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29 truman - cold war 2015

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Cold War - Truman

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29 truman - cold war 2015

  1. 1. Part I The Truman Years
  2. 2. The Truman Years • Harry S Truman • 1945-1953 • Democrat • Foreign Policy • - Containment • Domestic Policy • - Fair Deal • Successes? • Failures?
  3. 3. •Goals? •Events •Handling •Assessment? •Criteria?
  4. 4. The Cold War 1945-1991
  5. 5. 5 CONCEPTUAL UNIT QUESTION • Did the polarization of the world by the two superpowers benefit or harm global development?
  6. 6. Truman and Foreign Policy •Immediate Postwar Concerns •The U.S. Role This Time? •Alone or Collectively? •Isolationist or Internationalist? •United Nations •Background •Wartime Conferences? •San Francisco Conference •Oct, 1945 – a Reality •Senate Ratified, 89-2
  7. 7. I. Post-WWII outcomes? 1) United Nations- formed near end of WWII as a body of nations to prevent future global wars. What organization had been formed at the end of WWI to prevent global war?
  8. 8. United Nations
  9. 9. Major Organs
  10. 10. THE COLD WAR Fifty countries joined together to form the United Nations. It is based in New York City. The Charter pledged to “save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.”
  11. 11. UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY (town meeting concept) 1. Membership -188 nations each with one vote a. First World - US and its Allies mostly industrialized b. Second World - USSR and its Allies many also developed c. Third World - 99/193 mostly developing nations - non-aligned (60% Poverty) agricultural high illiteracy 2. Support from non-aligned nations a. Before 1960 overwhelmingly pro-US b. After 1960 turned increasingly against US c. 1984 (13% - US / 84% - USSR) 3. Powers a. discussion b. elect members c. amending the Charter requires a 2/3 vote d. influencing world opinion 4. Current US Ambassador = Samantha Power Recent US Ambassadors Jean Kirkpatrick Madeleine Albright John Bolton – critic of UN current ambassador
  12. 12. •Maintaining World Peace •Promoting Self-Determination •International Cooperation •Respect for Human Rights
  13. 13. UN SECURITY COUNCIL 1. Membership - 15 members Permanent members - five US, USSR, Great Britain, France, China (1971 change from Nationalist to Communist) Each has VETO power (similar to Lodge's reservation about League) Temporary members - ten - rotated every 2 yrs. 9/15 vote required for action if there is no veto Powers Investigation Military or economic action
  14. 14. SECRETARIAT Consists of the Secretary General and his staff (20,000) Purpose - runs the day to day affairs of the UN Former Secretary Generals Trygve Lie - Norway - 1946-1952 Dag Hammerskjold - Sweden - 1953-1961 (died) U-Thant - Burma - 1961-1971 Kurt Waldheim - Austria - 1972-1981 Javier Perez de Cuellar - Peru - 1982-1991 Boutros Boutros-Ghali - Egypt - 1992-1996 Kofi Annan - Ghana – 1996-2006 Ban Ki-moon – South Korea – 2007-Present
  15. 15. Goals - based on Social Darwinism 1. National Security - self defense peace Avoid Another World War 2. Trade - Promotion of world trade and to better our economic opportunities at home markets resources places to invest create a favorable balance of trade 3. Nationalism - pride in your country - the desire to spread our ideas - our culture around the world A sense of mission in encouraging freedom around the world and promoting "self government" - democracy national self-determination Russians - Totalitarianism promoting capitalism Communism promoting - Freedom of Religion Atheism Protestant Christianity - missionary work 4. Social Gospel - "do the right thing"! Morality Altruism Humanitarianism 5. Improving our image at home and abroad – tough guy or nice guy? 6. Those goals had to be weighed against the cost in terms of money and lives
  16. 16. THE COLD WAR
  17. 17. •Definition? •Who Started It? •What Caused It? •How to Fight It?
  18. 18. 4) Origins of Cold War Is this what we mean by the Cold War??? I. Post-WWII outcomes?
  19. 19. Cold War- 45 year competition about values. (end of WWII-collapse of Soviet Union in 1991 — 8 presidents) OR COLD WAR U.S. and West Soviet Union and East -Democracy -Individual Freedom -Market economy -Totalitarianism -Socialism: state centered -Communist II. Cold War: Defined
  20. 20. 1949 Soviet Union successfully explodes an atomic bomb 1952 1st Hydrogen Bomb tested *Much more powerful than the Atomic Bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki *Precision Missile Launch THE STAKES ARE HIGH (BOTH U.S. and Soviet Union hold capability to destroy each other) II. Cold War: Defined
  21. 21. 23 A newspaper columnist, Walter Lippmann argued that the policy of containment could not work because he did not think the U.S. could contain the Soviet Union everywhere. He published his columns about containment in a book he titled, The Cold War. Lippmann came up with the term Cold War to describe a kind of war that did not include bloodshed. The “Cold War”
  22. 22. Uneasy peace between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Competition for world dominance and global power. Fought on political and economic fronts rather than on military battlefields---------Even though the threat of war was always present. Defined America’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1989. It affected domestic politics and how Americans viewed the world and themselves. Constant state of military preparedness and arms race Propaganda war----Democracy vs Totalitarian Dictatorship Capitalism vs. Communism US policy: Support nations threatened by Communism coldwar
  23. 23. TheThe Bi-PolarizationBi-Polarization ofof Europe:Europe: The Beginning of theThe Beginning of the Cold WarCold War map/cold war Soviet Union/China and Allies…….. Democracy vs. Communism Bi-Polarization of the World US, Allied Nations and Allied colonies. 1950’s
  24. 24. US and USSR were allied in WWII against Fascism but the common enemy had been defeated the reason for co-operation was gone Why? What? The Cold War = War of words and military posturing between the United States and the Soviet Union: When? 1945-1991
  25. 25. 1945-United Nations Formed 1946- Churchill “Iron Curtain” Speech 1947- Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan 1948- Soviets blockade Berlin-US launches Airlift. 1949-NATO formed 1953-Stalin dies 1955-Warsaw Pact formed 1956-Kruschev and de-Stalinization in USSR Soviets crush uprising in Hungary 1960- U-2 Incident heightens tensions 1961-Berlin Wall goes up Cold War Time Line
  26. 26. An extremely powerful nation with greater political, economic, or military power than most other nations. After WWII the United States and the Soviet Union emerge as the world’s Superpowers What is a Superpower?
  27. 27. YALTA (in the USSR)YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill,Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and StalinRoosevelt and Stalin
  28. 28. At the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, before WWII was over, basic philosophical differences became glaring: Democracy and the free enterprise system versus dictatorship and communism Beginning of the Cold War 1945-1948 Yalta Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin Potsdam Atlee, Truman, Stalin
  29. 29. POTSDAM (Germany)POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill,Present: Churchill, Truman and StalinTruman and Stalin
  30. 30. •What Did Cause It? •Mutual Mistrust •WWI •Nazi-Soviet Pact •No Second Front •Yalta, Potsdam •Different Visions of the Future •Opposing Ideologies…
  31. 31. The Soviet Union feared the capitalist West. The United States feared communism. After World War II, the United States and Great Britain wanted the Eastern European nations to determine their own governments. Stalin feared that the Eastern European nations would be anti-Soviet if they were allowed free elections. Seeds of fear and distrust
  32. 32. THE COLD WAR The Soviet Union (USSR) was supposed to withdraw from the Eastern European lands she occupied during WWII—she did not. At the Yalta Conference the Soviet Union agreed to allow free elections in occupied but there was only one candidate on the ballot. The Soviet Union continued to expand its influence, indicating a desire to take over as much of the world as possible. The first elections to demonstrate that these elections were not free were held in Poland. East Germany became a communist state controlled by the Soviet Union. So did East Berlin.
  33. 33. United States and Great Britain wanted self-determination for Eastern European nations. Self-determination embodies the right for all peoples to determine their own economic, social and cultural development. Self-determination
  34. 34. Satellite State  When a nation is under the control of another.  Ex. Part of Germany was under the control of the Soviet Union.  Other examples: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria
  35. 35. At the Potsdam Conference in 1945, it was decided by the four victorious powers of World War II - Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America that the territory of the former German Empire defined by the borders of 1937 was to be divided into four zones of occupation. What to do with Germany?
  36. 36. THE COLD WAR The struggle between the United States (and its allies - First World) and the Soviet Union (and its allies – Second World) to control the world (neutral countries = Third World) was called the Cold War. Politically it was a struggle between Totalitarian dictatorship and democracy, free market (capitalism) and command economies (communism). It was cold because no shots were directly fired between the two nations.
  37. 37. The Initial Adversaries Harry Truman Joseph Stalin
  38. 38. 40 Post WWII/Cold War Goals for US • Promote open markets for US goods to prevent another depression • Promote democracy throughout the world, especially in Asia and Africa • Stop the spread of communism –“Domino Effect”
  39. 39. 41 Post WWII/Cold War Goals for USSR •Create greater security for itself – lost tens of millions of people in WWII and Stalin’s purges – feared a strong Germany •Establish defensible borders •Encourage friendly governments on its borders •Spread communism around the world “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Excerpt from Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain Speech.”
  40. 40. Soviet Expansion
  41. 41. Yalta Conference between FDR and Stalin - we were still allies FDR then went home and died Russians agreed to free elections in Eastern Europe Agreed to temporarily divide Germany until we could create a government we could trust We agreed to divide the capital of Berlin as well Morganthau Plan - deurbanize Germany create an agricultural nation Russian agreed to aid us against Japan in exchange for territory Elections in Poland Actions by Russia that violated the Yalta Agreements Russians sealed the borders eliminated free speech arrested and shot critics Stalin placed only communists on the ballots in Poland similar elections will occur throughout Eastern Europe
  42. 42. Satellites / Puppets - nations that appear to be free, but are actually ruled by another nation Yugoslavia - Marshall Tito failed to follow Stalin's orders Is communism monolithic? Are all communist the same? Do they all take orders from Stalin? Are they all part of a plot to take over the world? Should we treat them all the same? Could we divide and conquer instead? Russian motives - world domination or self-defense? History of attacks from the West Napoleon - France WWI - Germany WWII - Germany USSR lost 10% of its population during the WWII (US - .03%) and had large losses in previous wars Destruction of Russia by the scorched earth policy in those three wars was extensive Wanted East Europe (buffer); to protect its frontiers by extending USSR's boundaries! Wanted to keep Germany weak feared "capitalist encirclement" The next war would not be fought on Russian soil
  43. 43. Buffer States Satellite States Buffer between East and West. Eastern Europe became Soviet satellite nations. Pro-Soviet. These people were no longer free.
  44. 44. 46 Iron Curtain From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
  45. 45. 47 Iron Curtain Cartoon
  46. 46. 48
  47. 47. Soviet View of the Postwar World…
  48. 48. The Way We Saw Things...
  49. 49. •What Weapons to Use? •Why Not Use the UN? •Initial Areas of Disagreement? •1946 – Truman Asked for More Information on the USSR
  50. 50. Iron Curtain Speech - 3/15/46 - Winston Churchill - Fulton, Missouri Described the invisible barrier separating East and West keeping us in the dark It ran from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic Magazines, newspapers, books, movies, radio broadcasts and travel are restricted in this area Pointed to broken promises of free elections made at Yalta by Stalin Offended USSR who announced a military buildup to defend itself US balanced by refusing to share the bomb we had reduced the size of our army from 12 to 3 million yet outnumbered 20 to 1 Stirred up anti-Russian feeling in the US as we moved back towards isolation
  51. 51. The “Iron Curtain”The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, anFrom Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behindiron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Easternthat line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
  52. 52. Winston Churchill •“…an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the Ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe…All are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence, but to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow.” March-1946
  53. 53. Iron Curtain Map
  54. 54. Weapons of the Cold War 1. Propaganda - win the hearts and minds of the Third World including UN 1. Which side has the best record of performance? 2. Which side has the best goals? 2. Diplomatic Moves - international conferences and military alliances 1. Which side seems most sincere and honest? 2. Which side is most concerned with the needs of the rest of the world? Least selfish? 3. Scientific competition - nuclear development, space race 1. Which side can provide the best future? 2. Which side would be the most dangerous to offend? 4. Economic Competition 1. Which country best provides for its own people? 2. Which country is most willing to share its wealth, through aid, with the rest of the world? 5. Espionage 1. Used to stay ahead of the other side 2. Used to embarrass the other side 6. Subversion - to weaken and overthrow governments that support the other side 1. Has been used by both the US and the USSR in about equal numbers since WWII 2. Secrecy is important because this action makes you look bad propaganda and espionage come into play
  55. 55. Cold War Europe Map
  56. 56. 58 In 1947, the United States adopted the policy of containment: keep communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggressive moves. Containment UNITED STATES VS USSR
  57. 57. Major Developments •George Kennan •“Long Telegram” in Feb. 1946 •Explained the Why of Their Behavior •Offered a Solution: Containment
  58. 58. Containment Policy - George F. Kennan - Architect - 7/47 -Officially defined Stop the spread of communism Meet Soviet economic and political challenge - long term Meet every crisis with equal reaction through confrontation - peace through strength Feb 22, 1946 - State Dept asked its Moscow delegation to report on Soviet behavior George Kennan (spent 5 years there) sent the "long telegram" (8000 word response) - Behavior was due to mistrust of West their insecurity (several attacks from West); WWII losses (20m dead, 25% industry destroyed) Soviets wanted "hegemony" in central Europe (buffer) Soviets had no real timetable for world conquest they would test us Russians respected strength - if we matched them they would back down If we showed weakness they would expand
  59. 59. Kennan would serve as the intellectual source of subsequent US foreign policy our policy would evolve rather slowly, reacting to Soviet actions George Kennan - July, 1947 (Foreign Affairs article,"The Sources of Soviet Conduct") advocated a long-term, patient, but firm and vigilant "containment" based on the use of counter-force as the best means of stopping the spread of communism Containment Policy assumed that collective force at Russia's perimeters would convince Russia to back down (surely didn't want another war) must strengthen the non-communist world (economically and militarily) Where would we draw the line to stop the Communist menace? What "weapons" would we use to fight the "cold war"? diplomacy, scientific and economic competition espionage, propaganda, world opinion, threats, other)
  60. 60. NATIONAL SECURITY ACT - 7/47 Created the Department of Defense (Army, Air Force, Navy) + Joint Chiefs of Staff Created the CIA - intelligence Created the National Security Council a. Pres. b. Cabinet c. Joint Chiefs of Staff Purpose - to broaden the power of the US government to fight communism
  61. 61. Postwar Europe
  62. 62. Postwar Europe Here…
  63. 63. 3) Europe: -Lay in ruins -Soviet controlled East Europe -Germany divided into East (Communist) and West (Democratic) Divided Berlin I. Post-WWII outcomes?
  64. 64. ***CONTAINMENT- do not let Communism spread, resist it! (Truman Doctrine- help “free peoples” resist Communism) III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy Harry Truman (1945-1953)
  65. 65. 69 ENDURING UNDERSTANDING • The Cold War led to the creation of global alliances that continue to impact the world today.
  66. 66. 70 • The United States was compelled to assist "free peoples" in their struggles against "totalitarian regimes" because the spread of authoritarianism would "undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States." • The Truman Doctrine committed the United States to actively offering assistance to preserve the political integrity of democratic nations when such an offer was deemed to be in the best interest of the United States. Truman Doctrine 1947
  67. 67. 71 Truman Doctrine: Legacy • In the words of the Truman Doctrine, it became "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." The Truman Doctrine effectively reoriented U.S. foreign policy, away from withdrawal and isolation to one of possible intervention in far away conflicts. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmQD_W8Pcxg&feature=PlayList&p=2287E59C541E7692&index=5
  68. 68. What If Russia Got Control?
  69. 69. The Truman Doctrine - 3/12/47 first use of Containment "It must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Advisors told Truman "to scare hell" out of American people, and appeal to our morality US gave $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey to prevent communist takeover Sec of State Dean Acheson warned that the fall of Greece and Turkey might open 3 continents to Soviet penetration! How could we respond without appearing overly aggressive; creating an isolationist backlash? Remember, the world is watching/evaluating the Cold War development! Truman was criticized for bypassing the UN (could have funneled money through it, perhaps) by 1950, US spent $659 million Soviets wanted control of the Dardanelles - they could have dominated
  70. 70. After WWII, Soviets putting pressure on Turkey for access to the Dardanelles (warm water port); US ambassador, Edwin Wilson warned that Turks could not withstand much pressure! We gave weapons and sent troops to practice war games US sent in the navy to threaten war - Dean Acheson (49% public supported) Simultaneously, civil war between Br-backed Greeks and Soviet- backed rebels in Greece (getting aid from Tito in Yugoslavia) (because it was a civil war, UN could not interfere) British told US that they could no longer afford to back the Greek government! Greeks could not afford to pay back a loan What would the US do? British pulled their troops out of Greece communist guerillas would have taken over without US action (56% public supported)
  71. 71. 75 • Greek Government vs Greek Communists • Truman requested that Congress provide $400,000,000 worth of aid to both the Greek and Turks to stave off communism in the region • Truman argued that a Communist victory in the Greek Civil War would endanger the political stability of Turkey, which would undermine the political stability of the Middle East. • This could not be allowed in light of the Truman Doctrine: Background
  72. 72. 76 Truman Doctrine•1947: British help Greek government fight communist guerrillas. –They appealed to America for aid, and the response was the Truman Doctrine. – America promised it would support free countries to help fight communism. – Greece received large amounts of arms and supplies and by 1949 had defeated the communists. •The Truman Doctrine was significant because it showed that America, the most powerful democratic country, was prepared to resist the spread of communism throughout the world.
  73. 73. Evaluate using the goals of US foreign policy as criteria - Was it the right decision? US bypassed UN and was accused of being imperialist Early version of the domino theory US gave $400 million in military assistance to Greece and Turkey - succeeded Strain on our resources and resolve Antagonized Soviets (further tension) It would become the "model" for much of the Cold War foreign policy...with worldwide implications Still, it was much cheaper than war! This gained public and Congressional support for Containment no turning back Hardened debate over German reunification and reparations Turned back threat to the Mediterranean - permanent naval presence
  74. 74. The Solution? •The Truman Doctrine—March ‘47 •Aid to countries wanting to resist Communism-pledged the U.S. would fight comm. worldwide •“It Will Be the Policy of the U.S. to Support Free People Who Are Resisting Attempted Subjugation by Outside Pressures” --Greece and Turkey
  75. 75. How to Reconstruct W. Europe? •The Marshall Plan—gave European nations American aid to rebuild their economies --Would Congress/the Public Support the Plan? •Economic Recovery Act Passed…
  76. 76. N A T O Communistic Warsaw Pact Communistic Warsaw Pact
  77. 77. Truman Doctrine [1947]Truman Doctrine [1947] 1.1. Civil War in Greece.Civil War in Greece. 2.2. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessionsTurkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles.in the Dardanelles. 3.3. The U. S. should support free peoples throughout theThe U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minoritiesworld who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples toor outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.work out their own destinies in their own way. 4.4. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
  78. 78. 83 • “The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” ~ George Marshall Marshall Plan 1948: Rebuild War-torn Europe
  79. 79. Marshall Plan [1948]Marshall Plan [1948] 1.1. ““European RecoveryEuropean Recovery Program.”Program.” 2.2. Secretary of State,Secretary of State, George MarshallGeorge Marshall 3.3. The U. S. should provide aid toThe U. S. should provide aid to allall European nations that need it.European nations that need it. This moveThis move is not against any countryis not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty,or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.desperation, and chaos. 1.1. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
  80. 80. The Marshall Plan - 6/5/47 - Secretary of State – George Marshall US had offered relief to prevent starvation immediately after WWII US worked through World Bank ($2.5b in loans) wiped out wartime loans still not enough to recover Europe (harsh winters) stagnation and mass starvation was a possibility Worldwide Depression could return Spring 1947 - Churchill described Europe as a "rubble heap", a "breeding ground for pestilence and hate" such conditions fostered the growth of communism; US had to help, but how? Communists making big gains in Italy and France Kennan suggested a broad aid program, free of ideological overtones to be offered to any country in need to help it recover June 5, 1947 - Sec of State, George Marshall outlined the European Recovery Program (ERP) "Our policy is directed not against country or doctrine, but against hunger, desperation, and chaos“
  81. 81. 92 Marshall Plan Aid to Europe 1948-1952
  82. 82. Told war-torn to submit a bill for its needs! 16 European nations formed the Committee of European Economic Cooperation submitted a plan calling for some $22b in US aid! US even offered aid to Soviets (refused) US offered economic aid to all of Europe to help them recover Knew the Communists would turn it down some satellites wanted to accept ordered not to - image Purpose - improve standard of living in Western Europe so that it would not become communist USSR would be much more dangerous with W. European technology $16-24 billion over 3 years (48-51) to 16 nations Congress was hesitant at first voted NO too expensive Set off a storm of debate at home; during the debate Soviets offered aid to its satellites, to be used against US imperialism
  83. 83. Marshall Plan- massive financial aid to rebuild Europe. George Marshall www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/georgecmarshall.h III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy
  84. 84. April, 1947 – Soviets rid Hungary of anticommunists in its government Soviets rigged elections in Hungary 8/31/47 Czechoslovakia subverted - 2/48 Both US and USSR withdrew 1945 Elections in 1946 gave communists only 38% 2/25/48 President Edward Benes resigned Jan Masaryk was assassinated 2 weeks later all resistance to the communist coup ended! Convinced Congress to support Marshall Plan (up public support to 57%) April 3, 1948 Congress passed the Economic Cooperation Act (Marshall Plan); appropriated $13 billion By 1951, West Europe was booming! Trade between US and Europe increased some 25% The threat of communist coups in Western Europe was ended! Precedent? It increased tensions between US and USSR!
  85. 85. 96 • A great humanitarian effort. • Secretary of State Marshall became the only military general ever to receive a Nobel Prize for peace. • The Marshall Plan also institutionalized and legitimized the concept of U.S. foreign aid programs, which have become a integral part of U.S. foreign policy. Marshall Plan: Legacy
  86. 86. 97 Marshall Plan • In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the Marshall Plan. –This was a massive economic aid plan for Europe to help it recover from the damage caused by the war. •There were two motives for this: – Helping Europe to recover economically would provide markets for American goods, so benefiting American industry. – A prosperous Europe would be better able to resist the spread of communism. This was probably the main motive. A poster promoting the Marshall Plan Secretary of State George Marshall.
  87. 87. * The U.S. gave over $12 billion in aid to European countries between 1948 and 1952, helping to improve their economies and lessen the chance of communist revolutions.
  88. 88. THE COLD WAR 0 500,000,000 1,000,000,000 1,500,000,000 2,000,000,000 2,500,000,000 3,000,000,000 England 2,826,000,000 France 2,445,000,000 Italy 1,316,000,000 West Germany 1,297,000,000 Netherlands 877,000,000 Austria 561,000,000 Belgium 547,000,000 THE MARSHALL PLAN
  89. 89. Before After Another Cornerstone?
  90. 90. German unification was delayed by USSR Original US plan was to turn Germany into an agricultural community - Morganthau Plan Removal of industry to fulfill this plan was to be used as reparations to rebuild USSR Despair and poverty perfect for communist takeover US decided to build it up instead to oppose communism we had to get Europe to accept this Let Germany have Marshall Plan aid Improve US economy Europe could produce practically nothing, nor buy anything US could produce, couldn't sell we needed Europe as a bastion against communism and as a trading partner
  91. 91. Could Stalin Block It?
  92. 92. It increased tensions between US and USSR! What other means would we use to stop communism? How far would we go? Encouraged economic unity which led to the Common Market - 1957 Stalin accused US of economic imperialism to control Western Europe Communist support in Western Europe declined Marshall Tito exiled 1948 from the communist block for accepting Marshall Plan aid when the Soviets could not overthrow him set an example others might follow - we ignored this
  93. 93. The Marshall Plan Rebuild European nations and stop the spread of communism
  94. 94. map/cold war Soviet Union/China and Allies…….. Containment: Stop the expansion of Communism in Asia and Europe US, Allied Nations and Allied colonies. 1950’s
  95. 95. Communist ExpansionCommunist Expansion A Chronology of Events Communist ExpansionCommunist Expansion A Chronology of Events China 1949 Soviet Union 1918 Korean War 1950 to 1953 Eastern Europe 1946 CONTAINMEN T Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift Berlin Blockade 1947-8
  96. 96. Post-WWII Germany
  97. 97. The three western sections of Germany and Berlin and created a West German government and announced a new currency. Stalin responded on June 24, 1948 by attempting to force the western allies out of Berlin altogether. He cut off rail and road access to the western side of the city and turned off electricity. Berlin Blockade: 24 June 1948 -12 May 1949
  98. 98. 112 The Berlin Crisis: June 1948-May 1949 • 1948: three western controlled zones of Germany united; grew in prosperity due to the Marshall Plan • West wanted East to rejoin; Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security. • June 1948: Stalin decided to gain control of West Berlin, which was deep inside the Eastern Sector – Cuts road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve it into submission • West responded by airlifting supplies to allow West Berlin to survive • May 1949: USSR admitted defeat, lifted blockade Map of Germany divided into zones after WWII Map of Berlin divided into zones after WWII A plane flies in supplies during the Berlin Airlift.
  99. 99. Standoff in Berlin - 6/24/48 - threatened to turn the Cold War hot! At Yalta, the decision to divide Germany was made Allies wanted to make Germany powerless, so it could not again do what it did! Rid Germany of Nazism (Nuremburg Trials) Reparations "in-kind" could be taken from zones of occupation Soviets took much industrial equipment, farm goods, even laborers By June, 1948 Soviets had established a communist government in their sector US, GB, Fr formed "Trizonia" announced plans to convene a constitutional assembly to establish a democratic republic for West Germany began currency reform and rebuilding Germany's economy so it could "stand alone"! USSR could not allow it! Stalin tried to use Berlin as a bargaining lever to force unification of Germany which would have given him a chance to spread communism into W. Germany Blockade - cut road and rail traffic into W. Berlin to starve city and force us to abandon it outnumbered us 10 to 1 located 60 to 100 mi. inside E. Germany 1st test of containment Allies had to use force or abandon reunification plans How could we avoid the use of force, and still feed the millions in West Berlin? Lucius Clay wanted to invade and take Germany over
  100. 100. Focus on Berlin • After World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops. Occupation zones after 1945. Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.
  101. 101. · In June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were joined into the nation of West Germany after the Soviets refused to end their occupation of Germany. Soviet blockade: West Germany East Germany West Berlin East Berlin
  102. 102. Iron CurtainIron Curtain –– A term used byA term used by Winston ChurchillWinston Churchill to describe theto describe the separating ofseparating of Those communistThose communist lands of Eastlands of East Europe from theEurope from the West.West.
  103. 103. · In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade. Eventual site of the Berlin Wall
  104. 104. Next Crisis: Germany
  105. 105. Improve your knowledge • The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
  106. 106. III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy Berlin Airlift (1948-49)- Soviets block access to west Berlin. Truman orders supplies airlifted. *2.3 million tons of supplies
  107. 107. • The United States and Great Britain mounted a massive airlift to keep the western sectors supplied with the 5000 tons of food per day and fuel that the city needed…and chocolate for children! Berlin Airlift Begins: June 25, 1948 Lt. Halvorsen dropping candy. He became known as the “candy bomber”.
  108. 108. Berlin Airlift for almost a year was the solution Operation Vittles - made us look like knights in shining armor world press coverage 321 days 270,000 flights (plane took off every 3 minutes!) $200m cost 2.5m tons of cargo dropped for the 2m Berliners made Soviets look awful starving children and women Russians couldn't afford to shoot down our planes - risk WW III in Russia Result May 12, 1949 - Soviets lifted the blockade; Berlin would remain a "trouble spot" in the future In May, Germany was divided - West (Bonn) and East (Berlin); Reunification in 1990
  109. 109. 123 Berlin Airlift 277,264 flights and 1.5 million tons of aid.
  110. 110. Germany Divided and Occupied • At the end of the war, the Allies had decided on a joint occupation of Germany and its capital, Berlin, with each of the four powers controlling a zone • In 1948, the Western powers formed an independent nation merging their three zones of Germany, forming West Germany
  111. 111. The Soviet Response • Soviets respond by closing off Berlin • They thought this move would force the West to back down from its control of West Berlin • All transportation in or out of Berlin was shut down • Berlin was under siege
  112. 112. • Instead of sending troops through the land corridor to Berlin, Truman ordered a massive airlift of supplies to its people • In May 1949, the Soviets lifted the blockade
  113. 113. This picture shows a small girl in West Berlin bringing home a ration of bread to her family. The bread was made from American flour that had been flown into West Berlin during the Berlin Airlift. Ironically the bread was wrapped in a Soviet newspaper. The newspaper's headline was demanding an end to the airlift.
  114. 114. Help!! Everything the Berliners needed to survive – from groceries to gasoline – would come to them only by air until the end of September 1949. The airlift lasted over 15 months and cost more than $224 million. During those many months a U.S. or British plane landed every few minutes at Berlin's central Tempelhof airfield and another airport that had been built just for the airlift. Over two million tons of goods were flown into Berlin.
  115. 115. Post-War GermanyPost-War Germany
  116. 116. 131 Division of Germany and Berlin
  117. 117. 132 • The Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, was formally created in September 1949. October 7th 1949 The German Democratic Republic, East Germany was set up by the Soviets Germany-Two Countries - 1949
  118. 118. 133 Two Capitols: Bonn and Berlin
  119. 119. 134 Divided Berlin
  120. 120. 135 Berlin-Deep in Soviet Germany
  121. 121. Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)
  122. 122. · President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin. Berlin Airlift · At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily.
  123. 123. Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)
  124. 124. Post-WWII Germany •West Germany formed in 1948 •Soviet response? •Berlin Airlift follows in June
  125. 125. Berlin Airlift 1948 •321 Days •270,000 Flights •2.5 Million Tons
  126. 126. Operation Toy Drop
  127. 127. Wiesbaden, Germany, July 6, 1948: Minus an propeller and trailing hay from its damaged fuselage, a C47 transport sits in a field after an accident on its way back from delivering food to Berlin. The pilots escaped with minor injuries after the plane grazed some trees and crashed as it approached the Wiesbaden airfield in bad weather. It was the first crash in the Berlin airlift, but by no means the last; by the time the effort to overcome the Soviet blockade of the city's Western section ended in September, 1949, 31 American and 39 British participants had been killed. However, the airlift's 278,228 flights succeeded in bringing 2,326,406 short tons of cargo into Berlin.
  128. 128. THE COLD WAR USSR Blockade ends Airlift wins The Soviet Union admitted defeat And lifted the blockade in May, 1949
  129. 129. Military Cooperation in Europe - NATO - 7/49 – Dean Acheson During the Berlin crisis, several things happened US sent B-29s to GB CIA trained agents sent to Germany and even Russia Tito broke with Stalin Collective security scheme developed In March, 1948 Brussels Pact (GB, FR, and Benelux countries) signed, creating a defensive alliance From that idea, sprang the idea for a larger organization North Atlantic Treaty Organization April, 1949 signed (ratified in July, 82-13) an "entangling alliance", an attack on one, an attack on all! 12 original members (US, Canada, Iceland and several Western European nations) In Oct, 1949 (after we learned that the Soviets had the bomb), Congress appropriated $1.5b to arm NATO D.D. Eisenhower recalled to active duty to command it Sent two divisions to Europe
  130. 130. The Berlin blockade provided compelling evidence that in order to deter the Soviets from further aggression, an alliance was necessary between nations of Western Europe and the United States. Why was NATO created?
  131. 131. NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization Defensive alliance between U.S. and Western Europe (1st time U.S. entered into peacetime military alliance) II. Cold War: Defined
  132. 132. North Atlantic Treaty Organization 4 April 1949 Military Alliance to counter Soviet expansion  Netherlands  Norway  Portugal  1952: Greece &  Turkey  1955: West Germany  1982: Spain  1990: Reunited Germany  Former Soviet Republics  Canada  Denmark  France  Iceland  Italy  United States  Belgium  Britain  Luxemburg Article 5: "an armed attack against one or more of the European signatories or the North American signatories, would be considered an attack against all of them".
  133. 133. Warsaw Pact, 1950- Defensive alliance between Soviet Union and Eastern European Countries. II. Cold War: Defined
  134. 134. NATO
  135. 135. Warsaw Pact - (began 1948-49 unofficially) 1955 - Soviet response to NATO (disbanded Mar 31, 1991) Should the US still protect Western Europe? Up until this point the US had relied on the Bomb and now discovered that it was not enough Key questions cost ($1.5 billion initially) - actually designed to save us money in the long run by having allies defer some of the cost entangling alliances rearming the Germans Cold War heated up
  136. 136. 151 NATO vs. Warsaw Pact 1949-1990
  137. 137. Warsaw Pact 1955 Warsaw Pact: organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe. Established May 14, 1955 in Warsaw, Poland USSR established in in response to NATO treaty Founding members: Albania (left in 1961 as a result of the Sino-Soviet split) Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Hungary Poland Romania USSR East Germany (1956)
  138. 138. North Atlantic Treaty Organization --April 1949-mutual defense alliance to come to members aid if attacked •Soviet Response? •The Warsaw Pact…military alliance of Eastern Europe countries
  139. 139. •What Grade Would You Give… •Establishment of the UN? •Containment Policy? •Truman Doctrine? •Marshall Plan? •Berlin Airlift? •Establishment of NATO? •Why – What’s Your Criteria?
  140. 140. Truman’s Second Term •Cold War Escalates… •Soviets Get the Bomb •1950-1953 - $5Ob Yearly! (2/3 of Our Entire Budget) •A Better Bomb!
  141. 141. atomic bomb •The world would now live with the threat of nuclear war. •Arms race between Soviet Union and U.S. who could build the most nuclear weapons. •U.S. would use nuclear weapons as a “deterrent” •Peace through strength…… •“nuclear diplomacy”
  142. 142. The Arms Race:The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?”A “Missile Gap?” } The Soviet UnionThe Soviet Union exploded its firstexploded its first A-bomb in 1949.A-bomb in 1949. } Now there wereNow there were two nucleartwo nuclear superpowers!superpowers!
  143. 143. An H-Bomb Explosion What Next?
  144. 144. The Fall of China Containment Shifts to Asia Rebuilding Japan Hot War in Korea Indochina How Would It Work There?
  145. 145. (1949)- Mao Zedong leads Communist takeover in China (rival to Soviet Union) REACTION: Increased fears of communist domination U.S. spent $3 million in support of Nationalist, Chiang Kai-shek, only to have failed! III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy
  146. 146. Cold War – Asia Revolution in China – shifted balance of power in Asia Chinese Civil War breaks out again Mao Zedong vs. Chiang Kai-shek US hoped to see Chiang Kai-shek win over Mao Tse-tung By 1947, full-scale civil war again We decided we could not save Chiang General George Marshall recommends aid to Chiang - myth that aid could have saved Chiang Truman refused to send combat troops would have been unpopular at home would have been too late would have threatened Europe Hoped Chiang would agree to "share" power with Mao Oct, 1949 - Mao - Peoples' Republic of China Chiang fled to Formosa (Taiwan) – Nationalist China Jan, 1950, USSR and PRC signed a 30 year mutual aid treaty blocked Red China's entry into the UN antagonizing a country with the largest market in the world US was prepared to abandon Chiang - then Korea Republicans accused Truman of giving China away We stepped up aid to "friendly" nations in Asia (Formosa, Vietnam, Philippines, Korea, Japan)
  147. 147. Mao’s Revolution: 1949Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2Who lost China? – A 2ndnd }} Power!Power!
  148. 148. • Chiang Kai-shek was the leader of the anticommunist Nationalists, supported by the United States • Chiang Kai-shek signing the UN charter Spread of the Communism: China
  149. 149. 165 • Communist Mao Zedong was victorious over Chiang Kai-shek • Establishment of the People's Republic of China • Maoist Phase 1949 – 1976 Spread of the Communism: China 毛泽东 Chairman Mao and his Little Red Book
  150. 150. Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong The Fall of China •Background •Renewal of Civil War •The Problem?
  151. 151. People have come together to support the Communist Party. Spread of the Communism: China
  152. 152. •The Solution? •Effect? Chiang Fled… P.R.C. U.S. Response?
  153. 153. THE COLD WAR SE ASIA The US would justify its foreign policy in SE Asia during the Cold War with the Domino Theory—if one country fell to Communism others would follow.
  154. 154. THE COLD WAR SE ASIA
  155. 155. NSC-68: U.S. National Security Report, 1950 *emphasizes Soviet aggression *calls for massive U.S. military buildup *US becomes Policeman of the World NSC 68 - 1/30/50 Full-scale buildup to stop the spread of communism we should become - Policeman of the World spend as much as we can afford on defense if the Russians try to keep up they will go broke first 20% of GNP - kept secret Recommended - Korean War made it a reality How is NSC-68 different from the Marshall Plan? How is NSC-68 the same as the Marshall Plan? III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy “The U.S.S.R.’s desire for World Domination requires not only this Republic but civilization itself to take a stand”
  156. 156. Truman's First Decision - should he recognize the new country of Vietnam under the leadership of Ho? September 2, 1945 - Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam independent after Japan defeated Ho Chi Minh quoted from US Declaration of Independence - Why? Ho Chi Minh asked for US aid to maintain independence 1. National self-determination - US allies 2. Containment Policy - are the Vietnamese communists? State Department urged President Truman to assure France that we would not oppose the recreation of French Indochina needed their help against USSR in Western Europe Truman agreed - took a position of pro-French neutrality The French and Vietnamese negotiated for more than a year without getting any closer French recognized Ho Chi Minh who sought compromise promised free elections, but changed their mind Would non-violence have worked against the French? i.e. - Gandhi First American to die - A. Peter Dewey (9/26/45) June 1946 - Ho Chi Minh asked US to help keep the French out offered to open Vietnam up to US investment offered naval base at Cam Ranh Bay We rejected offer - was this the right decision? Should we have valued national self- determination over our fear of communism? Was French aid that critical in 1946?
  157. 157. First French Indochina War (1946-1954) Truman chose to maintain neutrality after the war began 12/19/46 - the French had returned and the war for independence from the French continued Some in the US disapproved the French return - Why? Ho Chi Minh retreated into the countryside and avoided major engagements preferring to wear the French down while building support among the people and fighting a guerrilla war *The US took a neutral stand at 1st trying to encourage the French to make concessions Bao Dai was put back on the throne as a puppet - 6/5/48 - no popular appeal Ho Chi Minh received little/no aid from the communist countries Three Events in 1949 Berlin Crisis - Blockade/Airlift - 1948-49 USSR detonated the bomb Mao defeated Chiang - China became communist Monolithic Communism Key Assumption made throughout Vietnam was that all communist nations take their orders from Moscow. All were part of a communist plot to take over the world. Was Ho Chi Minh a Russian puppet, taking orders from Moscow? We continued to act based on this assumption. Domino Theory If Vietnam falls Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Iran and the Middle East, North Africa, and the Mediterranean would follow If Vietnam falls Malaya, Burma, the Philippines, Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand and Japan would follow
  158. 158. Truman's Second Decision - The Recognition of Bao Dai and the extension of military aid to France Why did Truman switch from neutrality to support for the French? China and the Soviet Union recognized the Viet Minh in 1/50 Secretary of State - Dean Acheson - found confirmation of monolithic communist takeover February 1950 - Truman - recognized Bao Dai May 15, 1950 - made the decision to extend military aid to the French when formally requested to do so by France $15 million in the 1st month Korean War was expanded to include China 11/50 Evidence of communist conspiracy? significance - beginning of US involvement Should we have remained neutral? Should we have sided with Ho? Was this the key commitment to Vietnam? Was it the point of no return? Was it a good decision?
  159. 159. Japan •What to Do about Japan? •U.S. Occupation – 1945 – 1951 •General McArthur in charge •Rebuilt Japan—rapid recovery
  160. 160. 2) Japan: -Occupied by American forces -Adopts democratic form of government (MacArthur Const.) -Resumed self-gov’t -Ally of U.S. Look on the bottom of your grandparent’s figurines to see if they were made in “occupied Japan.” I. Post-WWII outcomes?
  161. 161. Building a New Japan (Sep. 1949) - As China was falling, we learned that the Soviets had developed an atomic bomb the whole complexion of the Cold War changed! US built up Japanese economy as counterweight to communism in Asia Truman decided not to allow Soviets any say in reconstruction 1951 - treaty with Japan US troops under MacArthur, who ran the country ending occupation in 1952 ended occupation, but got right to a base in Okinawa and reserved the right to station in Japan if needed in 1956 - Japan joined UN Today we still have 50,000 troops in Japan Helped them to further develop peaceful industry (i.e. autos etc.) Showcase what free enterprise can do in Asia - success surprised even US We provided protection out of fear of Japanese imperialism In Europe, containment worked well, in Asia it was more expensive and less effective V-J Day found Asia in shambles! Communists poised all over!
  162. 162. Korea •At War’s End – Divided at 38th Parallel—was Japan’s before •By Late 40s… •Two Koreas: •North – Kim Il Sun (Comm.) •South – Dr. Sygnman Rhee
  163. 163. War in Korea •Limited War •Strategy? •Key Events? •Results?
  164. 164. •1950 to 1953, North Korea invades South Korea. •North Korea was a communist nation and South Korea was a democracy. •First war of “containment”“containment” policy to stop communism •““Police Action”Police Action” not a declared war •President Truman leads United Nations. •General Douglas MacArthur commands US and UN troops. •Called “forgotten war”.
  165. 165. (June, 1950) Communist North Korea invades across the 38th parallel, attacking democratic South Korea III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy Apply Cold War policy: What should be the main objective in the Korean War? Korean War (1950-1953):
  166. 166. U.N. troops (made up of 90% Americans) defend South Korea Led by Douglas MacArthur III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy
  167. 167. Truman vs. MacArthurTruman vs. MacArthur •Truman fires General MacArthur when he advises Truman he would use nuclear weapons against the Chinese.
  168. 168. U.N. Security Council meets to discuss Korean Crisis Who is accused of aiding the North Koreans? What are some of the key questions before the U.N.?
  169. 169. •Stalemate by 1953. •Pres. Eisenhower negotiated an end to war •Divided at 38th parallel •Communism contained •Remains divided today
  170. 170. 300,000 Communist Chinese troops come into war on side of North Korea III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy
  171. 171. Results of Korean War: Stalemate at 38th parallel 54,000 Americans die Billions of Dollars spent THINK: Was the objective of the Korean War achieved? Should more have been done? III. Cold War: Harry Truman --- Foreign Policy
  172. 172. Korea Divided Controlled by Japan 1910-1945 38th parallel - boundary at the end of WWII Douglas MacArthur - Supreme Allied Commander in the Pacific including S. Korea N. Korea was under Soviet influence 1948 - 2 separate governments - UN could not unite S. Korea - Syngman Rhee - elected (dictatorship) recognized as the legal government by the UN Kim Il-Sung head of communist N. Korea (dictatorship) Both wanted to reunite N and S - by force Border skirmishes began Both US and USSR withdrew their own troops after training and arming armies 1/12/50 The US announced that Korea was not in our defense perimeter - an invitation to invade
  173. 173. 192 • The Korean War: when the Cold War became a global conflict. • Mindful that a full-scale nuclear exchange would be a disaster for both sides, the superpowers fought each other through a variety of proxy wars and "shadow struggles" in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, and dozens of other places. • No global third world war has yet to take place. Spread of the Cold War: Proxy Wars
  174. 174. 193 • In 1945, Korea was freed from the Japanese. • The country was split in half at the 38th parallel. • The two countries hated each other. North Korea Kim Il Sung Communist South Korea Syngman Rhee Capitalist Spread of the Communism: Korea
  175. 175. 194 • The Korean War began when the Communist government of North Korea, allied with the Soviet Union and tried to take over South Korea. U.N. Police Action In Korea: 1950-1953 Chinese Soldiers
  176. 176. 195 • The first military clash of the Cold War and the first United Nations-sanctioned conflict • Technically American troops weren’t fighting the Korean War-The United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’. • The U.S. was the most important and richest country in the U.N. so it sent the most troops and supplied most of the U.N. Police Action In Korea: 1950-1953
  177. 177. 6/25/50 N. Korea invaded with USSR support Stalin wanted to embarrass China Stalin wanted to warn Japan to stay neutral Truman called a special meeting of the UN Security Council UN Security Council voted to call for a cease fire and then a police action quickly - saved them USSR was boycotting because Communist China was not admitted to the UN
  178. 178. June, 1950 – N. K. Invaded S.K. •What to Do? •United Nations Decision? •The First “Limited War” or International “Police Action” Peace treaty signed in July 1953 -35,000 U.S. soldiers dead -spread comm. fight to Asia -caused major military buildup in US
  179. 179. Hot War in Korea…
  180. 180. Gen. Douglas MacArthur •Commander of UN Forces Fired by Truman •Why? •Impact?
  181. 181. •Not Popular
  182. 182. 202
  183. 183. 203 • The United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’. • Declared a ‘police action’ because US operated under the UN. • The US sent the most troops and supplied most of the weapons. Korean War: A UN Police Action
  184. 184. 204 • General Douglas MacArthur - Supreme Commander of UN Forces Korean War
  185. 185. 205 A grief stricken American infantryman whose buddy has been killed in action is comforted by another soldier. In the background a corpsman methodically fills out casualty tags, Haktong-ni area, Korea. August 28, 1950. Sfc. AlChang. (Army) Korean War
  186. 186. 206 China Enters the Korean War
  187. 187. 207 Korean War: A Police Action • Back and forth across the 38th Parallel • The ‘see-saw’ of the Korean War.
  188. 188. 208 KoreanWar1950-53
  189. 189. Uneasy Peace: The Korean War
  190. 190. The Korean War, dubbed the “Forgotten War” by some historians and veterans, was one of the bloodiest in modern history. Over just three years, one million South Korean civilians were killed, while millions more became homeless. Another half million U.N. troops died; casualties of Communist troops topped 1.6 million more….
  191. 191. Buddies aid wounded man of 24th Infantry Regiment
  192. 192. After numerous attempts to arrive at a permanent peace treaty, negotiations broke down in 1954 without a plan. A peace treaty has never been signed as of today. And the division of a Communist North Korea and a democratic South Korea remains a troubling status quo for Asian and world politics…
  193. 193. The Beginning: • The Korean peninsula had been controlled by Japan since 1895, but with the defeat of Japan in World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union occupied the area until elections could be arranged for the establishment of an independent Korean nation…
  194. 194. However, the Soviets refused to conduct elections in the northern half of the country, which they occupied. The elections went on, as scheduled in the south, with the creation of the Republic of South Korea in 1948.
  195. 195. The Korean Conflict • In June of 1950, North Korean troops invaded South Korea • President Truman appointed General MacArthur to command all UN troops in Korea and ordered U.S. military forces to Korea without asking Congress to declare war
  196. 196. Corporal John Simms of Bradbury Heights, Maryland, is shown bidding his wife, Ann, and their 8 month old son, John Jr., goodbye as he leaves for Korea, 1950.
  197. 197. Leatherneck machine gun crew dug in for the night in Korea.
  198. 198. Men of the 4.2 mortar crew, 31st Heavy Mortar Company fire at enemy position, west of Chorwon, Korea.
  199. 199. Private First Class Roman Prauty, a gunner with 31st Regimental Combat Team, with the assistance of his gun crew, near Oetlook-tong, Korea.
  200. 200. Men of the 24th Infantry Regiment move up to the firing line in Korea.
  201. 201. Catching up on his letters to the folks at home during a break in action is Private First Class Dwight Exe, 5th Cavalry Regiment.
  202. 202. MacArthur would be relieved of his command.
  203. 203. Armistice • years of fighting produced a stalemate in Korea • A cease-fire was declared in 1953 that left the country as divided as before the war
  204. 204. • Results: – U.S. lost more than 54,000 troops – caused many neutral nations to draw closer to the U.S.
  205. 205. A grief stricken American infantryman whose buddy has been killed in action is comforted by another soldier. In the background a corpsman fills out casualty tags, Haktong-ni, Korea.
  206. 206. Chaplain Kenny Lynch conducts services north of Hwachon, Korea, for men of 31st Regiment.
  207. 207. Marines of the First Marine Division pay their respects to fallen buddies during memorial services at the division's cemetery at Hamhung, Korea.
  208. 208. Seemingly endless file of Korean refugees slogs through snow outside of Kangnung.
  209. 209. An aged Korean woman pauses in her search for salvageable materials among the ruins of Seoul, Korea.
  210. 210. Homeless, this brother and sister search empty cans for morsels of food, and try to keep warm beside a small fire in the Seoul, Korea, railroad yards.
  211. 211. With her brother on her back a war weary Korean girl tiredly trudges by a stalled M-26 tank.
  212. 212. He returns…..again….. • UN forces were pushed all the down the Korean peninsula until MacArthur staged a surprise landing at Inchon • MacArthur was given authority to unite all of Korea and he ordered troops to push North • Chinese troops come to aid the North Koreans
  213. 213. Troops of the 31st Infantry Regiment land at Inchon Harbor.
  214. 214. 234
  215. 215. 235 • Heavy fighting continued throughout the first half of 1953 • The Armistice was suddenly signed on July 27th , 1953. • U.S. signed the peace deal with North Korea and China • North and South Korea have never officially signed any peace pact, it is only considered a truce. • Technically, the Korean War is still going on today. Korean War Ends (or does it?)
  216. 216. 236 • South Korea remained free of communism • Containment had worked • US continued presence: DMZ: Demilitarized Zone • Still two separate nations today. Kim Jung Il leads an impoverish and backward country where his people are starving and freezing to death. • About 28,500 U.S. troops are currently stationed in South Korea. Efforts are underway to recover thousands of US MIAs • According to a 2003 agreement, US troops will eventually be will be moved farther south Korean War: Who Wins?
  217. 217. 237 The Human Cost
  218. 218. 238 What is this?
  219. 219. Cold War - Middle East / Third World Iran Ultimatum 3/6/46 Soviet troops were there to protect lend-lease shipments were suppose to withdraw by the end of 1946 - they did not Nov, 1945 - USSR initiated a revolt over Azerbaijan (wanted oil concessions) wanted guarantee of oil shipments At first US used UN as a vehicle to thwart Soviet actions Jan - Iran protested to UN (it urged them to settle it) Mar - withdrawal deadline passed, Soviets still had troops US protested to UN, world opinion went against Soviets US threatened USSR and the UN publicized Soviet refusal to leave they left This lacked public support at home - too much of a risk of war May - Soviets withdrew troops however, it got autonomy for Azerbaijan and oil concessions we convinced Iran to take back the oil concessions which led to Soviet resentment! Lesson - take a firm stand, Soviets will back down!
  220. 220. Creation of Israel - 1948 1. Palestine - 5/14/48 - British gave to Jews reluctantly 2. US and USSR recognized immediately to prevent UN action 3. Arabs invaded - Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia defeated by Israel Palestine disappeared - Palestinian refugee problem created Arabs humiliated - will want revenge source of current Middle East problems with Israel 4. Ralph Bunche - UN truce 1949 - Noble Peace Prize 5. British withdrew 6/56
  221. 221. • 44’: Bretton Woods, NH – IMF & World Bank (we’re taking charge!) – Currency regulated based on the $ standard – Development funds for “third-world” countries • 45’: S.F., CA (we rule!) – the U.N. Charter – N.Y. HQ set up; Big 5 Security Council – Peace-keeping, world wars never again, WHO, etc. – How about nukes? • 48’: Israel and the 15 min. window 1944+ - New Int’l Ties/Frames/Paradigms (we no longer hate the world!) World Bank HQ;
  222. 222. THE COLD WAR One of the early acts of the UN was to establish the world’s only Jewish state, Israel, in 1947. It was formed out of what had been Palestinian (Arab) territory. Jews and Arabs had been foes since Biblical times.
  223. 223. THE COLD WAR The Palestinian’s, who were Arabs, were given the smaller area. The Arabs rejected the plan. This formed the basis of bad feelings in the Middle East that continues today.
  224. 224. Point Four Program - 1/49 In his Second Term inaugural address, Truman announced a broad foreign policy plan, based on four points The United Nations The Marshall Plan NATO Point Four - a plan for giving technical and economic aid to developing nations all over the world to make them less susceptible to communism economic, and technical aid to 3rd world to prevent communism $400 million - primarily LA
  225. 225. In his inauguration speech on January 20, 1949, President Truman stated the fourth objective of his foreign policy as follows: the Point Four Program: 1.UN 2. Marshall Plan 3. NATO 4. Point Four – Aid to Third World "we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and skill to relieve suffering of these people. The United States is pre-eminent among nations in the development of industrial and scientific techniques. The material resources which we can afford to use for assistance of other peoples are limited. But our imponderable resources in technical knowledge are constantly growing and are inexhaustible."
  226. 226. The Point Four Program = a technical assistance program for "developing countries.” The Truman administration came up with the idea for a technical assistance program as a means to win the "hearts and minds“ of the developing world. By sharing US know-how in various fields, especially agriculture, industry and health, officials could help "third world" nations on the development path, raise the standard of living, and show that democracy and capitalism could provide for the welfare of the individual. This was not a call for economic aid--on the order of the Marshall Plan, but for the US to share its "know-how" and help nations develop with technical assistance. The program was approved by Congress on June 5, 1950 in the Foreign Economic Assistance Act, which allotted to the program a budget of $ 25,000,000 in its first year.
  227. 227. Describing the new program, Truman noted that, "Communist propaganda holds that the free nations are incapable of providing a decent standard of living for the millions of people in under-developed areas of the earth. The Point Four program will be one of our principal ways of demonstrating the complete falsity of that charge.“ Congress approved on October 27, 1950 The Technical Cooperation Administration (TCA) was established within The Department of State to run the Point Four program. Required bilateral agreements with the US government in order to receive Aid under the program. The first government to receive aid was Iran, on October 19, 1950. Point Four Program was different from other programs in that it was not confined to any specific region. Point Four Program was the first US plan for international economic development.
  228. 228. Evaluation •Add to Your List… •NSC #68? •China? •Japan? •Korea?
  229. 229. •The Second Red Scare •The Evidence?
  230. 230. •About 80,000 Communists in U.S. •Truman’s Actions?
  231. 231. •Loyalty Review Board--FBI (3m Investigated, 212 Dismissed, 2,000 Resigned under pressure) •Never Found a Spy Network •HUAC Hearings (House Un-American Activities Comm.) – to Find Commies in the govt. and to “De-Communize” Hollywood
  232. 232. HUAC at Work...
  233. 233. •1947 investigation led to prison sentences for contempt known as the Hollywood Ten.Hollywood Ten. •Blacklisted:Blacklisted: a list of persons who are under suspicion, disfavor, or censure, or who are not to be hired, served, or otherwise accepted. red scare3
  234. 234. The Hiss Case Alger Hiss
  235. 235. Busted in 1950!
  236. 236. •Klaus Fuchs (Brit) •Atomic Spy •He Named Names •Including… Also in 1950…
  237. 237. NATO •Soviets detonate theirSoviets detonate their first atomic bomb…..first atomic bomb….. •The question is raised, where did they get the technology the bomb? •Ethel and Julius Rosenberg would be accused of giving away atomic bomb secrets. •Charged with espionage they would be found guilty and executed in 1953.
  238. 238. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
  239. 239. Propaganda Campaign •Book Burnings •Hysteria… •New Laws… •And More!
  240. 240. •Communists Had to Register (A.G.) •Barred from Working in Some Jobs •Had to Publish All Records •Could arrest and detain Comm. or Comm. sympathizers •Truman vetoed it but still passed
  241. 241. McCarthyism  Claimed 205 communists working for State Department  Attacked wealthy & privileged—popular appeal  Even Eisenhower wouldn’t challenge him  Army hearings in 1954 televised McCarthy exposed as a bully (“reckless cruelty”
  242. 242. •Joseph McCarthy Headed a Senate Committee •“McCarthyism” -damaged reputations with vague and unfounded charges *People afraid to challenge him—why?
  243. 243. •Red ScareRed Scare was Americans response to the fear of Communism •Senator Joseph McCarthyJoseph McCarthy accused 205 US Govt. officials of being Communist. •McCarthyismMcCarthyism to destroy or assassinate one’s character without proof and it ruined the careers of many Americans. red scare Became a witch huntwitch hunt that led to Americans pledging a “loyalty oathloyalty oath” to the United States…….
  244. 244. Later He Would Claim That the Army Was Infiltrated…Army-McCarthy Hearings—1954
  245. 245. The Domestic Cold War •The Second Red Scare •Loyalty Review Board •HUAC •The Hiss Case •The Rosenbergs •The McCarran Act •McCarthyism
  246. 246. Joseph McCarthy at Work
  247. 247. 274 • The Nuremberg Trials took place November 21, 1945 to October 1, 1946 Determined the fates of 22 Nazi officials who played a role in the holocaust. War Crimes Trials
  248. 248. 275 • The Nuremberg trials had a great influence on the development of international criminal law such as: • Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The Geneva Convention, and many others. War Crimes Trials Legacy
  249. 249. 276 • Issued by the United Nations in 1948 The first global expression of rights to which all human beings are entitled Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  250. 250. THE COLD WAR In June, 1945, just after the German surrender but before V-J Day, the United Nations was formed. This time the US led the way. The main purpose of the UN was to promote world peace and protect member nations from aggressors.
  251. 251. THE COLD WAR USSR The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics GOALS  Shield itself from future invasions  Keep Germany divided  Rebuild its economy  Spread communism  Control Eastern Europe  Balance of power with the US
  252. 252. THE COLD WAR USSR IRON CURTAIN SPEECH “…an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe…” Winston Churchill, 1946 In the Iron Curtain speech, the US was warned by Churchill that the Soviet Union was taking over Eastern Europe as part of a plot to take over the world.
  253. 253. THE COLD WAR USSR Iron Curtain became the term for the division of Europe into the Democratic Western Europe and Communist controlled Eastern Europe. Churchill saw it coming but the US did not.
  254. 254. THE COLD WAR USSR The Soviet Union eventually controlled many satellite nations including: Czechoslovakia East Germany Poland Yugoslavia
  255. 255. THE COLD WAR USSRThe US responded to Soviet expansion with a policy of containment—preventing the spread of Communism in the world by blocking Soviet influence. Weapons of the Cold War  Propaganda  Technology  Threat of force  Economic aid
  256. 256. THE COLD WAR TRUMAN DOCTRINE “I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures” Truman, 1947 The US would support free people who were resisting communism in Greece and Turkey and anywhere else.
  257. 257. THE COLD WAR The Marshall Plan A program of economic aid to help many European nations recover from the war and avoid another depression
  258. 258. THE COLD WAR USSR The USSR was determined to keep Germany weak and divided US, France and England withdrew their forces from Germany and the nation of West Germany was formed from their sector. Berlin was still divided. In 1948, the USSR tried to force out the US and its allies by blockading West Berlin and not letting food or supplies get in.
  259. 259. THE COLD WAR USSR Stalin hoped this would frighten the west into giving up their side of Berlin and not try to reunite the country. To break the blockade, the US and Britain began the Berlin Airlift. For 11 months, planes landed and took off every 3 minutes. There were 277,000 flights that brought in food, fuel, medicine and Christmas presents.
  260. 260. THE COLD WAR USSR Order of Events in Berlin Blockade Airlift Berlin Wall Building of the Berlin Wall
  261. 261. THE COLD WAR USSR In response to the growing Soviet aggression, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed to protect Western Europe from invasion by Russia.
  262. 262. THE COLD WAR USSR The Soviet Union viewed this as a threat and created a military alliance of its own including its Eastern European allies called the Warsaw Pact.
  263. 263. THE COLD WAR USSR The Cold War heated up when the USSR developed the atomic bomb in 1949. A nuclear arms race began with both nations developing ever more powerful weapons. In addition to the US and USSR, India, Pakistan and China would develop nuclear weapons.
  264. 264. THE COLD WAR CHINA Communists Triumph in China Before WWII, the Chinese were engaged in a Civil War. The Long March pushed the Communists to northwestern China. With the help of the peasants, the Communists won on the Mainland of China. Mao Zedong was the first dictator of Communist China.
  265. 265. THE COLD WAR CHINA The Nationalists, non- communists, established a homeland on the island of Taiwan and were led by Chiang Kai-Shek. There were now two Chinas: The People Republic of China (Communist) and Nationalist China. Taiwan – Nationalist China China - PRC
  266. 266. THE COLD WAR SE ASIA At the end of WWII, Korea became a divided nation. Japanese in the north surrendered to the Soviets and North Korea became a communist nation. The dictator of N. Korea for almost 50 years was Kim II Sung. Japanese in the south surrendered to the US and South Korea became a republic.
  267. 267. THE COLD WAR SE ASIA The dividing line was the 38th parallel. 38th parallel From 1950 to 1953 the UN (including the US) fought a war to keep the Communists from taking over South Korea. Douglas MacArthur was the commander of the UN forces
  268. 268. THE COLD WAR SE ASIA The Korean War ended with an armistice and a stalemate. General Douglas MacArthur was discharged by President Truman for insubordination. He tried to use the press and Congress to go over the President’s head to get approval for the use of nuclear weapons against China.
  269. 269. THE COLD WAR During the 1950’s and 1960’s, many colonies in Africa and Asia became independent. These were underdeveloped and were called Third World nations. They were often unaligned and both the US and the Soviet Union tried to gain influence.
  270. 270. THE COLD WAR SE ASIA Viet Nam was a French colony. Ho Chi Minh turned to the communists to help lead revolts. Like Korea, Viet Nam became a divided country with the Communists in control of the north and a republic, supported by the US, in the south.
  271. 271. NNorthorth AAtlantictlantic TTreatyreaty OOrganizationrganization (1949)(1949)  United StatesUnited States  BelgiumBelgium  BritainBritain  CanadaCanada  DenmarkDenmark  FranceFrance  IcelandIceland  ItalyItaly  LuxemburgLuxemburg  NetherlandsNetherlands  NorwayNorway  PortugalPortugal  1952: Greece &1952: Greece & TurkeyTurkey  1955: West Germany1955: West Germany  1983: Spain1983: Spain
  272. 272. Warsaw Pact (1955)Warsaw Pact (1955) } U. S. S. R.U. S. S. R. } AlbaniaAlbania } BulgariaBulgaria } CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia } East GermanyEast Germany } HungaryHungary } PolandPoland } RumaniaRumania
  273. 273. Premier Nikita KhrushchevPremier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalistAbout the capitalist states, it doesn'tstates, it doesn't depend on youdepend on you whether wewhether we (Soviet Union) exist.(Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us,If you don't like us, don't accept ourdon't accept our invitations, and don'tinvitations, and don't invite us to comeinvite us to come to see you. Whetherto see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on ouryou like it our not, history is on our side.side. We will bury youWe will bury you. -- 1956. -- 1956 De-StalinizationDe-Stalinization ProgramProgram
  274. 274. An Historic Irony: SergeiAn Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American CitizenKhrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?Who buried who?
  275. 275. The Korean War: A “PoliceThe Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953)Action” (1950-1953) Syngman RheeSyngman Rhee Kim Il-SungKim Il-Sung ““Domino Theory”Domino Theory”
  276. 276. Truman Doctrine [1947]Truman Doctrine [1947] 1.1. Civil War in Greece.Civil War in Greece. 2.2. Turkey under pressure from theTurkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in theUSSR for concessions in the Dardanelles.Dardanelles. 3.3. The U. S. should support freeThe U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world whopeoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armedwere resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…Weminorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work outmust assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.their own destinies in their own way. 4.4. The U.S. gave Greece & TurkeyThe U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.$400 million in aid.
  277. 277. Marshall Plan [1948]Marshall Plan [1948] 1.1. ““European RecoveryEuropean Recovery Program.”Program.” 2.2. Secretary of State,Secretary of State, George MarshallGeorge Marshall 3.3. The U. S. should provideThe U. S. should provide aid toaid to allall European nationsEuropean nations that need it. This movethat need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine,is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation,but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.and chaos. 4.4. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe &Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].USSR, [but this was rejected].
  278. 278. Origins of the Cold War • U.S.-Soviet Relations to 1945 • Allies in World War II • Postwar Cooperation – the U.N • Satellite States in Eastern Europe • Occupation Zones in Germany • Iron Curtain
  279. 279. NATO •Mao Tse Tung, defeats Chang Kai Shek in the Chinese Civil War….. •China became a communistic country. •Chang Kai Shak is exiled to Taiwan. •Mao Tse Tung becomes the Communistic leader of China. •US believed there was a communistic plot to rule the world Mao Tse Tung Chang Kai Shek
  280. 280. 308 The Cold War 1945-1990 US vs. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Democracy vs. Communism Capitalism vs. Socialism
  281. 281. 309 US/USSR Relationship during WWII • 1939: Stalin (USSR) makes a deal with Hitler (Germany). • 1941: Hitler breaks deal and attacks USSR. • Stalin changes sides and fights with US and other allies.
  282. 282. 310 US/USSR Relationship during WWII • Before the end of the World War II, Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met at Yalta to plan what should happen when the war ended. They agreed on many points: 1. The establishment of the United Nations 2. Division of Germany into four zones 3. Free elections allowed in the states of Eastern Europe 4. Russia’s promise to join the war against Japan No agreement was reached on Poland. Winston Churchill (England), Franklin Roosevelt (US) and Joseph Stalin (USSR) meet in Yalta in 1945 to decide the fate of post-war Europe.
  283. 283. 311 Cold War Characteristics • Political, strategic and ideological struggle between the US and the USSR that spread throughout the world • Struggle that contained everything short of war • Competing social and economic ideologies
  284. 284. 312 Key Concept: How did the Cold War affect the domestic and foreign policies of the United States? Domestic Policies: •1. McCarthyism •2. HUAC –House Un-American Activities Committee •3. Loyalty oaths •4. Blacklists •5. Bomb shelters Foreign Policies: •1. Korean War •2. Arms Race •3. Truman Doctrine •4. Eisenhower Doctrine Actors and writers protest the Hollywood Blacklist. A 1950s era bomb shelter
  285. 285. 313 Key Concept: What were the six major strategies of the Cold War? The six major strategies were: •1. Brinkmanship, •2. Espionage, •3. Foreign aid, •4. Alliances, •5. Propaganda, •6. Surrogate wars. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1.
  286. 286. 314 Senator Joe McCarthy (1908-1957)• McCarthy, a Republican senator from Wisconsin, did the most to whip up anti- communism during the ‘50s. • On February 9, 1950, he gave a speech claiming to have a list of 205 Communists in the State Department. • No one in the press actually saw the names on the list. • McCarthy continued to repeat his groundless charges, changing the number from speech to speech. • During this time, one state required pro wrestlers to take a loyalty oath before stepping into the ring. • In Indiana, a group of anti-communists indicted Robin Hood (and its vaguely socialistic message that the book's hero had a right to rob from the rich and give to the poor) and forced librarians to pull the book from the shelves. • Baseball's Cincinnati Reds renamed themselves the "Redlegs." Cincinnati Redlegs primary logo in use from 1954-1959
  287. 287. 315 McCarthy’s Downfall • In the spring of 1954, the tables turned on McCarthy when he charged that the Army had promoted a dentist accused of being a Communist. • For the first time, a television broadcast allowed the public to see the Senator as a blustering bully and his investigations as little more than a witch hunt. • In December 1954, the Senate voted to censure him for his conduct and to strip him of his privileges. • McCarthy died three years later from alcoholism. • The term "McCarthyism" lives on to describe anti- Communist fervor, reckless accusations, and guilt by association. Movie poster for the 2005 film Good Night and Good Luck about the fall of Joseph McCarthy Arthur Miller’s play The Crucible was on the surface about the Salem Witch Trials. It’s real target, though, was the hysterical persecution of innocent people during McCarthyism. (poster for 1996 film version)
  288. 288. 316 Arms Race • Cold War tensions increased in the US when the USSR exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949. • Cold War tensions increased in the USSR when the US exploded its first hydrogen bomb
  289. 289. Two sides of Cold War • NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization • USA, France, Great Britain, West Germany • CAPITALISMCAPITALISM • Warsaw Pact – pro Soviet countries – USSR, and all countries controlled by the USSR. • COMMUNISM
  290. 290. Cold War • The Cold War was a time after WW2 when the USA and the Soviet Union were rivals for world influence.
  291. 291. NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  292. 292. Marshall Plan USA’s plan to send food, blankets, fuel to Europe to help them. AND to keep them from turning communist.
  293. 293. Berlin blockade led to Berlin Airlift
  294. 294. Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting” communism. This led to containment – policy of containing communism where it is.
  295. 295. Domino Theory Communism spreads like a disease
  296. 296. Korea and Vietnam • USA tried to contain communism. In both wars, communist troops fought armies trained and funded by the USA.
  297. 297. Communists invaded from the north. China sent a million troops to help reds.
  298. 298. Korean War • After the failure of the promise of Korean independence by the Allied nations, on June 25, 1950, communist North Korean troops invaded South Korea. Poorly armed, the South Koreans were no match for the North. The United Nations ordered North Korea to withdraw its troops. General MacArthur was appointed to command all UN troops in Korea. After three years of fighting a stalemate, more than 54,000 American troops perished.
  299. 299. What is the United Nations?
  300. 300. United Nations • International Organization where countries try to find peaceful solutions
  301. 301. United Nations • It has no army but uses troops from other countries.
  302. 302. The Division of Berlin
  303. 303. The Bipolarization of Europe
  304. 304. George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application 1.Restoration of the balance of power 2.Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power. Encouragement of self- confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion. Exploitation of tensions in international communism. Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan] Cooperation with communist regimes; [supporting Titoism in Yugoslavia]
  305. 305. 3.Modification of the Soviet concept of international relations. Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences. Using “carrots & sticks’; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length. George Kennan [“X Article”]: CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application
  306. 306. National Defense Budget [1940-1964]
  307. 307. Korean War [1950-1953]
  308. 308. Korean War [1950-1953] Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung “Domino Theory”
  309. 309. The Shifting Map of Korea [1950-1953]
  310. 310. Reconstructing the World & The Cold War’s Fiery Start: 1944-61’ (at least w/me, but really to 89’? 91’? Present?) It seems like we’re always trying to reconstruct something
  311. 311. • 44’: Harry Truman, the A- bombs, and the 46’ Atomic Energy Act? • Or, 43’ and FDR at Tehran; W. African campaign? • Or, how about 1919, the White Army in Murmansk and Archangel? So, Where do We Begin?
  312. 312. • The Soviet Dream – 20 mil. dead, 2 devastating wars – Satellites, buffers, spheres of influence, and a cordon-sanitaire • The American Vision – A free world based on democratic principles – Open markets and free people Get Ready for the Clash of the Titans! The New World, but for Whom?
  313. 313. • Nuremberg Trials (45’-6) – 12 of 22 lynched? • Reparations vs. Rehabilitation/Reconstruction – Austria & Germ. divided into 4 military zones (Fra., G.B., U.S., S.U.) – S.U. also receives Poland and Hungary – 48’: Berlin cut off (Send in the bombers! For food?) – 49’: Airlift ended, both Germ. gov’ts formalized – The Cold War is here to stay What do We do w/Germany?
  314. 314. • 46’: George Kennan, Containment, & the Long Telegram (8k words!) from the Soviet embassy – Article X – The S.U. - paranoid, nationalistic, aggressive, & expansionist by nature – Contain their movements at every opportunity • 47’: The Truman Doctrine (new doctrine, but the same themes) – Official econ./pol. aid to anyone resisting armed minorities or outside pressure • 47’+: Let’s play dominoes! Friend/Foe: What do We do w/the Soviet Union?
  315. 315. • Civil war: monarchists (N.) v. Greek Communists (S.) – Puppetmaster Josip Tito (Yugo., not S.U.) • 47’: G.B. K.O. (way to go Mr. Heasman) – Mar. 12, 47’- Truman’s request for $400 mil. to “support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures…” • The dominoes at work – Polarization of the world? Too harsh? Competition the only true path? Case Study #1: Greece & Turkey (Let the Proxy Wars Begin!) ELAS Soldiers (Comm.) I’d be happy too…
  316. 316. • Truman & Euro. Interests – Sec. of State George Marshall offers aid at Harvard Commencement (47’) – P.R. move of the century • Paris meeting immediately – $13 bil. over 4 yrs to 16 countries – Approved in 48’ after Czech. coup » Euro. Prosperity (Ita. & Fra. Commie party , econ. output in W. Euro.  pre-war lvls) • 48’: Smith-Mundt Act – Voice of America, Radio for Europe – Information Agencies & Museums Now, What do We do w/the Rest of Europe?
  317. 317. • 49’: The Official End of Isolationism – Signing of NATO to unify W. Euro. w/U.S. (orig. 12) • Military defense pact (promised military aid, attack on one is attack on all) • Militarized & polarized a large portion of the world – Soviet Response? Warsaw Pact A Ring to Bind Them All (Really a Pact)
  318. 318. • Japan & MacArthur (the hope of the East) – 46’ - New Constitution • Prohibited arms buildup, U.S. would be shield, ceremonial emperor, U.S. funds reconstruction • Japan becomes a superpower; credit – USA (point for us!) – 49’ - The “Fall” of China • Mao v. Jieshi ($510 mil. for the leader of Formosa?) – ~1/4 of world pop. “lost” – Immediate Soviet ties – Non-recognition until 73’ Let’s Not Forget Asia Emperor Hirohito and the
  319. 319. • China goes Red • Soviets go atomic! • 52’ – Forced Hydrogen Bomb dev. (9x power) – Nuclear Fallout, the “Un”Lucky Dragon, & the Atoll Islands – 53’ - Soviets go hydronic? – Houston, we’ve reached MAD • 54’: 8K Nukes & Beyond! • 57’ ICBM w/H-bomb capacity dev. by S.U. • How do you learn to love the bomb? Dr. Strangelove (64’) 49’ (A Bad Year) & the Nuclear Race First Soviet Test, aka Joe #1 An H-bomb at work
  320. 320. • 47’: The Nat’l Security Act – CIA formed • Int’l AND domestic spying/operations – Dept. of Defense formed • New Sec. of Defense & civilian heads of Air Force, Navy, etc. – Nat’l Security Council formed (the new braintrust) • 48’: Selective Service reinstated (happy 18th men!) The Fiery (not Cold) Domestic Front: Militarization & Fear
  321. 321. • 38’: HUAC formed to investigate “un-Amer. activities) – Led by Richard Nixon (crook?) (CA-S) – Paranoia, blacklisting, & the Hollywood 10 • Amer. fears - spies, espionage, commies, books, homosex. (the new witch hunt) – McCarren Int’l Security Bill (50’) • Over Truman’s veto • Arrest of suspicious w/o evidence in emergencies (familiar?) – Julius & Ethel Rosenberg (53’) • ‘47: Truman’s Loyalty Program – Loyalty Review Board & oaths (~8k fed. casualties) – Expanded to state & local lvls • UC and CSU protests The Hunt Begins: Second Coming of the Red Scare
  322. 322. • 46’: Lowly Wisc. Jr. Senator (R!) – Aggressive, paranoid, abrasive, manipulative, & all-around fun- loving guy • Devils w/in the Walls: capitalizing on Hiss-Chambers (50’) case – Wheeling, WV (50’) – “I have in my hand…” an envelope of commies w/in the state dept. 205 574 – Attacking Dean Acheson & George Marshall – Kept by Rep. for pol. value (reasserting authority) The Greatest of Them All: Joseph McCarthy Vs.
  323. 323. • Good ole-fashioned American patriotism! – The drafting of aide Schine - you don’t mess w/the army – The power of television and blundering fools (clips!) – 54’ censure – 3 years to cirrhosis and death What Finally Took McCarthy Down?
  324. 324. • 45’: Korea split at 38th parallel w/Japanese surrender (N. accepted by S.U., S. by U.S.) • Both out by 49’ • Jun. 25, 50’ - Kim il Sung rolls S. against Syngman Rhee w/Soviet tanks – Action now = less aggression later, right? (Truman acts!) – U.N. declaration w/Kim as aggressor (capitalizing on the Soviets’ absence, score!) – MacArthur (Inchon, stalemate, stupidity, no sub. for victory, see you later!) • NSC-68 – Civilization at stake   defense spending 4x ($50 bil.), 3.5 mil. servicemen – Tying together of industry, economy, & military • 53’: Treaty & Casualties (nukes in action, $10 bil. drain, 30k dead Amer., 17k U.N. casualties, 2 mil. dead Koreans • FTW? Case Study #2: Korea
  325. 325. • Ho Chi Minh’s nat’lists v. Japan in WWII – Indep. of Dem. Rep. of Vietnam (45’)? All men created equal? (Not on France’s watch! Or ours!) • 54’: Dienbienphu & our $1 bil. investment • Separation at the 17th (Minh in Hanoi, Diem in Saigon) • 56’: No elections for you! – 61’: 675 “advisers” in waiting Case Study #3: Stirrings in Indochina
  326. 326. Cold War Beginnings • Following WWII the US and USSR were the only two superpowers left • Soon after WWII these two powers were in a Cold War (Icy Tensions) • Why?- different economic systems, strategic interests, Stalin’s Speech, Iron Curtain Speech, Atomic Weapons
  327. 327. Pre Cold War distrust • US – Communism antithesis of Democracy/Freedom/Capitalism – Stalin’s Purges – Non-Aggression Pact – USSR emphasis on Worldwide communism • USSR – US attempted to undo Revolution – Delayed attack on Western Front during WWII – Believes peace will come from worldwide communism
  328. 328. Yalta Conference 1945 • Big 3 – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin • Germany Split into 4 Occupied Zones • Soviet vs. Western Allies (Tension for Four Decades) • Agreement to create United Nations
  329. 329. Potsdam- 1945 • Big 3 – Truman, Churchill, Stalin • Meeting more tense (Truman’s style, plus knowledge of da bomb) • Presses Stalin for free elections in Eastern Europe • Stalin later gives speech saying Capitalism and Communism cannot exist in same world
  330. 330. United States 1946 • Churchill Warns of an “Iron Curtain” in Europe • Stalin calls speech an act of war, beginning of the Cold War
  331. 331. Truman Doctrine- 1946 • Turkey and Greece faced Communist revolutions • Truman asks for and recieves 400 million to aid fight against communism • Beginning of Containment Policy (not allow communism to spread) – Becomes guiding US policy into 1970’s
  332. 332. Western Europe 1947 • The Marshall Plan gives aid to European Nations • Rebuilt Western Europe, threatened Communism

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