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Heroic Archetypes, cont. <ul><li>Proto-feminist Hero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female hero, which differs from a heroine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A heroine usually exists as the object of a male quest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The female hero has her own journey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall movement is the same, but kinds of challenges, confrontations, goals and ends may differ. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often fight against society’s expectations of them </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Heroic Archetypes, cont. <ul><li>Anti-Hero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A non-hero, given the vocation of failure, frequently humorous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Homer Simpson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defiant Anti-Hero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposer of society’s definition of heroism/goodness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Heart of Darkness </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Heroic Archetypes, cont. <ul><li>Hero as Scapegoat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero suffers for the sake of others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Jesus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced hero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The protagonist who has (or must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pretend to have) mental or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional deficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Hamlet, McMurphy in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Heroic Archetypes, cont. <ul><li>The Other – The Denied Hero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protagonist whose status or essential otherness makes heroism possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The outcast or member of a minority group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Drizzt Do’Urden (Dark Elf Series), Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Heroic Archetypes, cont. <ul><li>The Superheroic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exaggerates the normal proportions of humanity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently has divine or supernatural origins. In some sense, the superhero is one apart, someone who does not quite belong, but who is nevertheless needed by society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mythological heroes such as </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hercules, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superman </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Archetypal Journeys <ul><li>The Quest for Identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover who they (or someone else) are/is </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Epic Journey to Find the Promised Land or Found the Good City </li></ul><ul><li>The Quest for Vengeance </li></ul><ul><li>The Warrior’s Journey to Save His People </li></ul><ul><li>The Search for Love </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To rescue the princess/damsel in distress </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Archetypal Journeys <ul><li>The Journey in Search of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The Tragic Quest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>penance or self-denial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Fool’s Errand </li></ul><ul><li>The Quest to Rid the Land of Danger </li></ul><ul><li>The Grail Quest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The quest for human perfection </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Stages of the Hero’s Journey
  15. 15. Stage: Departure <ul><li>Step 1: The Call to Adventure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The call to adventure is the point in a person's life when they are first given notice that everything is going to change, whether they know it or not. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 2: The Refusal of the Call </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often when the call is given, the future hero refuses to heed it. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, a sense of inadequacy, or any of a range of reasons that work to hold the person in his or her current circumstances. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Stage: Departure <ul><li>Step 3: Meeting the Mentor / Supernatural Aid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or unconsciously, his or her guide and magical helper appears, or becomes known. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Stage: Departure <ul><li>Step 4: The Crossing of the First Threshold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the point where the person actually crosses into the field of adventure, leaving the known limits of his or her world and venturing into an unknown and dangerous realm where the rules and limits are not known. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Stage: Departure <ul><li>Step 5: The Belly of the Whale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The belly of the whale represents the final separation from the hero's known world and self. It is sometimes described as the person's lowest point, but it is actually the point when the person is between or transitioning between worlds and selves. The separation has been made, or is being made, or being fully recognized between the old world and old self and the potential for a new world/self. The experiences that will shape the new world and self will begin shortly, or may be beginning with this experience which is often symbolized by something dark, unknown and frightening. By entering this stage, the person shows their willingness to undergo a metamorphosis, to die to him or herself </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Stage: Initiation <ul><li>Step 1: The Road of Trials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The road of trials is a series of tests, tasks, or ordeals that the person must undergo to begin the transformation. Often the person fails one or more of these tests, which often occur in threes. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Stage: Initiation <ul><li>Step 2: The Meeting with the Goddess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This represents the point in the adventure when the person experiences an unconditional love or a “self unification” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>does not have to be represented by a woman. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Woman as Temptress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At one level, this step is about those temptations that may lead the hero to abandon or stray from his or her quest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woman is a metaphor for the physical or material temptations of life, since the hero-knight was often tempted by lust from his spiritual journey. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Stage: Initiation <ul><li>Step 4: Atonement with Father </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In this step the person must confront and be initiated by whatever holds the ultimate power in his or her life. In many myths and stories this is the father, or a father figure who has life and death power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the center point of the journey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although this step is most frequently symbolized by an encounter with a male entity, it does not have to be a male; just someone or thing with incredible power. For the transformation to take place, the person as he or she has been must be &quot;killed&quot; so that the new self can come into being. Sometime this killing is literal, and the earthly journey for that character is either over or moves into a different realm. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Stage: Initiation <ul><li>Step 5: Innermost Cave/Descent into Darkness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hero descends into the innermost cave, an underworld or some other place of great trial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes this place can be within the hero’s own mind. Because of this trial, the hero is reborn in some way – physically, emotionally, spiritually. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through this experience, the hero changes internally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes seen as death, and rebirth, either in the original world or in a new plane of experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 6: Apotheosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming “god-like” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A more mundane way of looking at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>this step is that it is a period of rest, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peace and fulfillment before the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hero begins the return. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Stage: Initiation <ul><li>The Ultimate Boon/ Fulfilling the Quest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ultimate boon is the achievement of the goal of the quest. It is what the person went on the journey to get. All the previous steps serve to prepare and purify the person for this step. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Stage: Return <ul><li>Step 1: The Refusal of the Return </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero is reluctant to return to “normal” life, despite the fact that their return will bring wisdom or the benefits of the ultimate boon to their society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“So why, when all has been achieved, the ambrosia has been drunk, and we have conversed with the gods, why come back to normal life with all its cares and woes?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hero is concerned that their message won't be heard, or that their gifts will be unappreciated, or that the wisdom gained can not be communicated </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Stage: Return <ul><li>Step 2: The Magic Flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes the hero must escape with the boon, if it is something that the gods have been jealously guarding. It can be just as adventurous and dangerous returning from the journey as it was to go on it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;If the hero in his triumph wins the blessing of the goddess or the god and is then explicitly commissioned to return to the world with some elixir for the restoration of society, the final stage of his adventure is supported by all the powers of his supernatural patron. On the other hand, if the trophy has been attained against the opposition of its guardian, or if the hero's wish to return to the world has been resented by the gods or demons, then the last stage of the mythological round becomes a lively, often comical, pursuit. This flight may be complicated by marvels of magical obstruction and evasion&quot;. -- (Campbell 196-7) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Stage: Return <ul><li>Step 3: Rescue from without </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often the hero must have powerful guides and rescuers to bring them back to everyday life, especially if the person has been wounded or weakened by the experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes the hero doesn't realize that it is time to return, that they can return, or that others need their boon. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Stage: Return <ul><li>Step 4: Crossing the Return Threshold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The trick in returning is to retain the wisdom gained on the quest, to integrate that wisdom into a human life, and then maybe figure out how to share the wisdom with the rest of the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is usually extremely difficult. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Stage: Return <ul><li>Step 5: The Master of Two Worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The hero achieves balance between the inner and outer worlds, the spiritual and material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Step 6: Freedom to Live </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastery leads to freedom from the fear of death, which in turn is the freedom to live. This is sometimes referred to as living in the moment, neither anticipating the future nor regretting the past. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Characteristics of the Hero’s Journey Common Elements Found in Many Stories
  30. 30. Characteristics: Personal Traits <ul><li>Hero is naïve and inexperienced </li></ul><ul><li>Hero is special, one of a kind. He/she might represent a whole nation or culture </li></ul><ul><li>Hero is neither a fool nor invincible </li></ul>
  31. 31. Characteristics: Origins <ul><li>Origins of the hero are mysterious or obscure </li></ul><ul><li>Hero loses his/her parents at a young age, and is raised by animals or a wise guardian </li></ul><ul><li>Hero is often in an orphan-like state, losing parents & mentors throughout the journey </li></ul><ul><li>Hero is born and raised in a rural setting, away from cities </li></ul>
  32. 32. Characteristics: Companions <ul><li>Hero has a strange, wise being as a mentor </li></ul><ul><li>Hero yearns for a beautiful lady who is sometimes his guide or inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Hero has a guide or multiple guides </li></ul><ul><li>Hero has a loyal band of companions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero makes a stirring speech to his/her companions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although the hero has companions, he/she is still alone because the friends/servants cannot fully understand </li></ul><ul><li>Hero often has an animal familiar </li></ul>
  33. 33. Characteristics: Events <ul><li>Hero must go on a journey, learn a lesson, change in some way, and return home </li></ul><ul><li>Hero struggles for something valuable and important </li></ul><ul><li>Hero goes through a rite of passage or initiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An event that marks a change from an immature to a more mature understanding of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hero undergoes some type of ritual or ceremony after his/her initiation </li></ul>
  34. 34. Characteristics: Events <ul><li>Hero engages in tests or contests of strength (physical and/or mental) and shows pride in his/her excellence </li></ul><ul><li>Hero meets monsters or monstrous men </li></ul><ul><li>Hero often crosses a body of water or travels on a bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Hero battles with a brother </li></ul>
  35. 35. Characteristics: Events <ul><li>Hero has help from divine or supernatural forces </li></ul><ul><li>Hero is often given magical aids </li></ul><ul><li>The way is not always direct or clear to the hero </li></ul><ul><li>There is often a prophecy about the hero </li></ul><ul><li>The hero often wears the enemy’s “skin” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disguises self as the enemy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hero often chases a lone animal into the enchanted wood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal usually escapes </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Characteristics: Events <ul><li>Usually, the final test is a descent into darkness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hell-like place of suffering & death (physical &/or emotional) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to enlightenment or maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolizes death & rebirth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hero is changed in important ways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What the hero seeks is often only a symbol of what they really find </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturity or growth is more important than the actual goal of the quest </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Characteristics: Events <ul><li>Hero suffers an unhealable wound, sometimes an emotional or spiritual wound from which the hero never completely recovers </li></ul><ul><li>Hero returns to the land of his/her birth in disguise or as an unknown </li></ul>
  38. 38. Other Common Archetypes <ul><li>2 Worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mundane and special </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oracle </li></ul><ul><li>Failed Hero </li></ul><ul><li>Shapeshifter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hero isn’t sure if the ally can be trusted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shadow </li></ul><ul><li>Comedians </li></ul>
  39. 39. Bibliography <ul><li>http:// / </li></ul>