Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

  1. 1. Chapter 12- Nervous System Suffixes and ALS Jenny Trace
  2. 2. Suffixes <ul><li>-paresis: weakness </li></ul><ul><li>-taxia: muscle coordination </li></ul><ul><li>For this presentation I’m going to report on Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and how those suffixes are used to describe this disease. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) <ul><li>Also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>A motor neuron disease that attacks nerve cells that control voluntary movement. </li></ul><ul><li>ALS affects approximately 5 out of every 100,000 people worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Higher prevalence in males than females </li></ul><ul><li>Usually affects people 50 and older, but can occur in younger people </li></ul>Picture of Lou Gehrig
  4. 4. How Does ALS Work? <ul><li>Motor neurons are communication unit between brain, brain stem, and spinal cord and voluntary muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Both upper motor neurons (brain) and lower motor neurons (spinal cord) are affected </li></ul><ul><li>With ALS, motor neurons degenerate and die and are not able to send messages to muscles </li></ul><ul><li>This causes loss of function and the muscles weaken and waste away </li></ul><ul><li>As the disease progresses, the brain loses all capacity to control voluntary muscles </li></ul><ul><li>When the muscles control of the diaphragm is lost , then the patient is no longer to breath on his/her own </li></ul><ul><li>Patients usually die within 3-5 years from respiratory failure. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Early Symptoms <ul><li>Usually mild and go unnoticed by doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Twitching, cramping or stiffness of muscles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually arm or leg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slurred or nasal speech </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty chewing or swallowing </li></ul>
  6. 7. Symptoms <ul><li>As symptoms persist, then diagnosis for ALS is usually given </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty breathing (dysphagia) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty speaking or forming words </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle atrophy </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Overactive gag reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty swallowing </li></ul><ul><li>Paralysis </li></ul>
  7. 8. Prevalence of ALS Symptoms
  8. 9. Ataxia <ul><li>Lack of muscle control doing voluntary movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking, picking up items, speech, swallowing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People with ALS first show signs of ataxia early on and it increases as the disease progresses </li></ul>
  9. 10. Quadriparesis <ul><li>Muscle weakness affecting all four limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on how the ALS is progressing, a patient may first experience paraparesis (weakness of lower limbs) or weakness of all limbs </li></ul><ul><li>This will eventually result in paralysis and the patient can become a quadriplegic </li></ul>
  10. 11. In loving memory of my grandfather, Jim Dooley, who suffered from ALS.

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