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8.1 changes on the western frontier 1877 1900


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8.1 changes on the western frontier 1877 1900

  1. 1. Changes on the Western Frontier . Indians declines asThe culture of the Plains white settlers transform the Great Plains. Meanwhile, farmers form the Populist movement to address their economic concerns
  2. 2. Section 1 Cultures Clash on the Prairie The cattle industry booms in the late 1800s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declinesLearning Goal:NJCCCS6.1.12.A.5.a1. Relate industrial growth to the need for social andgovernmental reforms.CRN Benchmark: 10.11.4 P2. Describe how westward expansion in the mid- to late 1800s ledto conflicts between American settlers and Native American
  3. 3. Warm Up- Focus & Motivation
  4. 4. Geography of the West► Area between the Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Mountains► Areas where settlers and Indians lived► By 1900 Indians had been forced off their lands - Transcontinental Railroad opened up the west for settlement a. carried materials and people
  5. 5. Minors in the West► 1859 - Gold found in the Rocky Mountains (Clear Creek near Pikes Peak) - 1st found by George Jackson► 1959 - Gold found in Nevada - Lode produced 100s of millions of dollars worth of gold and silver - Lode - a deposit of a valuable mineral buried between layers of rock
  6. 6. Mining Life► Boom towns sprang up - They were rough towns► Women worked in the mining towns - Cooked - Laundry - Dance halls - Boarding towns
  7. 7. The Business of Mining► Few prospectors became rich► Lack of technology prevented most people from becoming rich - Most were placer mining - where people wash the sand and gravel from a stream
  8. 8. The Business of Mining► More efficient methods developed in the 1870 s - Water cannons were used to strip the dirt off the hillside - Exposed gold - Very harmful to the environment► Only companies had the money to use water cannons► Working conditions were brutal - 100 degrees fairenhight in some caves - Workers wore thick boots to protect against hot water - Accidents such as cave-ins and dynamite explosions were common
  9. 9. Mining Boom Ends► Most of the mining towns became ghost towns► Gold rush changed the geography of the United States
  10. 10. Mining Boom Ends► The population grew so much in some areas that they were able to become states - 1864 - Nevada - 1876 - Colorado - 1889 - North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana -1890 - Idaho
  11. 11. Lumber Industry► Logging became a big business in the west► Pacific Northwest had an abundance of trees -Redwoods - Douglas fur► Settlers needed lumber for homes and mine timbers
  12. 12. Alaska► 1867 - William Seward arranged for the purchase of Alaska from Russia► U.S. Senators didnt want to buy it - Called it "Sewards Folly"► Gamble paid off - Russia lost foothold in North America► Alaska was rich in natural resources - Gold - Copper - Oil -Timber
  13. 13. Government policy► Early 1800s Plains Indians lived and hunted between the Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains - 1840 s - Whites begin to settle the west coast - U.S. Gov. ask Indians to let settlers pass safely - Asked the Indians to limit their hunting to certain are - Indians had to move with buffalo► Mid 1800s - U.S. Gov changes policy - Established reservations - special areas used by a specific group - Indians agreed to live on reservations based on the promise that the land would be theirs forever (signed Treaties with the U.S. Gov.) - They were also promised food, money and other help
  14. 14. Clash of culture► Indians and settlers looked at the world differently► Settlers felt that the resources were their to be used - Large scale hunting, mining, and farming► Plains Indians used only the resources they needed for their actual needs - They saw the white settlers as being greedy and destructive
  15. 15. Fighting begins► By 1860s - Treaties were being broken by both sides► Settlers continued to pass through areas where they were not allowed► Groups of Indians raided white settlements and wagon trains► 1864 - Sand Creek Massacre - Colorado militia attacked Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek - Indians thought they were under the protection of a nearby government outpost - Over 100 Indians were slaughtered (including women and children)
  16. 16. Fighting begins► 1866 - Chief Red Cloud (Sioux:) defeated Captain W.J. Fetterman and 80 U.S. army soldiers  Led them into a trap and killed them
  17. 17. Fighting begins► Little Bighorn (most famous battle of the Indian wars)► The Black Hills of South Dakota had been set aside for the Sioux and Northern Cheyenne► 1874 - U.S. Army exploring party found gold - Settlers went looking for gold - Gov. tried to buy the Black Hills (Sioux considered land sacred) - 1875 and 1876 - Sioux warrior left their reservations and united under the leadership of two Sioux chiefs (Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse)
  18. 18. Fighting begins► June 25, 1876 - George Armstrong Custer and several hundred army soldiers found a Sioux camp near the Little Bighorn River - Custer gained fame fighting in Civil War - Admirers considered him a daring brilliant officer - Critics considered him a dangerous showoff► Custer had orders to attack any Indians he came into contact with► When he attacked he was actually stepping into a trap► Custer and all of his men were killed - Became known as "Custers Last Stand"
  19. 19. Fighting begins► People in the East were shocked by the news of the Battle of Little Bighorn - U.S. Gov. sent 1000s of troops to fight the Indians► The Battle of Little Bighorn was the last Indian Victory in the Indian Wars - 1876 - U.S. Army defeated the Sioux - Sitting Bull and his followers escaped to Canada► Crazy Horse was arrested - He was fatally stabbed as he was being arrested - Not sure if guard or another Indian stabbed him
  20. 20. Chief Joseph► Led the Nez Perce people► Nez Perce lived in northwest (Oregon and Idaho) - Fished for salmon, gathered food, and hunted► Chief Joseph refused to sell land to government► 1877 - Gov. ordered the Nez Perce people to move to a reservation - They fled and tried to evade the army► Captured about 40 miles south of Canada - Chief Joseph made speech - Said that he would fight no more
  21. 21. Southwest Indians► Navajo were forced to move to reservations in the east - March called "The Long Walk"► Reservation was a failure - Navajo allowed to return home► Mid 1870s - Apache were forced to move away from their traditional territory - Geronimo - led his people off the reservation - Evaded the army many times due to their knowledge of southern Arizona - 1886 - Geronimo captured and forced to live far away from his people
  22. 22. Indians way of life destroyed► Whites killed buffalo► Indians depended on buffalo► Indians were unable to survive without the buffalo► Many Indians turned to the Ghost Dance Religion - It taught that the spirits of the dead Indians would return to help the Indians reclaim their land► Many whites were fearful of this movement - Asked the army for help - Cavalry rounded up Sioux men on the Pine Ridge Reservation - Place called wounded knee
  23. 23. Indians way of life destroyed► Wounded Knee Massacre - 300 men, women, and children Sioux were killed - Considered to be the last battle of the Indian Wars
  24. 24. Assimilation► Conditions grew worse as more Indians were forced on to reservations► Reformers began calling for changes► Many white though that only solution was to make the Indians become more like the whites - Assimilation - to adopt the culture of the people around you
  25. 25. Assimilation► Dawes Act (1887) - intended to make Indians give up their traditions and accept White customs - Reservation lands were divided up in farm plots for families and individuals (40 to 160 acres) - Any remaining land was sold to white settlers - Profits used to pay for Indian schools - Indians who accepted the plots of land could become citizens for the 1st time► Dawes Act failed - Many western Indians didnt want to settle down as farmers - Lacked tools and training - Many sold their plots to white settlers cheap► End 1800s - situation of the American Indians was tragic - Lost land, people, and culture - 20th century U.S. government finally realizes importance of Indian way of life
  26. 26. Cowboys► 1/6 were Mexican American► Some were black - Nat Love - born in a slave cabin - Moved west when he was a teenager - Became famous performing in rodeos
  27. 27. Birth of the Cattle Industry► Cowboys roots were in Texas► Small herds - (only sold cattle locally)► Joseph McCoy organized 1st cattle drive - Drove cattle to Abilene Kansas (Railroad) - Cattle sold for $40 per head in the east ($3 per head in Texas)► Dodge city also becomes a cattle town
  28. 28. Long drives► Cowboys herded cattle over the open plains to cattle towns► 12 cowboys 3000 head► Made sure that cattle had plenty of grass to eat along the way► Drives were tough - Had to keep cattle together - Watch for thieves
  29. 29. Wild West► Cowboys ended drives in cattle towns - Were dirty and nasty - Werent always law abiding - Had money to spend► Large spaces with little settlement made it hard to catch outlaws - Frank and Jesse James became legendary bank robbers - Belle Starr became famous cattle thief► Westerners formed vigilante groups - Groups that took the law into their own hands
  30. 30. The End of the Open Range► Late 1800s -long drives end► Overgrazing, bad weather from 1883 to 1887 destroyed whole herds► Ranchers began keeping smaller herds that yielded more meat per animal► Tick fever caused land owners to cutoff land from the long drives► Fence land with barbed wire & turn open range into separate ranches
  31. 31. Summarizer► 1. Why do you think assimilation policy of the Dawes Act failed?  Lack of support by the government, abuses of the act by white opportunists, and Native Americans’ lack of interest in private property.► What economic opportunities drew large numbers of people to the Great Plains beginning in the mid-1800s?  Growth of the railroads, the burgeoning cattle industry, and government support of “free land”
  32. 32. Settling onthe Great Plains Settlers on the Great Plains transform the land despite great hardships.
  33. 33. Farming the Plain► Gov. encouraged western settlement► (1862) Homestead Act - Gov. offered 160 acres to head of family over age 21 in return for living on the land 5 years and improving it - 1862 to 1900 – 6000,000 families settled in the west
  34. 34. Farming the Plain► Exodusters - Southern African-American settlers in Kansas► Gov. created Department of agriculture  Introduced new crops (Russian wheat) that could survive harsh winters  Morrill Act of 1862, 1890 financed agricultural colleges
  35. 35. Life on the farming frontier► Lumber was scarce► Many settlers dug homes into sides of ravines or hills► Made soddy or sod home by stacking blocks of turf - Snakes & bugs sometimes crawled into cracks - Burned cow chips for fuel► Grew cash crops (wheat and com)► Had to fight year around battle against weather (blizzards and extreme heat)
  36. 36. Life on the farming frontier► Homesteaders were virtually alone (Had to be self-sufficient)► Women did men’s work (plowing, harvesting, shearing sheep) - Also did traditional work (carding wool, making soap, canning vegetables) - Some worked for communities (sponsor schools, churches)
  37. 37. Review- Summarizing ► How did new ► Answer: Inventions inventions change such as barbed wire, farming in the West? the steel plow, and the reaper, helped farmers increase production and led to the development of bonanza farms.
  38. 38. Farmers in Debt► Railroads, investors created bonanza farms (huge, single-crop spreads)► 1885 to1890 - droughts bankrupted single- crop operations► Rising cost of shipping grain pushed farmers into debt
  39. 39. Closing the Frontier► 1872, Yellowstone National Park created to protect some wilderness► 1890s - No frontier left - miners, ranchers, and farmers had swelled the population► April 22, 1889 - Governemt gave signal for settlers to settle the Oklahoma territory - It was laid out within the day - 60,000 people lived there by the end of the year► Sooners - some people snuck into Oklahoma before the Gov. gave the signal
  40. 40. Summarizer► Review the changes in technology that influenced the life of settlers on the Great Plain in the late 1800s.► Without technology there would have been more crop dehydration; wandering animals and trampled crops; and crops ruined by inclement weather.
  41. 41. Section 3 Farmers and the Populist Movement Farmers unite to address theireconomic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement.
  42. 42. Warm Up- Mary Elizabeth Lease► Left home to teach on the Kansas Plains► After marrying Charles Lease, joined the Farmers’ Alliance Movement
  43. 43. Unrest in Rural America► The growth of urban America made possible because farmers were so productive► Farmers felt poor compared to city people► Farm life seemed boring compared to the exciting opportunities of the city
  44. 44. Hard Times for Farmers► 1867 - Oliver H. Kelley started the Patrons of Husbandry (Grange) - Hoped to fight the loneliness of farm life and farming methods - Open to both men and women► Meetings were held at local schools - Both social and educational► Late 1800s - most farmers werent self sufficient - Grew cash crops► Most were in debt - Western farmers owed banks money for their land and equipment - Southern farmers had taken on debt to rebuild farms destroyed in the Civil War
  45. 45. Low Prices and High Cost► Farmers lives were hard - droughts, floods, insects, and animal diseases► 1870s - faced another problem - Low prices for their crops - Sank farther into debt► Caused by overproduction - More people became farmers - Farming methods improved► Became more expensive to operate a farm - Tariffs on imported farm equipment - Railroads raised prices
  46. 46. The Granger Movement► Turned their attention to economic and political issues► Economic goal - avoid using middlemen - People who made a living storing, transporting and selling product - Cut into farmers’ profits and added to cost for buyer► Grangers created cooperatives - An organization owned and operated by those who use its services - They shared crops in some places - Allowed them to set their prices► Politically - they elected legislatures that put limits on railroad and storage prices - Called Granger laws
  47. 47. The Populist Party► 1880s - Several political parties combined► Populism - movement of the people► Populist Party wants reforms► Economic: increase money supply, graduated income tax, & federal loans► Political: Senate elected by popular vote, secret ballot & 8-hour day► 1892 - Populist candidates elected at different levels of government► Democratic Party eventually adopted platform
  48. 48. Debate Over Money Policy► Pitted debtors against creditors► Debtors wanted more money to be put into circulation► Wanted the government to coin more silver (bimetallism)► Bimetallism - system using both silver and gold to back currency► Silverites - would create more money, stimulate economy► Creditors wanted to limit the amount of money - Favored gold standard► Gold standard - backing currency with gold only► Paper money considered worthless if cannot be exchanged for metal► Gold bugs - gold only would create more stable if expensive currency
  49. 49. Election of 1892► 1892 - Populist nominate James B. Weaver for president► He had the following proposals - Wanted Gov. to control and operate railroads, telegraph and telephone systems - Wanted secret ballot in elections - Wanted graduated income tax - Wanted U.S. senators to be elected directly by the people rather than state legislatures - Demanded shorter working hours for labor► Grover Cleveland won 1892 election
  50. 50. That’s Just My Baby Daddy ► While running for president in 1884, New York Governor Grover Cleveland admitted he had a 10-year-old son out of wedlock with a woman in Buffalo.
  51. 51. The Panic of 1893► Railroads expanded faster than markets - Some went bankrupt► Government’s gold supply became depleted - Led to rush on banks - Businesses, banks collapse - Panic became depression
  52. 52. Election of 1896► Money was the central issue► Republicans nominated William McKinley - Supported big business (gold standard)► Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan - Supported silver► Populists endorsed Bryan & chose own VP to maintain party identity
  53. 53. Election of 1896► Candidates ran different campaigns - McKinley didnt go out and campaign - Considered undignified - Accepted visitors at his home Bryan launched something like a modem campaign - Traveled by train made speeches► Bryan carried the south and west (except California)► McKinley carried northeast and California - Won more electoral votes► Urban America defeated rural America
  54. 54. The End of Populism► 1896 - McKinley elected president► Populism collapsed► Left legacy: - Showed the powerless could organize & have political impact - Agenda of reforms enacted in 20th century
  55. 55. Summarizer