Identify three famous women from the 1900s or 2000s. Rank their influence on culture.
Grimké Sisters & Sojourner Truth were Abolitionists turned women’s rights advocates [mid 1800s] Felt they had to defend rights in public
Critics believedwomen shouldnot give public Everyone is a Criticspeeches andshould stay intraditionalfemale roles.Critics: [somemembers of]1. Press2. Clergy3. Male Abolitionists
Grimké sisters: women Sarah argued for equal had a moral duty to lead educational antislavery movement opportunities. “I ask no favors for my Pointed out laws that sex… All I ask our negatively affected brethren is, that they women will take their feet from Called for = rights/pay off our necks, and permit us to stand upright on that ground which God designed us to occupy”
Why did some people oppose women’s efforts in the abolitionist movement, and how did this opposition affect the women’s rights movement? Sojourner Truth- spoke for “That man over there says abolition & women’s rights that women need to be 6 ft. tall & confident helped into carriages and 1851- challenged audience lifted over ditches, and members not to think of not to have the best place women as the “weaker everywhere. Nobody ever sex” helps me into carriages or over mud puddles, or gives me any best place… Look at me! I have ploughed and planted and… no man could [outwork] me. And ain’t I a woman?”
Shortly after America Took adv. Of Rev. publications for educational W.R’s appeared opportunities Did not become a Learned how to national movement for organize more yrs. effectively by working Social changes like in reform groups abolition movement Some men assisted in led to the rise of women’s rights women’s movement
Not having the right to vote Married women in many states had little or no control over their own property Claims that: Women “did not have the physical or mental strength to survive w/out men’s protection” Most people believed men should control her property
Some women said they were not unequal to men, just different and did not need new rights. Some critics believed women should not try to work for social changes in public but in their own homes.
1840- attended World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in London while on honeymoon Had to watch separately from husband All women were hidden from men’s view by a curtain William Lloyd Garrison in protest, sat with them
This treatment Planned to “form a angered Stanton and society to advance the Lucretia Mott. rights of women” “[they] resolved to 8 years passed hold a conversation as announced: The soon as we returned Seneca Falls home” Convention Stanton+Mott – 1st public meeting “resolved to hold a about women’s rights convention as soon as to be held in the U.S. we returned home”
Convention organizers wrote based on language of Dec. of Ind. Detailed beliefs about social injustice towards women 100 people signed 240 attended Convention inc. Frederick Douglas
Lucy Stone Susan B. Anthony Powerful speaker Turned movement political Anti-Slavery Society Single Woman, Supported Self Argued for = pay Allowed to go into law Property Rights 1860- NYC gave women ownership of wages/property Soon trickled to N.E. and Midwest
Women‟s SuffrageMovement was thestruggle to gain samevoting rights as men.Voting was limited towhite adult males whoowned property. Manypeople thought thatproperty owners had thestrongest interest in goodgovernment; therefore,they were the bestqualified to makedecisions.
A Tea Launches a Revolution•Tea among fivewomen friends, onJuly 13, 1848,marked TheWomen’s SuffrageMovement as itsbeginning.•Among these fivewomen was younghousewife andmother, ElizabethCady Stanton.
•During a conversation thatday, Stanton poured herdiscontent with Americasdemocracy. She believed thenew republic would benefitby having women play a rolethroughout society.•They were the first smallgroup of women to plan andcarry out a program.•This led to…
First womens rights convention in the United States is held July 19th 1848, inNew York. Participants signed a “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions”which outlined the main issues and goals for the emerging women‟s movement.Meetings were held regularly after.
•The Women‟s Rights Movementwas only one day old and thebacklash had already begun.•Newspaper editors were soscandalized by the Declaration ofSentiments and the ninthresolution „Women demandingvote!‟•They attacked women with allthey could muster, although,misconception,misrepresentation and ridiculewere expected.
1851-Former slave Sojourner Truth delivers her “Ain’t I a Woman” speech at a women’s rights convention in Ohio.
•Prominent American CivilRights leader, played a hugerole to introduce Women‟sSuffrage into the UnitedStates.•Along with Sojourner andother leaders, she traveledthe U.S and Europe and gavefrom 75-100 speeches everyyear on Women‟s rights for 45years. February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906
•In 1872, Susan B. Anthony wasarrested and brought to trial forattempting to vote for U.S Grant in thepresidential election.•At the same time Truth appeared at apolling booth, in Michigan, demandinga ballot which she was turned away.
•At first, the idea that womenshould have a right to vote wasseen as so ridiculous that noone even attempted to opposeit.•Soon they would have to takethe suffragettes more seriouslyas they began to gain support.
Who the hell do they think they are? 1. Women would be corrupted by politics. 2. If women became involved in politics, they would stop marrying, having children, and the human race would die out. 3. Women were emotional creatures, and incapable of making a sound political decision.
•1912-Theodore Roosevelt „sProgressive party became the firstnational political party to adopt thefirst woman suffrage plank.•1916-Jeanette Rankinbecomes the first AmericanWoman elected to represent herstate in the U.S. House ofRepresentatives.
19th AmendmentAugust 26th, 1920,19th Amendment isratified, it’s victoryis accomplished!!Guarantees allAmerican Womenthe right to vote.
NOW @ one end of movement‟s spectrum Friedan supported traditional family values & marriage Used conventional methods of political pressure & court cases to gain objectives of equal pay and career opportunity Women‟s Liberation Movement (WLM) @ other end Younger feminists w/ more radical objectives & different methods Ran „consciousness raising‟ groups to „awaken‟ women to their „enslavement‟ Saw every aspect of life as impacting treatment of women. EXAMPLE: Didn‟t wear makeup as statement against male supremacy Most radical members were lesbians who saw men as surplus; „A woman without a man is like a fish without a bicycle.‟
Bra burning was big Bras seen as symbols of male domination Women wore them to appear more attractive Going braless was symbol of one‟s liberation Beauty ideals protested 1968: Miss America Beauty contest protested Claimed contest treated women as objects Protestors crowned a sheep as Miss World Were protests successful? WLM claimed they raised profile of issue Media loved them Critics claimed protests belittled effort & were not taken seriously
GloriaSteinem Born to an emotionally disturbed mother and absent father Attended Smith College to be a journalist  After college, became pregnant via fiancé, had an abortion and broke off engagement Went to India to pursue independent study and witnessed female oppression and human suffering
Then moved to NYC working for Independent Research Service under the CIA Gained national recognition for Esquire article “I was a Playboy Bunny” exposing sexist treatment in NYC’s Playboy Club 1971- founded Ms. Magazine Face of the 1970s Women’s Liberation Movement and Humanist
July 10th, 1971“This is no simple reform. It really is a revolution.Sex and race because they are easy and visibledifferences have been the primary ways oforganizing human beings into superior and inferiorgroups and into the cheap labour in which thissystem still depends. We are talking about a societyin which there will be no roles other than thosechosen or those earned. We are really talking abouthumanism.”
Important campaign for radical feminists Abortion was illegal in USA Feminists saw discrimination against women Woman should not bear child she didn‟t want WLM said fetus part of woman‟s body, therefore woman could choose what happens to her body Early 1960s: Griswold v. Connecticut Conn. outlawed abortion & birth control devises Estelle Griswold‟s attorneys didn‟t argue against abortion laws directly They argued laws were illegal restriction on privacy of ordinary Americans While abortion is not protected by Constitution, privacy is inferred 1965: SC rules 7-2 in favor of Griswold
1970-73 Jane Roe (Norma McCorvey) sued against abortion laws anonymously Troubled teen, raised in reform school, mother of three, abused by husband Perfect test case for feminist attorney Sarah Weddington to legalize abortion nationally Jan 22, 1973: SC ruled 7-2 in favor of Roe anti-abortion laws in all states struck down Controversy continues Norma McCorvey converted to Christianity & seeks to overturn Roe v Wade Many constitutional scholars agree that privacy argument attributed to 14th amendment and applied to abortion is weak Current SC is divided on issue, w/ probable 5-4 or 4-5 split should abortion case come to court now
STOP ERA most high profile opposition Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was suggested constitutional amendment STOP ERA feared erosion of family values Phyllis Schlafly led opposition Argued feminists devalued woman‟s role by equating it with men Opposed abortion, seeing it as denial rights to the unborn child 1982: ERA defeated by three votes–Why? „Pro-Life‟ movement growing in strength „Pro-Choice‟ movement caught off guard Poor women‟s lives getting worse, not better Feminist movement radicalized, isolated Freidan left NOW due to ‘lavender menace’ Most Americans saw women as having their own values, different from those of men
Prepare an oral presentation entitled „The mixed success of the Women‟s Movement in the 1960s and 1970s‟ Below are the methods of campaigning used by the CRM activists: Court case/legal action Non-violent direct action Empowering ordinary people Marches and demonstrations Violent protests Which of these were also used by feminists? Give examples. Which do you think was the most important for the Women‟s Liberation Movement? Explain.