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The decline and fall of the roman republic


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The decline and fall of the roman republic

  1. 1. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic 82b.c.- 27 b.c. FROM SULLA TO AUGUSTUS
  2. 2. Historical Background <ul><li>~1100 B.C Aeneas Founds what would become Rome. Descended from the goddess Venus. </li></ul><ul><li>753b.c. Rome founded by Romulus – begins “Etruscan line of Kings”. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans despise Monarchy – depose last of Etruscan kings “Tarquinius Superbus” by force. </li></ul><ul><li>In place of of Monarchy – establish a Republican form of gov’t 509b.c. – that is - 2 consuls and a senate. System of “checks and balances”. No one person could have too much power. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rome as World Leader <ul><li>Punic Wars (264-202b.c.) Rome Established a “World” superpower. </li></ul><ul><li>Occupied Hispania, Gallia, Britannia, Italia, Africa, Graecia, and Asia(minor) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Political Turmoil <ul><li>Even though the Republic had a system of “checks and balances” – there was always constant struggle over how much control or power a leader could gain – without being too powerful or “Kingly”. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rise of Sulla <ul><li>83-82b.c. L. Cornelius Sulla wages a civil war on Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>81b.c. Sulla appointed dictator and reforms the constitution . </li></ul><ul><li>Remember Cinicinnatus! </li></ul><ul><li>79b.c. Sulla resigns the dictatorship – over amount of turmoil it created – yet the precedent was set. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pirates and Spartacus <ul><li>75 b.c. Caesar captured by pirates . </li></ul><ul><li>73-71b.c. Slave war of Spartacus . </li></ul><ul><li>Forms a bond with Pompey the Great – one of the generals who helped defeat Spartacus – important political union. </li></ul><ul><li>The 6,000 survivors are crucified down the length of the Via Appia. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great <ul><li>67b.c. The tribune A. Gabinius passes a law. This gives a command to Gn. Pompeius Magnus , who is given unlimited imperium on water to fight against the growing pirate menace . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great <ul><li>62b.c .Pompey settles matters in the east, returns to Italy and disbands his army. </li></ul><ul><li>59b.c. Caesar elected Consul and the First Triumvirate is formed by M. Licinius Crassus , Gn. Pompeius Magnus and G. Julius Caesar. </li></ul><ul><li>Pompey marries daughter of Caesar. (Julia) 59b.c. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Caesar and The Gallic Wars 58-51b.c. <ul><li>Caesar elected Consul in 59b.c. </li></ul><ul><li>He has risen to unparalleled authority in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Must serve a as a Pro-consular governor in Gaul for 1 year before he can return to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>He decides to invade Gaul – so that he is not forgotten. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gallic Commentaries” are reports sent back to Rome as “Propaganda”. </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar’s legend and popularity grows back in Rome. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Caesar “Crosses the Rubicon” <ul><li>52b.c. Caesar builds two sets of fortifications 42 miles and lays Siege to Alesia . With approximately 42,000 men, Caesar besieges 100,000 Gauls within the fort and holds out 250,000 men in a relief force on the outside. This ends war. </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar still must serve his one year of Pro-consular governorship before going back to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Faces a big decision (Sulla) whether or not to declare civil war on Rome. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Caesar “Crosses the Rubicon” <ul><li>49b.c Caesar crosses the Rubicon . Declares Civil War. </li></ul><ul><li>49-45b.c Civil War between Populares “outlaw” Caesar and Optimates forces of Pompey. </li></ul><ul><li>Pompey defeated at Battle of Pharsalus in 48b.c. Pompey escaped but was captured and decapitated by King Ptolemy XII of Egypt.(Cleopatra) </li></ul><ul><li>45b.c. Civil War ends at Battle of Munda – Caesar back in control of Rome. </li></ul>
  12. 12. End of the Republic – Beginning of the Empire <ul><li>44b.c Caesar appoints himself “Dictator Perpetuum” – Dictator for Life. </li></ul><ul><li>44b.c. Ides of March . March 15, Caesar murdered by Brutus, Cassius, and their co-conspirators acting for the Optimates. Octavian returns from Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>27b.c. Octavian named Augustus and is officially the first Emperor of Rome. </li></ul>