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Ch 15 african h istory


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Ch 15 african h istory

  1. 1. Chapter 15Pgs. 406-429
  2. 2. Explain effects of Islam on NorthAfricaLearning Goals
  3. 3. Pre-Historic Africa In early Africa: Hunter-Gather societies Small groups: 10-100 ppl Earliest Africans: “Efe”– Forest Dwellers Social Structure: Elder male in charge, Women = gatherers, No formal written laws! …they were Stateless Societies run by “Lineages”
  4. 4. “Lineages” (NC)• Who: Early-Africans• What: descendants of a common ancestor- family line.• Where: Africa• When: 800-1500• Why: in African societies, families are organized in these family groups
  5. 5. How do you trace ‘Lineage’? Patrilineal (NC) Matrilineal (NC)• Family line traced through • Family line traced through FATHER MOTHER• Inheritance passes from • Inheritance passes from father to son mother to SON• When a boy marries, his • MEN still hold the power wife & kids live with HIS & authority  parents
  6. 6. “Stateless Societies” (NC)Who: AfricansWhat: African groups that developedsystems of governing based on lineages, notrulers; NO central power!!Where: CENTRAL AfricaWhen: 800-1500Why: instead of having one political ruler,authority was balanced among powerfullineages/families = different from the rest ofthe world
  7. 7. Section 1
  8. 8. Muslim States• Muslims from Middle East travel into Northern Africa & bring ISLAM, so…• North Africa = Muslim!• Rulers = Muslim!• Islamic Law!• Many are still Muslim today!!
  9. 9. 2 groups of Islamic North Africans:• Almoravids (1000s)• Almohads (1100s)
  10. 10. “Almoravids” (NC)• Who: Nomadic “Berbers” that became Islamic Africans• What: group of Berber Islamic Africans, a strict religious brotherhood that lived in a monastery; “people of the ribat/ (monastery)”• Where: NORTH Africa• When: 1000s-1100s• Why: they took over North Africa, Ghana, and Spain (where they were called the Moors) and made them Muslim
  11. 11. “Almohads” (NC)• Who: Nomadic “Berbers” who became Islamic Africans• What: group of Berber Islamic Africans that took over the Almoravids• Where: North Africa• When: 1100s• Why: they took over the Almoravids, conquered Spain– those areas have a lot of Muslims today..
  12. 12. IslamicInvasions
  13. 13. Section 2
  14. 14. Learning goalsExplain how the gold-salt tradeled to the rise of Ghana.Describe the Songhai empire.
  15. 15. 1. Empire of Ghana• Berbers found out that camels could cover larger distances than other pack animals (oxen, donkeys, horses), so…. They travel on new routes across the desert & trade INCREASED!! (worksheet) The trade routes go through Ghana (wksht)• …what did they trade??....
  16. 16. Gold-Salt Trade Berbers SALTGOLD
  17. 17. Gold Gold “Money”, Ghana/Ivory CoastAt least 2/3 of world’s Gold supply came from here til 1350!!
  18. 18. Salt
  19. 19. • Ghana rulers controlled trade = becomes super rich• Trade = Ghana  Islam• In 1076-- Almoravids conquer Ghana• = Gold & Salt trade is disrupted….• = Ghana never regains power!!
  20. 20. “Ghana” (NC)• Who: Soninke farmers• What: powerful empire founded by the Soninke farmers named after their war chief: Ghana; controlled Gold & Salt trade• Where: West Africa• When:• Why: Ghana rulers controlled trade in W. Africa & commanded a large army= powerful, rich empire; when trade fell apart so did their power
  21. 21. 2. Mali Empire [13c-15c] SALTGOLD
  22. 22. 2. Mali Empire• So, Ghana declines in power…• = people in Ghana act on their own, control themselves• = miners find Gold! to the east of Ghana (near the ocean)• = trade routes to the East• = new group- Mali- become rich & seize power!!
  23. 23. There are 3 Important guys in Mali…
  24. 24. #1. Sundiata [1210-1255] “Lion Prince”
  25. 25. “Sundiata” (NC)• Who: Mali’s first great leader• What: became Mali’s “Mansa” (Emperor), took over Ghana, & ruled successfully• Where: Mali, West Africa• When: 1210?-1255• Why: put able administrators in charge of Mali’s $$, defense, & foreign affairs; promoted agriculture; re-est. Gold-Salt trade = important center of trade
  26. 26. #2. Mansa Musa [r. 1312-1332]
  27. 27. “Mansa Musa” (NC)• Who: important Islamic ruler of Mali after Sundiata• What: effectively ruled & expanded Mali• Where: Mali, West Africa• When: 1312-1332• Why: he expanded Mali to 2x the size of Ghana; divided large empire into provinces w/ governors; built mosques; Timbuktu became one of the most imp. Cities under him
  28. 28. Timbuktu-”Heavenly Clay”
  29. 29. Timbuktu Rooftop, Mosque
  30. 30. Great Mosque at Djenne, Mali
  31. 31. #3. Ibn Battuta (NC)• Who: an Islamic traveler & historian• What: traveled to all Islamic countries & told people in Mali about it• Where: from North Africa, traveled to Mali• When: 1352• Why: he traveled to Islamic countries & learned about them – he then informed those in Mali about it
  32. 32. Last part on Mali…• After Mansa Musa:his successors lacked his ability to govern well… goldfields developed somewhere else• = Gold trade shifted and went away…• = The empire of Mali weakened!!
  33. 33. “Mali”• Who:• What:• Where:• When:• Why:
  34. 34. 3. Songhai Empire [15c-16c]SALT GOLD
  35. 35. Sunni Ali [r.1464-1492] • Aggressive Muslim ruler of Songhai • Built a vast empire through Military conquest • Captured Timbuktu from Mali • Created centralized gov’t
  36. 36. Askia Mohammed [r.1493-1529] • Muslim rebel that took over Sunni Ali’s son • Excellent administrator: • Set up tax system • Put officials in charge of treasury, military, agriculture
  37. 37. Askia Mohammed’s Tomb [1443-1538] Gao, Mali
  38. 38. The end of the Songhai…• Songhai didn’t have modern weapons!! (only swords & spears) • = Morrocans invaded w. gunpowder & cannons!! AHH!• = Morrocan troops quickly defeat Songhai…• = ENDS 1000yrs. of powerful kingdoms in West Africa!!!
  39. 39. “Songhai” (NC)• Who:• What:• Where:• When:• Why:
  40. 40. Benin Empire [15c-19c]
  41. 41. Bronze Headsfrom Benin (16c)
  42. 42. Benin Bronze Leopard
  43. 43. You still need to do NC:• Hausa (pg. 417)• Yoruba (pg. 418)• Benin (pg. 419)
  44. 44. Section 3
  45. 45. Learning GoalExplain how Islam influencedEast African peoples
  46. 46. African Trade Routes
  47. 47. “Swahili”• Who: Bantu-speaking people• What: Arabic blended with Bantu Language = Swahili• Where: East Africa• When: 1100-1300• Why: this was created because of increasing trade between Bantus in East Africa & Persia, India, and Arabia.
  48. 48. Swahili-Speaking Areas of E. Africa SWAHILI [“the coast’] = Bantu + some Arabic
  49. 49. Great Zimbabwe [1200-1450] “Zimbabwe” = “stone enclosure”
  50. 50. “Great Zimbabwe” (NC)• Who: Shona people• What: a city which grew into an empire built on gold trade• Where: South-Eastern Africa• When: 1200-1450• Why: controlled trade routes = became rich & powerful = leaders taxed the traders who travelled through = became economic, political, religious center of it’s empire; eventually was abandoned
  51. 51. Manamotopa Empire [1450-1630]Who: Founded by Mutota from Great Zimbabwe What: new empire that replaced Great Zim in power; military dominated Why: conquered all of Zimbabwe; control of Eastern Africa; forced conquered areas to mine gold for them; Portuguese took over = European POWER!!
  52. 52. Overland & Sea Trade Routes by 16c
  53. 53. African Trade [15c-17c]