From Lincoln’s final public addressBy these recent successes the re-inauguration of the nationalauthority – reconstruction --which has had a large share of thoughtfrom the first, is pressed much more closely upon our attention.It is fraught with great difficulty. Unlike a case of a war betweenindependent nations, there is no authorized organ for us to treatwith. No one man has authority to give up the rebellion for anyother man.We simply must begin with, and mould from, disorganized anddiscordant elements. Nor is it a small additional embarrassment thatwe, the loyal people, differ among ourselves as to the mode,manner, and means of reconstruction. APRIL 11, 1865
Question 1: Land Is South in abeyance? Abeyance: a state of expectancy when the right to property is not vested in any one person, but awaits the appearance or determination of the true owner Should plantations and farms in the South be return to their former owners? Is the former Confederacy a conquered province?
Question 2: RepatriationAre confederatestraitors? What rights do rebels maintain? How should soldiers, suppliers, and supporter of the rebellion be punished, if at all? By what process do people regain citizenship? Is it automatic? How do states “rejoin” the union?
Question 3: Rebuilding Who pays for material reconstruction? Not much debate on territory: Union would pay for the rebuilding of railroads, cities What about “property” lost due to 13th Amendment? What cultural, economic, political changes will result?
Lincoln’s plan Oath of allegiance = pardon Southern states would write new constitutions Abolition of slavery a requirement of reinstatement Many northerners thought Lincoln was too lenient Who should make the rules: Congress or the president?
Johnson’s plan Largely similar to Lincoln’s Wanted restoration as much as true reconstruction Made it easy for South to be reinstated No real punishment Alexander Stevens, CSA VP, returns to the US Senate
Radical Republican plan Wanted revolution more than reconstruction Advocated full civil and voting rights for all freedmen Claimed Confederate states had committed “political suicide” Thought Congress should set conditions of reinstatement
Reconstruction Acts (1867) Passed over presidential veto Established military districts in all southern states except Tennessee TN had ratified 14th Amendment Required congressional approval of all state constitutions Gave the vote to all freedmen